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Encyclopedia > Soviet war in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
Part of the Cold War, Civil war in Afghanistan

A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988.
Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev.
Date December 27 1979 – February 15 1989
Location Afghanistan
Result Soviet Union withdrawal; Afghan Civil War continues.
Belligerents
Flag of Afghanistan DRA
Flag of the Soviet Union USSR
Mujahideen of Afghanistan
Commanders
Soviet 40th Army:
Sergei Sokolov
Valentin Varennikov
Boris Gromov
DRA:
Babrak Karmal
Mohammad Najibullah
Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Haq
Jalaluddin Haqqani
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Ismail Khan
Ahmad Shah Massoud
Strength
Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000
Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1]
45,000 (in 1983)
250,000 (in 1986)[2]
Casualties and losses
Official Soviet figures:
14,453 killed,
53,753 wounded,
417 missing,
415,932 sick.[3]
Revised estimate: 15,051 dead.[4]
DRA: Unknown
Unknown
Estimated over 1 million Afghan civilians and combatants killed (as well as 5.5 million displaced)

The Soviet war in Afghanistan, also known as the Soviet-Afghan War, was a nine-year conflict involving Soviet forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) government against the mujahideen resistance. The latter group found support from a variety of sources including the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim nations in the context of the Cold War. This conflict was concurrent to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the Iran-Iraq War. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Civil war in Afghanistan, also known as Afghan Civil War, began in 1978 and has continued since, though it has included several distinct phases. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Evstafiev-Soviet-soldier-Afghanistan. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Mujahideen Commanders Mohammad Najibullah Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ahmed Shah Massoud The 1989 to 1992 phase of the Afghan Civil War began after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan, leaving the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan to fend for itself against the Mujahadeen. ... Image File history File links AfghanFlag1980. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... For the Iranian opposition group, see Peoples Mujahedin of Iran. ... Sergei Leonidovich Sokolov (Russian: ) (born July 1, 1911 in Eupatoria) was Commander of the Leningrad military district from 1965 to 1984, 1st Deputy Defense Minister from 1967 to 1984. ... Valentin Varennikov interviewed by CNN in August of 1997 Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov (Russian: Валентин Иванович Варенников)(born December 15, 1923), Soviet general and Russian politician. ... General Boris Gromov. ... Babrak Karmal (January 6, 1929 - December 3, 1996) was the third President of Afghanistan (1979 - 1986) during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: ‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... Rashid Dostum Abdul Rashid Dostum (born 1954) is a general and Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the Afghan National Army. ... Abdul Haq (born Humayoun Arsala; April 23, 1958 - October 26, 2001) was an Afghan Pashtun mujahideen commander who fought against the Soviets and Afghan commmunists during the Soviet-Afghan War. ... Maulavi Jalaluddin Haqqani (c. ... Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (born 1947) Islamist Mujahideen leader and warlord. ... Ismail Khan Ismail Khan (b. ... Ahmad Shah Massoud(Persian: ) (c. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Siege of Khost: during the nine-year Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the town of Khost was besieged for more than eight years. ... Combatants Soviet Union, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Afghan Mujahideen Commanders Various Ahmad Shah Massoud The Panjshir offensives (Russian:Пандшерская операция - Panjsher Operations) were a series of battles between the Soviet Army and groups of Afghan Mujahideen under Ahmad Shah Massoud for the control of the strategic Panjshir Valley, during the Soviet war... The Battle of Maravar Pass was an operation of the 1st Company of the 334th Detached Spetsnaz Group in Afghan villages of Sangam and Daridam on April 21, 1985, during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. ... The battles of Zhawar were fought during the Soviet war in Afghanistan between Soviet Army units, and their allies of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against Afghan mujahideen groups. ... Combatants  Soviet Union Arab Mujahideen Commanders Osama bin Laden Strength 200 50 Part of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the April 1987 Battle of Jaji saw Soviet tanks, helicopters and 200 commandos[1] held at bay by 50 Mujahideen under the early command of Osama bin Laden. ... Operation Magistral was a military operation in November 1987 during the Soviet war in Afghanistan launched to open the road from Khost to Soviet 40th Army base in Kunduz, Paktia Province. ... Combatants 9th Company, 345th Guards Airborne Regiment (VDV) Black Storks Commanders Senior Lieutenant Sergey Borisovich Tkachev Jalaluddin Haqqani Strength 39 250-500 Casualties 9 killed, 28 wounded 90 killed // In November 1987 the Soviet 40th Army under General Boris Gromov began Operation Magistral to open the road from Gardez to... Combatants Soviet Union Afghan Mujahideen Commanders Boris Gromov Various Casualties 523 killed[1] Unknown Afghanistan and Pakistan, in the Accords of 14 April 1988, signed three instruments-on principles of mutual relations, in particular noninterference and non-intervention, on the voluntary return of refugees, and on interrelationships for the settlement... The Civil war in Afghanistan, also known as Afghan Civil War, began in 1978 and has continued since, though it has included several distinct phases. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Mujahideen Commanders Mohammad Najibullah Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ahmed Shah Massoud The 1989 to 1992 phase of the Afghan Civil War began after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan, leaving the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan to fend for itself against the Mujahadeen. ... Combatants Islamic State of Afghanistan Hezbi Islami Taliban Commanders Burhanuddin Rabbani Ahmed Shah Massoud Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Abdul Rashid Dostum Mohammed Omar Abdul Rashid Dostum joined forces with Gulbuddin Hekmatyar in 1994. ... Combatants Northern Alliance Taliban Al-Qaeda Commanders Burhanuddin Rabbani Ahmed Shah Massoud † Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum Mohammed Omar Osama bin Laden The Afghan Civil War continued after the capture of Kabul by the Taliban, with the formation of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (more commonly... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... CCCP redirects here. ... The Military of the Soviet Union was the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from their establishment, before the USSR itself was formed, by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918, to the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (in Persian: حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, in Pashto: د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, PDPA) was a Soviet-aligned Revisionist party that ruled Afghanistan from 1978 to 1991 with the help of 12000 Russian troops. ... For the Iranian opposition group, see Peoples Mujahedin of Iran. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft...


Initially Soviet deployment of the 40th Army in Afghanistan began on August 7, 1978. The final troop withdrawal began on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989. Due to the interminable and inconclusive nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has often been referred to as the Soviet equivalent of the United States' Vietnam War. The 40th Army of the Soviet Unions Red Army was a army-level command active from 1941 to 1945 and then again from 1979 to circa 1990. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

Contents

Background

The region in today called Afghanistan has been predominantly Muslim since 882 AD. The country's nearly impassable mountains and desert terrain are reflected in its ethnically and linguistically diverse population. Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in the country; however the national population also consists of Tajiks, Hazara, Aimak, Uzbeks, Turkmen and other small groups. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... AD redirects here. ... Continent Asia Subregion Southern Asia Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 41st 647,500 km² 0 km² (landlocked) Coastline 0 km (0 mi) Land boundaries 5,529 km (3436 mi) Countries bordered Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Iran 936 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km, China... Continent Asia Subregion Southern Asia Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 41st 647,500 km² 0 km² (landlocked) Coastline 0 km (0 mi) Land boundaries 5,529 km (3436 mi) Countries bordered Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Iran 936 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km, China... Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ... The culture of the region today known as Afghanistan has been around for millennia and is - since the Arab-Muslim conquest - largely influenced by Islam. ... Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ... Language(s) Pashto (plus second languages from countries of residence) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni) Pashtuns (Pashto/Urdu/Persian: or پختون , also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns), also called Pathans (Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान ) or ethnic Afghans (Pashto: افغان )[9][10] are an Eastern Iranian ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and... Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... The Aimak (or Eimak, Aimaq) are Persian-speaking nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes of mixed Iranian and Mongolian stock inhabiting the north and north-west Afghan highlands immediately to the north of Herat. ... Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ...


More than 20% of the Soviet population was Muslim.[citation needed] Many Soviet Muslims in Central Asia had tribal kinship relationships in both Iran and Afghanistan. According to the United States Department of State, there are an estimated 14 to 20 million Muslims in Russia, constituting approximately 14 percent of the population and forming the largest religious minority. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Russian military involvement in Afghanistan has a long history, going back to Tsarist expansions in the so-called "Great Game" between Russia and Britain, begun in the 19th century with such events as the Panjdeh Incident. This interest in the region continued on through the Soviet era, with billions in economic and military aid sent to Afghanistan between 1955 and 1978.[5] The Military history of Imperial Russia is that of the Russian Empire from its creation in 1721 by Peter the Great, until the Russian Revolution of 1917, which led to the establishment of the Soviet Union // Peter the Great and the Russian Empire Peter the Great Peter I, a child... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... The Panjdeh Incident or Panjdeh Scare (Russian: Афганский кризис, Afghan Crisis or Бой за Кушку, Battle of Kushka) was a military skirmish that occurred in 1885 when Russian forces seized Afghan territory south of the Oxus River around an oasis at Panjdeh. ... Joseph Stalin and Kliment Voroshilov depicted saluting a military parade in Red Square above the message Long Live the Worker-Peasant Red Army— a Dependable Sentinel of the Soviet Borders! The military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks...


In February of 1979, the Islamic Revolution ousted the US-backed Shah from Afghanistan's neighbor Iran and the United States Ambassador Adolph Dubs was kidnapped and killed by Islamists despite attempts by the Afghan security forces and Soviet advisers to free him. This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Adolph Dubs ( August 4, 1920 - February 14, 1979) was the U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan from 1978 to 1979. ...


The United States then deployed twenty ships to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea including two aircraft carriers, and there was a constant stream of threats of warfare between the US and Iran.[6] The List of United States Navy ships is a comprehensive listing of all ships to have been commissioned by the United States Navy during the history of that service. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... This list of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy includes all types in the main hull numbering sequence, consisting of hull classification symbols CV, CVA, CVB, CVL, and CVN. All units after CVA-57 are supercarriers. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Political relations between Iran (Persia) and the United States began when the Shah...


March of 1979 marked the signing of the US-backed peace agreement between Israel and Egypt. The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as a major advantage for the United States. One Soviet newspaper stated that Egypt and Israel were now “gendarmes of the Pentagon”. The Soviets viewed the treaty not only as a peace agreement between their erstwhile allies in Egypt and the U.S.-supported Israelis but also as some form of military pact. [7] In addition, the Soviets found America selling more than 5,000 missiles to Saudi Arabia and also supplying the Royalists in the North Yemeni Civil War against communist factions. Also, the Soviet Union's previously strong relations with Iraq had recently soured. In June 1978, Iraq began entering into friendlier relations with the West and buying French and Italian made weapons instead of Soviet weapons. The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Printed media in the Soviet Union, i. ... A gendarme was a cavalryman of noble birth, primarily serving in the French army from the Late Medieval to the Early Modern periods of European History. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of missiles by country. ... The North Yemen Civil War was a war fought between Royalist of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen and Republican factions of the Yemen Arab Republic in North Yemen from 1962 to 1970. ...


Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ...

The Saur Revolution

Afghan king Mohammad Zahir Shah succeeded to the throne and reigned from 1933 to 1973. Zahir's cousin, Mohammad Daoud Khan, served as Prime Minister from 1953 to 1963. The Marxist PDPA party's strength grew considerably in these years. In 1967, the PDPA split into two rival factions, the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and the Parcham (Banner) faction led by Babrak Karmal. Mohammed Zahir Shah (born October 16, 1914) was the last King of Afghanistan from 1933 to 1973. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan (July 18, 1909 - April 28, 1978) was an Afghani statesman and President of the Republic of Afghanistan from 1973 until his assassination in 1978 as a result of a revolution led by the quasi-Marxist Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). ... The Prime Minister of Afghanistan is a currently a defunct post in the Afghan Government. ... Khalq (Masses) was a faction of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan. ... Nur Muhammad Taraki (July 15, 1913 – September 14, 1979) was an Afghan politician. ... Hafizullah Amin (Pashto: حفيظ الله امين) (August 1, 1929 – December 27, 1979) was the second President of Afghanistan during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... A communist group in Afghanistan formed in 1967 by USSRs help. ... Babrak Karmal (January 6, 1929 - December 3, 1996) was the third President of Afghanistan (1979 - 1986) during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ...


Former Prime Minister Daoud seized power in an almost bloodless military coup on July 17, 1973 through charges of corruption and poor economic conditions against the King's government. Daoud put an end to the monarchy but his attempts at economic and social reforms were unsuccessful. Intense opposition from the factions of the PDPA was sparked by the repression imposed on them by Daoud's regime and the death of a leading PDPA member Mir Akbar Khyber.[8] The mysterious circumstances of Khyber's death sparked massive anti-Daoud demonstrations in Kabul which resulted in the arrest of several prominent PDPA leaders.[9] Coup redirects here. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


On April 27, 1978, the Afghan Army, which had been sympathetic to the PDPA cause, overthrew and executed Daoud along with members of his family.[10] Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, became President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ...


Factions inside the PDPA

After the revolution, Taraki assumed the Presidency, Prime Ministership and General Secretary of the PDPA. In reality, the government was divided along faction lines, with President Taraki and Deputy Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin of the Khalq faction against Parcham leaders such as Babrak Karmal and Mohammad Najibullah. Within the PDPA, conflicts resulted in exiles, purges and executions of Parcham members.[11] For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Hafizullah Amin (Pashto: حفيظ الله امين) (August 1, 1929 – December 27, 1979) was the second President of Afghanistan during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: ‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... In history and political science, to purge is to remove undesirable people from a government, political party, profession, or from community/society as a whole, usually by violent means. ...


During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA applied a Soviet-style program of reforms. Decrees setting forth changes in marriage customs and land reform were not received well by a population deeply immersed in tradition and Islam, particularly by the landlords who were hit by the abolition of usury and the cancellation of farmers' debts. By mid-1978, a popular rebellion backed by the local military garrison began in the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan and soon civil war spread throughout the country. In September 1979, Deputy Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin seized power after a palace shootout that resulted in the death of President Taraki. Over 2 months of instability overwhelmed Amin's regime as he moved against his opponents in the PDPA and the growing rebellion. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... A Deputy Prime Minister is a member of a nations cabinet who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the real Prime Minister is temporarily absent. ... This article is about gun battles. ...


Soviet-Afghan relations

After the Russian Revolution, as early as 1919, the Soviet government gave Afghanistan aid in the form of a million gold rubles, small arms, ammunition, and a few aircraft to support the Afghan resistance to the British. In 1924, the USSR again gave military aid to Afghanistan. It received small arms, aircraft and Red Army military training in the Soviet Union for Afghan Army officers. Soviet-Afghan military cooperation began on a regular basis in 1956, when both countries signed another agreement. The Soviet Minister of Defense was now responsible for training all Afghan military officers. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The ruble or rouble is a unit of currency. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


In 1972, up to 100 Soviet military consultants and technical specialists were sent on detached duty to Afghanistan to train the Afghan armed forces.[citation needed] In May 1978, the governments signed another international agreement, sending up to 400 Soviet military advisors to Afghanistan.[citation needed] In December 1978, Moscow and Kabul signed a bilateral treaty of friendship and cooperation that permitted Soviet deployment in case of an Afghan request. Soviet military assistance increased and the PDPA regime became increasingly dependent on Soviet military equipment and advisors.[citation needed] For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


Initiation of the insurgency

In June of 1975, militants from the Jamiat Islami party attempted to overthrow the Daoud government. They started the rebellion in the Panjshir valley, some 100 kilometers north of Kabul, and in a number of other provinces of the country. However, government forces easily defeated the insurgency and a sizable portion of the insurgents sought refuge in Pakistan where they enjoyed the support of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's government, that had been alarmed by Daoud's revival of the Pashtunistan issue.[12] This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Panjshir Valley was a very big battleground in Afghanistan from 1980 to 1988. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: , IPA: ; Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... Pashtunistan (Pashto, Persian: پشتونستان) or Pakhtunistan (Pashto, Persian: پختونستان), is what many Pashtun nationalists call the Pashtun-dominated areas of Pakistan. ...


In 1978 the Taraki government initiated a series of reforms, including modernization of the Afghan Civil and especially marriage law, aimed at "uprooting feudalism" in Afghan society.[13] The government brooked no opposition to the reforms[11] and responded with great force to unrest. Other members of the traditional elite, the religious establishment and intelligentsia fled the country.[14] Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Unrest is an indie rock band from the Washington DC area. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ...


Consequently, the reaction against the reforms was violent, and large parts of the country went into open rebellion. The Parcham Government claimed that 11,000 were executed during the Amin/Taraki period in response to the revolts.[7] The revolt began in October among the Nuristani tribes of the Kunar Valley, and rapidly spread among the other ethnic groups, including the Pashtun majority. The Afghan army was plagued with desertion and low morale and proved completely incapable of subduing the insurgency. By the spring of 1979, 24 of the 28 provinces had suffered outbreaks of violence.[15] The rebellion began to take hold in the cities: in March 1979 in Herat Afghan soldiers led by Ismail Khan mutinied and massacred approximately 100 Soviet advisors. The PDPA and Soviet Union retaliated by a bombing campaign that killed 24,000 inhabitants of the city.[16] Despite these drastic measures, by the end of 1980, out of the 90,000 soldiers strong Afghan Army, more than half had either deserted or joined the rebels.[17] A smiling Nuristani girl. ... Kunar Valley is a valley in Afghanistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Ismail Khan Ismail Khan (b. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ...


Like many other anti-communist movements at that time, the rebels quickly garnered support from the United States. As stated by the former director of the CIA and current Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, in his memoirs From the Shadows, the American intelligence services began to aid the rebel factions in Afghanistan 6 months before the Soviet deployment. On July 3, 1978, US President Jimmy Carter signed an executive order authorizing the CIA to conduct covert propaganda operations against the communist regime. CIA redirects here. ... Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. ... The following is a partial list of current intelligence agencies. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... From The U.S. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms - Joint Publication JP1-02 dated 05 January 2007: Covert Operation: An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


Carter advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski stated "According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the mujahideen began during 1980, that is to say, after the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan, 24 Dec 1979. But the reality, secretly guarded until now, is completely otherwise." Brzezinski himself played a fundamental role in crafting U.S. policy, which, unbeknownst even to the mujahideen, was part of a larger strategy "to induce a Soviet military intervention." In a 1998 interview with Le Nouvel Observateur, Brzezinski recalled: Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... Le Nouvel Observateur (often shorten to Le Nouvel Obs) is a weekly French newsmagazine. ...

We didn't push the Russians to intervene, but we knowingly increased the probability that they would...That secret operation was an excellent idea. It had the effect of drawing the Soviets into the Afghan trap...The day that the Soviets officially crossed the border, I wrote to President Carter. We now have the opportunity of giving to the Soviet Union its Vietnam War.[18]

The Soviet deployment

The HQ of the Soviet 40th Army in Kabul, 1987. Before the deployment it was the Tajbeg Palace, where Amin was killed.
The HQ of the Soviet 40th Army in Kabul, 1987. Before the deployment it was the Tajbeg Palace, where Amin was killed.

ImageMetadata File history File links Evstafiev-40th_army_HQ-Amin-palace-Kabul. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Evstafiev-40th_army_HQ-Amin-palace-Kabul. ... The 40th Army of the Soviet Unions Red Army was a army-level command active from 1941 to 1945 and then again from 1979 to circa 1990. ... Tajbeg Palace, 1987. ... Hafizullah Amin (Pashto: حفيظ الله امين) (August 1, 1929 – December 27, 1979) was the second President of Afghanistan during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ...

Decision for intervention

The Afghan government repeatedly requested the introduction of Soviet forces in Afghanistan in the spring and summer of 1978. They requested Soviet troops to provide security and to assist in the fight against the mujahideen rebels. On 14 April 1978 the Afghan government requested that the USSR send 15 to 20 helicopters with their crews to Afghanistan, and on 16 June the Soviet government responded and sent a detachment of tanks, BMPs, and crews to guard the government in Kabul and to secure the Bagram and Shindand airfields. In response to this request, an airborne battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel A. Lomakin, arrived at the Bagram Air Base on 7 July. They arrived without their combat gear, disguised as technical specialists. They were the personal bodyguards for President Taraki. The paratroopers were directly subordinate to the senior Soviet military adviser and did not interfere in Afghan politics. is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The BMP-1 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1960s. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... , The town of Shindand is the center of the Shindand District in the Herat Province, Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... Bagram Air Base (ICAO: OAIX) is an airport located at the ancient city of Bagram, southeast of Charikar in Parvan, Afghanistan. ...


After a month, the Afghan requests were no longer for individual crews and subunits, but for regiments and larger units. On 19 July, the Afghan government requested that two motorized rifle divisions be sent to Afghanistan. The following day, they requested an airborne division in addition to the earlier requests. They repeated these requests and variants to these requests over the following months right up to December 1978. However, the Soviet government was in no hurry to grant these requests.


The Soviet Union decided to intervene militarily in Afghanistan in order to preserve the communist regime. Based on information from the KGB, Soviet leaders felt that Amin destabilized the situation in Afghanistan. Following Amin's initial coup against and killing of President Taraki, the KGB station in Kabul warned that his leadership would lead to "harsh repressions, and as a result, the activation and consolidation of the opposition."[19] This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


The Soviets established a special commission on Afghanistan, of KGB chairman Yuri Andropov, Ponomaryev from the Central Committee and Dimitry Ustinov, the Minister of Defense. In late April 1978 they reported that Amin was purging his opponents, including Soviet loyalists; his loyalty to Moscow was put into question; and that he was seeking diplomatic links with Pakistan and possibly the People's Republic of China. Of specific concern were Amin's secret meetings with the U.S. charge d'affaires J. Bruce Amstutz, which, while never amounting to any agreement between Amin and the United States, sowed suspicion in the Kremlin.[20] A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just fifteen months later. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (Russian: ) (October 17, 1908–December 20, 1984) was Defense Minister of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death. ... // Peoples Commissars: Nikolai Podvoisky 8 November 1917 – 13 March 1918 Leon Trotsky 13 March 1918 – 26 January 1925 Mikhail Frunze 26 January – 31 October 1925 Kliment Voroshilov 6 November 1925 – 20 June 1934 Peoples Commissars: Kliment Voroshilov 20 June 1934 – 7 May 1940 Semyon Timoshenko 7 May 1940...


Information obtained by the KGB from its agents in Kabul provided the last arguments to eliminate Amin; supposedly, two of Amin's guards killed the former president Nur Muhammad Taraki with a pillow, and Amin was suspected to be a CIA agent. The latter, however, is still disputed: Amin repeatedly demonstrated official friendliness to the Soviet Union. Soviet General Vasily Zaplatin, a political advisor at that time, claimed that four of President Taraki's ministers were responsible for the destabilization. However, Zaplatin failed to emphasize this enough.[21] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Soviet invasion

The Soviet invasion in late July, 1978.
The Soviet invasion in late July, 1978.

On December 7th 1979, the Soviet advisors to the Afghan Armed Forces advised them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other crucial equipment. Meanwhile, telecommunications links to areas outside of Kabul were severed, isolating the capital. With a deteriorating security situation, large numbers of Soviet airborne forces joined stationed ground and troops and began to land in Kabul on December 25th. Simultaneously, Amin moved the offices of the president to the Tajbeg Palace, believing this location to be more secure from possible threats. According to Colonel General Tukharinov and Merimsky, Amin was fully informed of the military movements, having requested Soviet military assistance to northern Afghanistan on December 17th.[22][23] His brother and General Babadzhan met with the commander of the 40th Army before Soviet troops entered the country, to work out initial routes and locations for Soviet troops.[24] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The military of Afghanistan is composed of the Afghan National Army, the Air Corps (formerly the Afghan Air Force), and scattered small-sized militia forces. ... Russian Airborne minor emblem Russian Airborne major emblem The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV ( from Vozdushno-Desantnye Voyska Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска = ВДВ) is an arm of service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, on a par with the Strategic Rocket Forces and the Russian Space Forces. ... Tajbeg Palace, 1987. ... The 40th Army of the Soviet Unions Red Army was a army-level command active from 1941 to 1945 and then again from 1979 to circa 1990. ...


On December 27, 1979, 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms, including KGB OSNAZ and GRU SPETSNAZ special forces from the Alpha Group and Zenith Group, occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including their primary target - the Tajbeg Presidential Palace. December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... OSNAZ (Russian: [voiska] osobogo naznacheniya, ОСНАЗ = [войска] особого назначения, special purpose [detachments]) or ChON (Russian: chasti osobogo naznacheniya, ЧОН= Части особого назначения were special forces troops within the KGB (its predecessors and its successor, Federal Security Service) and the MVD. OSNAZ has always been shrouded in a veil of mystery and remains so even to this day. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... Russian special forces training For the Swedish EBM band, see Spetsnaz (band). ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... Tajbeg Palace, 1987. ...


That operation began at 19:00 hr., when the Soviet Zenith Group blew up Kabul's communications hub, paralyzing Afghan military command. At 19:15, the assault on Tajbeg Palace began; As planned, president Hafizullah Amin was killed. Simultaneously, other objectives were occupied (e.g. the Ministry of Interior at 19:15). The operation was fully complete by the morning of December 27th,1979. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


The Soviet military command at Termez, Uzbek SSR, announced on Radio Kabul that Afghanistan had been "liberated" from Amin's rule. According to the Soviet Politburo they were complying with the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborliness and Amin had been "executed by a tribunal for his crimes" by the Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee. That committee then elected as head of government former Deputy Prime Minister Babrak Karmal, who had been demoted to the relatively insignificant post of ambassador to Czechoslovakia following the Khalq takeover, and that it had requested Soviet military assistance. [25] Termez (Termiz in Uzbek; Termes in German) is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Radio Kabul is the official radio station of Afghanistan. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... Babrak Karmal (January 6, 1929 - December 3, 1996) was the third President of Afghanistan (1979 - 1986) during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


Soviet ground forces, under the command of Marshal Sergei Sokolov, entered Afghanistan from the north on December 27. In the morning, the 103rd Guards 'Vitebsk' Airborne Division landed at the airport at Bagram and the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan was underway. The force that entered Afghanistan, in addition to the 103rd Guards Airborne Division, was under command of the 40th Army and consisted of the 108th and 5th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, the 860th Separate Motor Rifle Regiment, the 56th Separate Airborne Assault Brigade, the 36th Mixed Air Corps. Later on the 201st and 58th Motor Rifle Divisions also entered the country, along with other smaller units.[26] In all, the initial Soviet force was around 1,800 tanks, 80,000 soldiers and 2,000 AFVs. In the second week alone, Soviet aircraft had made a total of 4,000 flights into Kabul.[27] The Soviet force rose with the arrival of the two later divisions to over 100,000. Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... Sergei Leonidovich Sokolov (Russian: ) (born July 1, 1911 in Eupatoria) was Commander of the Leningrad military district from 1965 to 1984, 1st Deputy Defense Minister from 1967 to 1984. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Location of Vitebsk, shown within the Vitebsk Voblast Coordinates: , Country Subdivision Founded 974 Government  - Mayor Population (2004)  - Total 342,381 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Area code(s) +375-15 License plate 2 Website: [2]] Vitebsk, also known as Vitsyebsk (Belarusian: Ві́цебск, IPA: ; Yiddish: װיטעבסק; Polish: Witebsk... Russian Airborne minor emblem Russian Airborne major emblem The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV ( from Vozdushno-Desantnye Voyska Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска = ВДВ) is an arm of service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, on a par with the Strategic Rocket Forces and the Russian Space Forces. ... The 40th Army of the Soviet Unions Red Army was a army-level command active from 1941 to 1945 and then again from 1979 to circa 1990. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ...


World reaction

U.S President Jimmy Carter indicated that the Soviet incursion was "the most serious threat to peace since the Second World War." Carter later placed a trade embargo against the Soviet Union on shipments of commodities such as grain. The increased tensions, as well as the anxiety in the West about tens of thousands of Soviet troops being in such proximity to oil-rich regions in the gulf, effectively brought about the end of détente. A USMC Marine Expeditionary Unit was ready to be sent[vague] in case of further actions.[citation needed] For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... A Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) is the smallest Marine Air-Ground Task Force in the United States Marine Corps. ...


The international diplomatic response was severe, ranging from stern warnings to a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. The invasion, along with other events, such as the revolution in Iran and the US hostage stand-off that accompanied it, the Iran-Iraq war, the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the escalating tensions between Pakistan and India, and the rise of Middle East-born terrorism against the West, contributed to making the Middle East an extremely violent and turbulent region during the 1980s. The American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow was a part of a package of actions to protest against the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... The Israeli invasion of Lebanon could mean either: The Israeli invasion of Lebanon in the 1982 Lebanon War; The Israeli invasion of Lebanon in the 2006 Lebanon War. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Babrak Karmal's government lacked international support from the beginning. Action by the United Nations Security Council was impossible because the Soviets had veto power, but the United Nations General Assembly regularly passed resolutions opposing the Soviet occupation. The foreign ministers of the Organization of the Islamic Conference deplored the entrance and demanded Soviet withdrawal at the sixth emergency special session meeting in Islamabad held January 10–14, 1980. The United Nations General Assembly voted by 104 to 18 with 18 abstentions for a resolution (A/ES-6/2, GA/6172) which "strongly deplored" the "recent armed intervention" in Afghanistan and called for the "total withdrawal of foreign troops" from the country "as to enable its people to determine their own destiny and without outside interference or coercion."[28] Babrak Karmal (January 6, 1929 - December 3, 1996) was the third President of Afghanistan (1979 - 1986) during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... An emergency special session is an unscheduled meeting of the United Nations General Assembly to make urgent decisions over a particular issue. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...


However, this resolution was dismissed by Soviet State and Party's Secretary General Leonid Brezhnev and the rest of the Soviet leadership because it allegedly meddled in the legitimate internal affairs of Afghanistan which were argued to be allowed under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. They claimed only the Afghan government had the right to determine the status of Soviet troops. This position was seen as a hypocritical position by opponents to the invasion who argued it unlikely for Amin to wish to arrange for his own deposition and execution, and that other claimants for control of Afghanistan were Soviet puppets.[29] A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Councils powers to maintain peace. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


The Non-Aligned Movement was sharply divided between those that believed the Soviet deployment to be legal and others who considered the deployment an illegal invasion. Notably, India, a close ally of Moscow during the Cold War, supported the Soviet invasion and provided crucial logistics and intelligence support to the Soviet army.[citation needed] Among the Warsaw Pact countries, the intervention was condemned only by Romania.[30] Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Military conflict

Soviet operations

Phase one: occupation (December 1979 to February 1980)

The first phase began with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and their first battles with various opposition groups.


Soviet troops entered Afghanistan along two ground routes and one air corridor, quickly taking control of the major urban centers, military bases and strategic installations. However, the presence of Soviet troops did not have the desired effect of pacifying the country. On the contrary, it exacerbated a nationalistic feeling, causing the rebellion to spread even more.[31] Babrak Karmal, Afghanistan's new president, charged the Soviets with causing an increase in the unrest, and demanded that the 40th Army step in and quell the rebellion, as his own army had proved untrustworthy.[32] Thus, Soviet troops found themselves drawn into fighting against urban uprisings, tribal armies(lashkar), and sometimes against mutinying Afghan Army units. These forces all fought relatively in the open, and Soviet airpower and artillery made short work of them.[33] Air Corridor is an airline based in Nampula, Mozambique. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Phase two: Soviet offensives (March 1980 to April 1985)

The war now developed into a new pattern: the Soviets occupied the cities and main axes of communication, while the mujahideen, divided into small groups, waged a guerilla war. Almost 80 percent of the country escaped government control. Soviet troops were deployed in strategic areas in the Northeast, especially along the road from Termez to Kabul. In the East, an important presence was maintained to counter Iranian influence. Conversely, some regions such as Nuristan and Hazarajat were virtually untouched by the fighting, and lived in almost complete independence. are you looking for the political definition of guerilla war? Guerilla War is a video game by SNK. It is an overhead shooter. ... Termez (Termiz in Uzbek; Termes in German) is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. ... The habitat of Hazara ethnic group is usually knows as the Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ...


Periodically the Soviet Army undertook multi-divisional offensives into mujahideen-controlled areas. Between 1980 and 1985, nine offensives were launched into the strategic Panjshir Valley, but government control of the area did not improve[34]. Heavy fighting also occurred in the provinces neighbouring Pakistan, where cities and government outposts were constantly under siege by the mujahideen. Massive Soviet operations would regularly break these sieges, but the mujahideen would return as soon as the coast was clear.[35] In the West and South, fighting was more sporadic, except in the cities of Herat and Kandahar, that were always partly controlled by the resistance.[36] Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Combatants Soviet Union, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Afghan Mujahideen Commanders Various Ahmad Shah Massoud The Panjshir offensives (Russian:Пандшерская операция - Panjsher Operations) were a series of battles between the Soviet Army and groups of Afghan Mujahideen under Ahmad Shah Massoud for the control of the strategic Panjshir Valley, during the Soviet war... Panjshir Valley was a very big battleground in Afghanistan from 1980 to 1988. ...


On his arrival in power, in March 1985, the new Soviet General Secretary, Mikhail Gorbachev expressed his impatience with the Afghan conflict. He demanded that a solution be found before one-year deadline. As a result, the size of the LCOSF (Limited Contingent of Soviet Forces) was increased to 108,800 and fighting increased throughout the country, making 1985 the bloodiest year of the war. However, despite suffering heavily, the mujahideen were able to remain in the field and continue resisting the Soviets. Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...

A Soviet Spetsnaz (special operations) group prepares for a mission in Afghanistan, 1988.
A Soviet Spetsnaz (special operations) group prepares for a mission in Afghanistan, 1988.

ImageMetadata File history File links Evstafiev-spetsnaz-prepare-for-mission. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Evstafiev-spetsnaz-prepare-for-mission. ...

Phase three: exit strategy (April 1985 to January 1987)

The first step of the exit strategy was to transfer the burden of fighting the mujahideen to the Afghan armed forces, with the aim of preparing them to operate without Soviet help. During this phase, the Soviet contingent was restricted to supporting the DRA forces by providing artillery, air support and technical assistance, though some large-scale operations were still carried out by Soviet troops.


Under Soviet guidance, the DRA armed forces were built up to an official strength of 302,000 in 1986. To minimize the risk of a coup d'état, they were divided into different branches, each modeled on its Soviet counterpart. The ministry of defense forces numbered 132,000, the ministry of interior 70,000 and the ministry of state security (KHAD) 80,000. However, these were theoretical figures: in reality each service was plagued with desertions, the army alone suffering 32,000 per year. KHAD or KhAD is an abbreviation for Khedamat-e Eteleaat-e Dawlati, the Afghanistan Marxist regimes secret police, also known as the State Information Agency. ...


The decision to engage primarily Afghan forces was taken by the Soviets, but was resented by the PDPA, who viewed the departure of their protectors without enthusiasm. In the spring of 1986, an offensive into Paktia Province briefly occupied the mujahideen base at Zhawar only at the cost of heavy losses.[37] Paktia (Pashto: پکتيا) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, in the east of the country. ... The battles of Zhawar were fought during the Soviet war in Afghanistan between Soviet Army units, and their allies of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against Afghan mujahideen groups. ...


Phase four: withdrawal (January 1987 to February 1989)

In the last phase, Soviet troops prepared and executed their withdrawal from Afghanistan. They hardly engaged in offensive operations at all, and were content to defend against mujahideen raids.


The one exception was Operation Magistral, a successful sweep that cleared the road between Gardez and Khost. This operation did not have any lasting effect, but it allowed the Soviets to symbolically end their presence with a victory.[38] Operation Magistral was a military operation in November 1987 during the Soviet war in Afghanistan launched to open the road from Khost to Soviet 40th Army base in Kunduz, Paktia Province. ... Gardez is the capital of Paktia province, Afghanistan. ... Khost, sometimes spelt Khowst, is a town in Afghanistan, located at 33. ...


The first half of the Soviet contingent was withdrawn between 15 May to August 16, the second from 15 November to 15 February 1989. The mujahideen did not interfere with the withdrawal. Now fighting alone, the DRA forces were obliged to abandon some provincial capitals, and it was widely believed that they would not be able to resist the mujahideen for long. In the spring of 1989 however DRA forces inflicted a sharp defeat on the mujahideen at Jalalabad, and as a result, the war remained stalemated.


Insurrection

An Afghan mujahid demonstrates using a hand-held Strela 2 surface-to-air missile.
An Afghan mujahid demonstrates using a hand-held Strela 2 surface-to-air missile.
See also: Mujahideen

By the mid-1980s, the Afghan resistance movement, receptive to assistance from the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, China, and others, contributed to Moscow's high military costs and strained international relations. The US viewed the conflict in Afghanistan as an integral Cold War struggle, and the CIA provided assistance to anti-Soviet forces through the Pakistani secret services, in a program called Operation Cyclone.[39][40] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2850 × 1790 pixel, file size: 1,006 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: An Afghan Mujahideen demonstrates positioning of a hand-held surface-to-air missile. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2850 × 1790 pixel, file size: 1,006 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: An Afghan Mujahideen demonstrates positioning of a hand-held surface-to-air missile. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. ... For the Iranian opposition group, see Peoples Mujahedin of Iran. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Operation Cyclone was the code name for the US CIA program to arm Islamic mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, 1979-1989. ...


A similar movement occurred in the Muslim world, bringing contingents of so-called Afghan Arabs, foreign fighters recruited from the Muslim world to wage jihad against the nonbelieving communists. Notable among them was a young Saudi named Osama bin Laden, whose Arab group eventually evolved into al-Qaeda. Most observers including the US government and Pakistani ISI intelligence service maintain US support was controlled by the ISI and limited to the indigenous Afghan mujahideen, and that participation in the conflict by Osama bin Laden and other Afghan Arabs was unrelated to CIA programs.[41][42] For the Arab migration or invasion of Afghanistan prior to the Soviet-Afghan War, see History of Arabs in Afghanistan. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... ISI may stand for any of the following: Ice Skating Institute (formerly the Ice Skating Instute of America, or ISIA), the international governing body for recreational skating competitions Image Space Incorporated Import substitution industrializing Indian Statistical Institute Information Sciences Institute (USC) Institute for Scientific Information Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan...


In the course of the guerrilla war, leadership came to be distinctively associated with the title of "commander". It applied to independent leaders, eschewing identification with elaborate military bureaucracy associated with such ranks as general. As the war produced leaders of reputation, "commander" was conferred on leaders of fighting units of all sizes, signifying pride in independence, self-sufficiency, and distinct ties to local community. The title epitomized Afghan pride in their struggle against an overwhelmingly-powerful foe. Segmentation of power and religious leadership were the two values evoked by nomenclature generated in the war. Neither had been favored in ideology of the former Afghan state. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ...

Mujahideen leader Ismail Khan walks among his fighters.
Mujahideen leader Ismail Khan walks among his fighters.

Afghanistan's resistance movement was born in chaos, spread and triumphed chaotically, and did not find a way to govern differently. Virtually all of its war was waged locally by regional warlords. As warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. Even so, the basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the highly segmented nature of Afghan society.[43] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ismail Khan Ismail Khan (b. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ...


Olivier Roy estimates that after four years of war, there were at least 4,000 bases from which mujahideen units operated. Most of these were affiliated with the seven expatriate parties headquartered in Pakistan, which served as sources of supply and varying degrees of supervision. Significant commanders typically led 300 or more men, controlled several bases and dominated a district or a sub-division of a province. Hierarchies of organization above the bases were attempted. Their operations varied greatly in scope, the most ambitious being achieved by Ahmed Shah Massoud of the Panjshir valley north of Kabul. He led at least 10,000 trained troops at the end of the Soviet war and had expanded his political control of Tajik dominated areas to Afghanistan's northeastern provinces under the Supervisory Council of the North.[43] Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ... Ahmed Shah Massoud (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... Panjshir Valley was a very big battleground in Afghanistan from 1980 to 1988. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) Tājīk (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ...


Roy also describes regional, ethnic and sectarian variations in mujahideen organization. In the Pashtun areas of the east, south and southwest, tribal structure, with its many rival sub-divisions, provided the basis for military organization and leadership. Mobilization could be readily linked to traditional fighting allegiances of the tribal lashkar (fighting force). In favorable circumstances such formations could quickly reach more than 10,000, as happened when large Soviet assaults were launched in the eastern provinces, or when the mujahideen besieged towns, such as Khost in Paktia province. But in campaigns of the latter type the traditional explosions of manpower--customarily common immediately after the completion of harvest--proved obsolete when confronted by well dug-in defenders with modern weapons. Lashkar durability was notoriously short; few sieges succeeded.[43] The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Khost, sometimes spelt Khowst, is a town in Afghanistan, located at 33. ... Paktia province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ...


Mujahideen mobilization in non-Pashtun regions faced very different obstacles. Prior to the invasion, few non-Pashtuns possessed firearms. Early in the war they were most readily available from army troops or gendarmerie who defected or were ambushed. The international arms market and foreign military support tended to reach the minority areas last. In the northern regions, little military tradition had survived upon which to build an armed resistance. Mobilization mostly came from political leadership closely tied to Islam. Roy convincingly contrasts the social leadership of religious figures in the Persian and Turkish speaking regions of Afghanistan with that of the Pashtuns. Lacking a strong political representation in a state dominated by Pashtuns, minority communities commonly looked to pious learned or charismatically revered pirs (saints) for leadership. Extensive Sufi and maraboutic networks were spread through the minority communities, readily available as foundations for leadership, organization, communication and indoctrination. These networks also provided for political mobilization, which led to some of the most effective of the resistance operations during the war.[43] A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Farsi redirects here. ... Look up pir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... A marabout is a personal spiritual leader in the Islam as practiced in West Africa, and still to a limited extent the Maghreb. ...


The mujahideen leaders paid great attention to sabotage operations. The more common types of sabotage included damaging power lines, knocking out pipelines, radio stations, blowing up government office buildings, air terminals, hotels, cinemas, and so on. From 1985 through 1987, an average of over 600 "terrorist acts" a year were recorded. In the border region with Pakistan, the mujahideen would often launch 800 rockets per day. Between April 1985 and January 1987, they carried out over 23,500 shelling attacks on government targets. The mujahideen surveyed firing positions that they normally located near villages within the range of Soviet artillery posts, putting the villagers in danger of death from Soviet retaliation. The mujahideen used land mines heavily. Often, they would enlist the services of the local inhabitants and even children. For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Power line redirects here. ... This article is about traditional meanings of the word office. ... An aerial view of a medium-sized airport. ... A landmine is a type of mine which is placed onto or into the ground and explodes when triggered by a vehicle or person. ...


They concentrated on both civilian and military targets, knocking out bridges, closing major roads, attacking convoys, disrupting the electric power system and industrial production, and attacking police stations and Soviet military installations and air bases. They assassinated government officials and PDPA members, and laid siege to small rural outposts. In March 1982, a bomb exploded at the Ministry of Education, damaging several buildings. In the same month, a widespread power failure darkened Kabul when a pylon on the transmission line from the Naghlu power station was blown up. In June 1982 a column of about 1,000 young party members sent out to work in the Panjshir valley were ambushed within 30 km of Kabul, with heavy loss of life. On September 4, 1985, insurgents shot down a domestic Bakhtar Airlines plane as it took off from Kandahar airport, killing all 52 people aboard. For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Outpost may mean: a trading post is a place for trading goods, typically in a remote wilderness area Outpost (computer game) outpost (chess) Outpost. ... Several countries have government departments named the Ministry of Education Komisja Edukacji Narodowej of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1773. ... A power outage is the loss of the electricity supply to an area. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Mujahideen groups had three to five men in each. After they received their mission to kill certain government officials, they busied themselves with studying his pattern of life and its details and then selecting the method of fulfilling their established mission. They practiced shooting at automobiles, shooting out of automobiles, laying mines in government accommodation or houses, using poison, and rigging explosive charges in transport. Car redirects here. ... driev by is formed of Blaze ya dead homie and ABK the just released there first album as drive by the title is called pony down. ...

The areas where the different mujahideen parties operated in 1985.
The areas where the different mujahideen parties operated in 1985.

In May 1985, the seven principal rebel organizations formed the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance to coordinate their military operations against the Soviet army. Late in 1985, the groups were active in and around Kabul, unleashing rocket attacks and conducting operations against the communist government. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 737 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2459 × 2000 pixels, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 737 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2459 × 2000 pixels, file size: 4. ... The Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen also known as the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance was an Afghan organization formed in 1987 by the seven Afghan mujahideen parties fighting against the Soviet and Democratic Republic of Afghanistan forces in the Soviet-Afghan War. ...


By mid-1987 the Soviet Union announced it would start withdrawing its forces. Sibghatullah Mojaddedi was selected as the head of the Interim Islamic State of Afghanistan, in an attempt to reassert its legitimacy against the Moscow-sponsored Kabul regime. Mojaddedi, as head of the Interim Afghan Government, met with then Vice President of the United States George H. W. Bush, achieving a critical diplomatic victory for the Afghan resistance. Defeat of the Kabul government was their solution for peace. This confidence, sharpened by their distrust of the UN, virtually guaranteed their refusal to accept a political compromise. Sibghatullah Al-Mojaddedi (born 1926). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


Foreign involvement and aid to the mujahideen

See also: Operation Cyclone

United States President Jimmy Carter had accepted the view that "Soviet aggression" could not be viewed as an isolated event of limited geographical importance but had to be contested as a potential threat to the Persian Gulf region. The uncertain scope of the final objective of Moscow in its sudden southward plunge made the American stake in an independent Pakistan all the more important. Operation Cyclone was the code name for the US CIA program to arm Islamic mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, 1979-1989. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


After the Soviet deployment, Pakistan's military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq started accepting financial aid from the Western powers to aid the mujahideen.[44] In 1981, following the election of United States President Ronald Reagan, aid for the mujahideen through Zia's Pakistan significantly increased, mostly due to the efforts of Texas Congressman Charlie Wilson and CIA officer Gust Avrakotos. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq محمد ضياء الحق (b. ... Financial aid refers to funding intended to help students pay tuition or other costs, such as room and board, for education at a college, university, or private school. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Charles Wilson (born June 1, 1933) was a United States naval officer and Democratic United States Congressman from the 2nd congressional district in Texas. ... Gust L. Avrakotos (1938 – December 1, 2005) was a secret agent for the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ...


The United States, the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia became major financial contributors, the United States donating "$600 million in aid per year, with a matching amount coming from the Gulf states."[45] The People's Republic of China also sold Type 56 (AKM) assault rifles and Type 69 RPGs to mujahideen in co-operation with the CIA, as did Egypt with assault rifles. Of particular significance was the donation of American-made FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missile systems, which increased aircraft losses of the Soviet Air Force. The Chinese Type 56 Assault Rifle is a copy of the AK-47 Kalashnikov. ... Type 69 RPG with bipod mount. ... The FIM-92 Stinger is a personal portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the U.S. armed services, with whom it entered service in 1981. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the air force of the Soviet Union. ...


In March 1985 the U.S. government adopted National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 166, which set a goal of military victory for the mujahideen. After 1985 the CIA and ISI placed greater pressure on the mujahideen to attack regime strongholds. Under direct instructions from Director of Central Intelligence William Casey, the CIA initiated programs for training Afghans in techniques such as car bombs and assassinations and in engaging in cross-border raids into the USSR.[46]


Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Special Service Group (SSG) were actively involved in the conflict, and in cooperation with the CIA and the United States Army Special Forces, as well as the British Special Air Service, supported the mujahideen against the Soviets. However no US or British personnel were ever deployed inside Afghanistan itself, there being "a cardinal rule of Pakistan's policy that no Americans ever become involved with the distribution of funds or arms once they arrived in the country. This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Special Services Group Logo outside their headquarters. ... Blue Light redirects here. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ...


The large sums of aid spurred Pakistan's economic growth, but along with the war in general had devastating side effects for that country. The siphoning off of aid weapons in the port city of Karachi contributed to disorder and violence there, while heroin entering from Afghan contributed to addiction problems.[47]


In retaliation for Pakistan's assistance to the insurgents, the KHAD Afghan security service, under Afghan leader Mohammad Najibullah, carried out (according to the Mitrokhin archives and other sources) a large number of operations against Pakistan. In 1987, 127 terrorist incidents resulting in 234 deaths in Pakistan. In April 1988, an ammunition depot outside the Pakistani capital of Islamabad was blown up killing 100 and injuring more than 1000 people, the KHAD and KGB suspected in the perpetration of these acts.[48] Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: ‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Pakistan took in millions of Afghan (mostly Pashtun) refugees fleeing the Soviet occupation. Although the refugees were controlled within Pakistan's largest province, Balochistan under then-martial law ruler General Rahimuddin Khan, the influx of so many refugees - believed to be the largest refugee population in the world[49] — into several other regions. A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Full General Rahimuddin Khan (Urdu: رحیم الدین خان) (born 21 July 1926) was the Governor of Balochistan, the largest province of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, for an unprecedented seven years (1978-1984), while simultaneously holding the military posts of Armoured Corps Commander as well as Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan, the latter...


All these problems had a heavy impact on Pakistan and its effects continue to this day. Despite this, Pakistan played a significant role in the eventual withdrawal of Soviet military personnel from Afghanistan.


Soviet withdrawal

Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988.
Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988.

The toll in casualties, economic resources, and loss of support at home increasingly felt in the Soviet Union was causing criticism of the occupation policy. Leonid Brezhnev died in 1982, and after two short-lived successors, Mikhail Gorbachev assumed leadership in March 1985. As Gorbachev opened up the country's system, it became clearer that the Soviet Union wished to find a face-saving way to withdraw from Afghanistan. ImageMetadata File history File links Evstafiev-afghan-apc-passes-russian. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Evstafiev-afghan-apc-passes-russian. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


The government of President Karmal, established in 1980 and identified by many as a puppet regime, was largely ineffective. It was weakened by divisions within the PDPA and the Parcham faction, and the regime's efforts to expand its base of support proved futile. Moscow came to regard Karmal as a failure and blamed him for the problems. Years later, when Karmal’s inability to consolidate his government had become obvious, Mikhail Gorbachev, then General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, said: A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when...

The main reason that there has been no national consolidation so far is that Comrade Karmal is hoping to continue sitting in Kabul with our help.

In November 1986, Mohammad Najibullah, former chief of the Afghan secret police (KHAD), was elected president and a new constitution was adopted. He also introduced in 1987 a policy of "national reconciliation," devised by experts of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and later used in other regions of the world. Despite high expectations, the new policy neither made the Moscow-backed Kabul regime more popular, nor did it convince the insurgents to negotiate with the ruling government. Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: ‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... A monument to reconciliation in Ottawa. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


Informal negotiations for a Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan had been underway since 1982. In 1988, the governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan, with the United States and Soviet Union serving as guarantors, signed an agreement settling the major differences between them known as the Geneva Accords. The United Nations set up a special Mission to oversee the process. In this way, Najibullah had stabilized his political position enough to begin matching Moscow's moves toward withdrawal. On July 20, 1987, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country was announced. The withdrawal of Soviet forces was planned out by Lt. Gen. Boris Gromov, who, at the time, was the commander of the 40th Army. The Geneva Accords, known formally as the agreements on the settlement of the situation relating to Afghanistan, were signed on 14 April 1988 between Afghanistan and Pakistan, with the United States and the Soviet Union serving as guarantors. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) was established in May 1988, during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, to assist in ensuring the implementation of the agreements on the settlement of the situation relating to Afghanistan and investigate and report possible violations of any of the provisions... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... General Boris Gromov. ...


Among other things the Geneva accords identified the U.S. and Soviet non-intervention with internal affairs of Pakistan and Afghanistan and a timetable for full Soviet withdrawal. The agreement on withdrawal held, and on February 15, 1989, the last Soviet troops departed on schedule from Afghanistan. Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Consequences of the war

Official Soviet personnel strengths and casualties

Monument to Soviet Soldiers in Afghanistan. Kiev, Ukraine.
Monument to Soviet Soldiers in Afghanistan. Kiev, Ukraine.

Between December 25, 1979 and February 15, 1989 a total of 620,000 soldiers served with the forces in Afghanistan (though there were only 80,000-104,000 force at one time ), 525,000 in the Army, 90,000 with border troops and other KGB sub-units, 5,000 in independent formations of MVD Internal Troops and police. A further 21,000 personnel were with the Soviet troop contingent over the same period doing various white collar or manual jobs. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 407 KB) Summary Description: Monument to Soviet Soldiers in Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 407 KB) Summary Description: Monument to Soviet Soldiers in Afghanistan. ... A monument honoring the fallen soldiers Afghanistan 1979-1989 War Memorial is a monument in Kiev (Kyiv), the capital of Ukraine, commemorating soldiers who died fighting during the war in Afghanistan, after the Soviet Union invaded that country in 1979. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The acronym MVD can stand for: Mitral valve disease, or Mitral regurgitation. ... Internal Troops (full name Internal Troops of the MVD), now called the Federal Guard are the 250,000 strong uniformed military mobile force of the Russian security forces (MVD) and are used to deal with major disturbances and internal security matters. ...


The total irrecoverable personnel losses of the Soviet Armed Forces, frontier and internal security troops came to 14,453. Soviet Army formations, units and HQ elements lost 13,833, KGB sub-units lost 572, MVD formations lost 28 and other ministries and departments lost 20 men. During this period 417 servicemen were missing in action or taken prisoner; 119 of these were later freed, of whom 97 returned to the USSR and 22 went to other countries.


There were 469,685 sick and wounded, of whom 53,753 or 11.44 percent, were wounded, injured or sustained concussion and 415,932 (88.56 percent) fell sick. A high proportion of casualties were those who fell ill. This was because of local climatic and sanitary conditions, which were such that acute infections spread rapidly among the troops. There were 115,308 cases of infectious hepatitis, 31,080 of typhoid fever and 140,665 of other diseases. Of the 11,654 who were discharged from the army after being wounded, maimed or contracting serious diseases, 92 percent, or 10,751 men were left disabled.[50] Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ...


After the war the USSR published casualties figures broken down by year.

Soviet casualties by year
1979 86
1980 484
1981 298
1982 948
1983 446
1984 346
1985 868
1986 333
1987 215
1988 759
1989 53
Remains of Soviet trucks in Kandahar, Afghanistan, 2002.
Remains of Soviet trucks in Kandahar, Afghanistan, 2002.

Material losses were as follows: Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1032x696, 236 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet war in Afghanistan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1032x696, 236 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet war in Afghanistan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...

Following is a partial and unofficial list of helicopter and aeroplane crashes that occured during the Afghan-Soviet War of 1979-89: 25th December 1979- An Il-76 heavy transport plane crashed into a mountain near the village of Kanzak (Northeast of Kabul) after being damaged by anti-aircraft artillery... Following is a partial and unofficial list of helicopter and aeroplane crashes that occured during the Afghan-Soviet War of 1979-89: 25th December 1979- An Il-76 heavy transport plane crashed into a mountain near the village of Kanzak (Northeast of Kabul) after being damaged by anti-aircraft artillery... A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, on the making of the eponymous film. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...

Damage to Afghanistan

Over 1 million Afghans were killed.[51] 5 million Afghans fled to Pakistan and Iran, 1/3 of the prewar population of the country. Another 2 million Afghans were displaced within the country. In the 1980s, one out of two refugees in the world was an Afghan.[52]


Along with fatalities were 1.2 million Afghans disabled (mujahideen, government soldiers and noncombatants) and 3 million maimed or wounded (primarily noncombatants).[53]


Irrigation systems, crucial to agriculture in Afghanistan's arid climate, were destroyed by aerial bombing and strafing by Soviet or Afghan communist forces. In the worst year of the war, 1985, well over half of all the farmers who remained in Afghanistan had their fields bombed, and over one quarter had their irrigation systems destroyed and their livestock shot by Soviet or Afghan Communist troops, according to a survey conducted by Swedish relief experts [54] The aerial bombing of cities became a common tactic in World War II. // World War I The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was on January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, Kings... Strafing (adaptation of German strafen, to punish, specifically from the World War I humorous adaptation of the German catchphrase Gott strafe England), is the practice of firing on a static target from a moving platform. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


The population of Afghanistan's second largest city, Kandahar, was reduced from 200,000 before the war to no more than 25,000 inhabitants, following a months-long campaign of carpet bombing and bulldozing by the Soviets and Afghan communist soldiers in 1987.[55] Land mines had killed 25,000 Afghans during the war and another 10-15 million land mines, most planted by Soviet and Afghan government forces, were left scattered throughout the countryside to kill and maim.[56] The phrase carpet bombing refers to the use of large numbers of unguided gravity bombs, often with a high proportion of incendiary bombs, to attempt the complete destruction of a target region, either to destroy personnel and materiel, or as a means to demoralize the enemy (see terror bombing). ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...


A great deal of damage was done to the civilian children population by land mines. A 2005 report estimated 3-4% of the Afghan population were disabled due to Soviet and Afghan communist land mines. In the city of Quetta, a survey of refugee women and children taken shortly after the Soviet withdrawal found over 80% of the children refugees unregistered and child mortality at 31%. Of children who survived, 67% were severely malnourished, with malnutrition increasing with age.[57]   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ...


Critics of Soviet and Afghan communist forces describe their effect on Afghan culture as working in three stages: first, the center of customary Afghan culture, Islam, was pushed aside; second, Soviet patterns of life, especially amongst the young, were imported; third, shared Afghan cultural characteristics were destroyed by the emphasis on so-called nationalities, with the outcome that the country was split into different ethnic groups, with no language, religion, or culture in common.[58]


The Geneva accords of 1988, which ultimately led to the withdrawal of the Soviet forces in early 1989, left the Afghan government in ruins. The accords had failed to address adequately the issue of the post-occupation period and the future governance of Afghanistan. The assumption among most Western diplomats was that the Soviet-backed government in Kabul would soon collapse; however, this was not to happen for another three years. During this time the Interim Islamic Government of Afghanistan (IIGA) was established in exile. The exclusion of key groups such as refugees and members of the Shiite community, combined with major disagreements between the different mujaheddin factions meant that the IIGA never succeeded in acting as a functional government.[59] This article is about the proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine. ...


Before the war Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Afghanistan was already one of the world's poorest nations. The prolonged conflict left Afghanistan ranked 170 out of 174 in the UNDP's Human Development Index, making the Afghanistan one of the least developed countries in the world.[60]


Once the Soviets withdrew American interests in Afghanistan also halted. The US decided not to help with reconstruction of the country and instead the US handed over the interests of the country to its allies: Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. Pakistan quickly took advantage of their new charitable opportunity and forged relations with warlords and later the Taliban to secure trade interests and routes. From wiping out the countries trees through logging practices, which has destroyed all but 2% of forest cover country-wide, to substantial uprooting of wild pistachio trees for the exportation of their roots for therapeutic uses, to opium agriculture, the past ten years have formed permanent ecological and agrarian destruction that Afghanistan may never recover from.[61]


According to Captain Tarlan Eyvazov, a soldier in the Soviet forces during the incursion of Afghanistan, who revealed that Afghan's children's future is destined for war. Eyvazoz said, "Children born in Afghanistan at the start of the war... have been brought up in war conditions, this is their way of life." Eyvazov's theory was later confirmed correct when the Taliban movement developed and formed from the Afghan orphans or refugee children who were forced by the Soviets to flee their homes and relocate their lives in Pakistan. The swift rise to power, from the young Taliban in 1994, was the result of the disorder and civil war that had warlords running undomesticated because of the complete breakdown of law and order in Afghanistan left behind by the Soviets.[62] The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ...


The CIA World Fact Book reported that as of 2004, Afghanistan still owed $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia.[63]


Civil war

Main article: Civil war in Afghanistan (1989-1992)
Two Soviet tanks left by the Soviet army during their withdrawal lay rusting in a field near Bagram Air Base, in 2002.
Two Soviet tanks left by the Soviet army during their withdrawal lay rusting in a field near Bagram Air Base, in 2002.

The civil war continued in Afghanistan after the Soviet withdrawal. The Soviet Union left Afghanistan deep in winter with intimations of panic among Kabul officials. The Afghan mujahideen were poised to attack provincial towns and cities and eventually Kabul, if necessary. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 806 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet war in Afghanistan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 806 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet war in Afghanistan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Bagram Air Base (ICAO: OAIX) is an airport located at the ancient city of Bagram, southeast of Charikar in Parvan, Afghanistan. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


Najibullah's regime, though failing to win popular support, territory, or international recognition, was however able to remain in power until 1992. Ironically, until demoralized by the defections of its senior officers, the Afghan Army had achieved a level of performance it had never reached under direct Soviet tutelage. Kabul had achieved a stalemate that exposed the mujahideen's weaknesses, political and military. For nearly three years, Najibullah's government successfully defended itself against mujahideen attacks, factions within the government had also developed connections with its opponents. In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ...


According to Russian publicist Andrey Karaulov, the main reason why Najibullah lost power was the fact Russia refused to sell oil products to Afghanistan in 1992 for political reasons (the new Russian government did not want to support the former communists) and effectively triggered an embargo. The defection of General Abdul Rashid Dostam and his Uzbek militia, in March 1992, ultimately undermined Najibullah's control of the state. In April, Kabul ultimately fell to the mujahideen. In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954) is the Deputy Defense Minister of Afghanistan and an Uzbek warlord. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


Grain production declined an average of 3.5% per year between 1978 and 1990 due to sustained fighting, instability in rural areas, prolonged drought, and deteriorated infrastructure. Soviet efforts to disrupt production in rebel-dominated areas also contributed to this decline. During the withdrawal of Soviet troops, Afghanistan's natural gas fields were capped to prevent sabotage. Restoration of gas production has been hampered by internal strife and the disruption of traditional trading relationships following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ...


Ideological impact

The Islamists who fought also believed that they were responsible for the fall of the Soviet Union. Osama bin Laden, for example, was asserting the credit for "the collapse of the Soviet Union ... goes to God and the mujahideen in Afghanistan ... the US had no mentionable role," but "collapse made the US more haughty and arrogant."[64] The Soviet defeat undoubtedly contributed to the break-up of the Soviet Union because the Mujahideen victory inspired pro-democratic movements in Germany, Eastern Europe and within the USSR. For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


Media and popular culture

See also: Sharbat Gula

The Soviet war in Afghanistan had an important impact in popular culture, due to its scope, and the great number of countries involved. ... Sharbat Gula (Pashto: شربت ګله flower-juice girl) (Sharbat is pronounced ) (born ca. ...

References

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  2. ^ Marshall, p.6
  3. ^ (Russian) N. F. Ivanov, Operation Storm to Begin Earlier, Chapter 1 Moscow: Voenizdat, 1993
  4. ^ "Россия и СССР в войнах XX века. Потери вооруженных сил. Статистическое исследование. Под общей редакцией кандидата военных наук, профессора АВН генерал-полковника Г. Ф. Кривошеева, Москва “Олма-Пресс”, 2001. [2]
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  12. ^ Pakistan's Support of Afghan Islamists, 1975-79 - Library of congress country studies(Retrieved February 4, 2007)
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  21. ^ (Russian) ДО ШТУРМА ДВОРЦА АМИНА
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  25. ^ The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979: Failure of Intelligence or of the Policy Process? - Page 7
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  40. ^ 1986-1992: CIA and British Recruit and Train Militants Worldwide to Help Fight Afghan War. Cooperative Research History Commons. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
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  50. ^ Krivosheev, G. F. (1993). Combat Losses and Casualties in the Twentieth Century. London, England: Greenhill Books. 
  51. ^ Death Tolls for the Major Wars ...
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  56. ^ "MINES PUT AFGHANS IN PERIL ON RETURN," By ROBERT PEAR, New York Times, Aug 14, 1988. p. 9 (1 page)
  57. ^ Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, H. (2002). Children of war: the real casualties of the Afghan conflict. Retrieved December 11, 2007
  58. ^ Hauner, M. (1989). Afghanistan and the Soviet Union: Collision and transformation. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. (p.40)
  59. ^ Barakat, S. (2004). Reconstructing war-torn societies: Afghanistan. New York: Palgrave Macmillan (p.5)
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  62. ^ Kirby, A. (2003). War 'has ruined Afghan environment.' Retrieved November 27, 2007, from [5], Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, H. (2002). Children of war: the real casualties of the Afghan conflict. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from [6]
  63. ^ USSR aid to Afghanistan worth $8 billion
  64. ^ Messages to the World, 2006, p.50. (March 1997 interview with Peter Arnett

Le Nouvel Observateur (often shorten to Le Nouvel Obs) is a weekly French newsmagazine. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Russian Federation Ministry of Defence (Russian: ) exercises operational leadership of the armed forces of Russia. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Olivier Roy (born 1949) is the research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and a lecturer for both the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) and the Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (IEP). ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The Foreign Military Studies Office, or FMSO, is a research and analysis center for the United States Army. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A U.S. citizen since 1987, Ali Ahmad Jalali left his job as a broadcaster for VOA in February 2002 to become the Interior Minister of Afghanistan. ... GlobalSecurity. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Green Left Weekly is a left-wing Australian newspaper. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ...

Further reading

  • Muhammad Ayub,An Army It's Role and Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil 1947-1999), ISBN 0-8059-9594-3
  • The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, Basic Books, 1999, ISBN 0-465-00310-9
  • Kurt Lohbeck, Holy War, Unholy Victory: Eyewitness to the CIA's Secret War in Afghanistan, Regnery Publishing (1993), ISBN 0-89526-499-4
  • George Crile, Charlie Wilson's War: the extraordinary story of the largest covert operation in history, Atlantic Monthly Press 2003, ISBN 0-87113-851-4
  • Robert D. Kaplan, Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, ISBN 1-4000-3025-0
  • Mark Galeotti, Afghanistan: the Soviet Union's last war, ISBN 0-71468-242-X
  • John Prados, Presidents' Secret Wars, ISBN 1-56663-108-4
  • Kakar, M. Hassan, Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. (free online access courtesy of UCP)
  • Borovik, Artyom, The Hidden War: A Russian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan, ISBN 0-8021-3775-X

Robert D. Kaplan (born 1952) is an American journalist, currently an editor for the Atlantic Monthly. ... Artyom Borovik Artyom Borovik (born September 13, 1960 - died March 9, 2000) was a prominenet Russian journalist and media magnate. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Belligerents Russian Federation Chechen loyalists Chechen separatists Caucasian Front Foreign Mujahideen Commanders Vladimir Putin Gennady Troshev Alexander Baranov Valentin Korabelnikov Akhmad Kadyrov â€  Ramzan Kadyrov Dzabrail Yamadayev â€  Sulim Yamadayev Said-Magomed Kakiyev Aslan Maskhadov â€  Sheikh Abdul Halim â€  Dokka Umarov Ruslan Gelayev â€  Shamil Basayev â€  Akhmed Yevloyev Khattab â€  Abu al-Walid â€  Abu Hafs...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Soviet war in Afghanistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4267 words)
With Afghanistan in a dire situation during which the country was under assault by an externally supported rebellion, the Soviet Union deployed the 40th Army in response to previous requests from the government of Afghanistan.
In the morning, the Vitebsk parachute division landed at the airport at Bagram City and the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan was underway.
The Soviet Army was unfamiliar with such fighting, had no anti-guerrilla training, and their weaponry and military equipment, particularly armored cars and tanks, was sometimes ineffective or vulnerable in the mountainous environment.
Soviet war in Afghanistan - Simple English Wikipedia (1096 words)
This was fought between the forces of the Soviet forces and certain anti-government forces of Afghanistan.
In 1979 Hafizullah Amin was the ruler of Afghanistan.
The Soviet Union did not consider this as invasion as the troops came at the request of the Government of Afghanistan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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