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Encyclopedia > Soviet coup attempt of 1991

During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party (CPSU) who felt that Gorbachev's reform program had gone too far and that a new union treaty that he had negotiated dispersed too much of the central government's power to the republics. Although the coup collapsed in only three days and Gorbachev returned to power, the event crushed the Soviet leader's hopes that the union could be held together in at least a decentralized form. Soviet redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Hardline was a radical deep ecology movement that had its roots in the straight edge hardcore scene. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050... The New Union Treaty (Russian: ) was a draft treaty that would have replaced the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus would have replaced the Soviet Union by a new entity named the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics, an attempt of Mikhail Gorbachev to salvage the Soviet...

Contents

Background

Main article: New Union Treaty

Since assuming power in 1985, Gorbachev had embarked on an ambitious program of reform, embodied in the twin concepts of perestroika and glasnost, meaning economic/political restructuring and openness, respectively. These moves prompted resistance and suspicion on the part of hardline members of the Communist system. The reforms also unleashed some forces and movements that Gorbachev did not expect. Specifically, nationalist agitation on the part of the Soviet Union's non-Russian minorities grew, and there were fears that some or all of the union republics might secede. In 1991 the USSR was in a severe economic and political crisis. There were shortages of almost all products, people had to stand in long lines to buy even the essentials. The New Union Treaty (Russian: ) was a draft treaty that would have replaced the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus replaced the Soviet Union by a new entity, an attempt of Mikhail Gorbachev to salvage the Soviet state. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Georgia had already declared their independence from the USSR. In January 1991 there was an attempt to return Lithuania to the USSR by force. About a week later there was a similar attempt to overthrow the legitimate Latvian authorities by local pro-USSR forces. There were continuing armed ethnic conflicts in Nagorny Karabakh and South Ossetia. January Events (Lithuanian: Sausio įvykiai) is a series of events that occurred on January 11-13, 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Latvian independence movement during Soviet and Nazi occupation (1940-1991). ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan İsgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... Location of South Ossetia within Georgia Georgian-Ossetian conflict refers to the ethno-political conflict in Georgia’s former autonomous region of South Ossetia, which evolved in 1989 and developed into a civil war in 1991-1992. ...


Russia after declaring its sovereignty on 12 June 1990 limited the application of USSR laws, in particular the laws on finance and economy, on its territory. The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR adopted laws which contradicted the USSR laws (so called “war of laws”). In the unionwide referendum on March 17, 1991, boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, the majority of the residents of the rest of the republics expressed the desire to retain the renewed Soviet Union. Following negotiations, eight of the nine republics (except Ukraine) approved the New Union Treaty with some conditions. The Treaty would make the Soviet Union a federation of independent republics with a common president, foreign policy, and military. The Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan were to sign the Treaty in Moscow on August 20, 1991. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Russian: , Verkhovny Sovet SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ... The New Union Treaty (Russian: ) was a draft treaty that would have replaced the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus replaced the Soviet Union by a new entity, an attempt of Mikhail Gorbachev to salvage the Soviet state. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Conspiracy

Already in December 1990 the USSR KGB chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov asked two KGB officers to prepare a plan of measures which could be taken in case the state of emergency was declared in the USSR. Later Kryuchkov involved the USSR Defense Minister Dmitriy Yazov, the USSR Internal Affairs Minister Boris Pugo, the USSR Prime Minister Valentin Pavlov, the USSR Vice President Gennady Yanayev, the deputy Chief of the USSR Defence Council Oleg Baklanov, the head of Gorbachev’s secretariat Valeriy Boldin, and a CPSU Central Committee Secretary Oleg Shenin in the conspiracy .[1] [2] The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ... Boris Karlovich Pugo (Russian: Бори́с Ка́рлович Пу́го) (February 19, 1937 _ August 22, 1991, in Moscow, also spelled Boriss Pugo) was a Latvian (Russian_born) Communist political figure. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who... Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. ... Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Янаев, Геннадий Иванович in Russian) (born August 26, 1937), Russian politician and statesman. ... The Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee was a key body within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was responsible for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy which was usually handled by the Politburo. ... Oleg Semyonovich Shenin is a Russian presidential candidate for the Presidential election of 2008 and the leader of the reconstituted Union of Communist Parties - Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


The conspirators hoped the USSR president Mikhail Gorbachev could be persuaded to declare the state of emergency and to “restore order”. The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ...


It should be also noted that on July 29, 1991 the USSR president Mikhail Gorbachev, the Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev discussed the possibility of replacing such hardliners as Valentin Pavlov, Dmitriy Yazov, Vladimir Kryuchkov and Boris Pugo with more liberal figures. This conversation was eavesdropped by KGB and became known to Vladimir Kryuchkov [3]. The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... List of Presidents of Russia Boris Yeltsin1 (July 10, 1991 – December 31, 1999) two terms. ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... To eavesdrop is to surreptitiously overhear a private conversation. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ...


On August 4, 1991 Gorbachev went on holiday to his dacha in Foros in the Crimea. He planned to return to Moscow on August 20, 1991 when the union treaty was to be signed. Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Foros (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...


On August 17 the conspirators met in a KGB guesthouse in Moscow and decided that it was time to act. On August 18, Sunday, Oleg Baklanov, Valeriy Boldin, Oleg Shenin and Deputy USSR Defense Minister General Valentin Varennikov flew to the Crimea for a meeting with Gorbachev. At the same time all communications lines from the Foros dacha (which were controlled by the KGB) were shut down. Additional KGB security guards with the orders not to allow anybody to leave the dacha were placed at its gates. Baklanov, Boldin, Shenin and Varennikov demanded from Gorbachev either to declare the state of emergency or to resign, to name the USSR Vice President Gennady Yanayev as acting president and to allow the conspirators “to restore order” in the country [4],[5],[6] Gorbachev has always claimed that he refused point blank to accept the ultimatum [7],[8]. Varennikov has insisted that Gorbachev said: “Do what you think is needed, damn you!”. However, those present at the dacha at the moment testified that Baklanov, Boldin, Shenin and Varennikov had been clearly disappointed and nervous after the meeting with Gorbachev [9]. Valentin Varennikov interviewed by CNN in August of 1997 Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov (Russian: Валентин Иванович Варенников)(born December 15, 1923), Soviet general and Russian politician. ... An Acting president is a person who temporarily fills the role of an organizations president, either when the real president is unavailable (for example ill or on vacation) or when the post is vacant (for example because of death, injury, resignation, or dismissal). ...


The August Coup

In an iconic photograph by the Associated Press broadcast worldwide[10]Yeltsin (far left) stands on a tank to defy the coup.

After the return of Baklanov, Boldin, Shenin and Varennikov from the Crimea the conspirators met in the Kremlin. Gennady Yanayev, Valentin Pavlov and Oleg Baklanov signed the so-called “Declaration of the Soviet Leadership” in which they declared the state of emergency on “some” (unspecified) territories of the USSR and announced that the State Emergency Committee (Государственный Комитет по Чрезвычайному Положению, ГКЧП, GKChP) was created “to manage the country and to effectively maintain the regime of the state of emergency. The GKChP included the following members: Image File history File links Boris Yeltsin (far left) stands on a tank to defy the 1991 coup. ... Image File history File links Boris Yeltsin (far left) stands on a tank to defy the 1991 coup. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Moscow Kremlin in the 19th century. ... Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Янаев, Геннадий Иванович in Russian) (born August 26, 1937), Russian politician and statesman. ... Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. ...

Gennady Yanayev signed the decree naming himself as acting USSR president on the pretext of Gorbachev’s inability to perform presidential duties due to “illness” [13]. Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Янаев, Геннадий Иванович in Russian) (born August 26, 1937), Russian politician and statesman. ... Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ... Boris Karlovich Pugo (Russian: Бори́с Ка́рлович Пу́го) (February 19, 1937 _ August 22, 1991, in Moscow, also spelled Boriss Pugo) was a Latvian (Russian_born) Communist political figure. ... Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Янаев, Геннадий Иванович in Russian) (born August 26, 1937), Russian politician and statesman. ...


The GKChP banned all newspapers in Moscow, except for nine communist-controlled newspapers [14]. The GKChP also issued a populist declaration which stated that “the honour and dignity of a Soviet man must be restored”, promised that the new union treaty will be discussed by all the people”, that “the streets of the cities will be purged of crime”, that the GKChP will focus on solving the problem of food shortages. At the same time the GKChP assured the citizens that it supported “genuine democratic processes” and reforms, supported free enterprise [15]. The New Union Treaty (Russian: ) was a draft treaty that would have replaced the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus replaced the Soviet Union by a new entity, an attempt of Mikhail Gorbachev to salvage the Soviet state. ... For the sequel to the computer game Entrepreneur, which has no article of its own, see The Corporate Machine. ...


August 19

“Declaration of the Soviet Leadership”, the decree of Yanayev and the GKChP documents were broadcast by the state radio and television starting from 7 a.m. “Radio Rossii” radio station and “Televidenie Rossi” TV channel controlled by the Russian SFSR authorities and “Ekho Moskvy”, the only independent political radio station were cut off the air[16]. Tanks, IFVs and APCs of Tamanskaya motorized infantry division and Kantemirovskaya tank division rolled into Moscow. Paratroopers also took part in the operation. Four Russian SFSR people’s deputies (who for some reason were considered the most “dangerous”) were detained by the KGB and held on an army base near Moscow [17][18]. Detaining Russian SFSR president Boris Yeltsin upon his arrival from a visit to Kazakhstan on August 17 or after that when he was on his dacha near Moscow was considered, however, for some reason this has not been done [19][20][21]. Boris Yeltsin arrived at the White House, Russia's parliament building, and already at 9 a.m. of August 19 he together with the Russian SFSR Prime Minister Ivan Silaev and the acting Chairman of Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR Ruslan Khasbulatov issued a declaration in which it was stated that a reactionary anti-constitutional coup had taken place. The military was urged not to take part in the coup. The declaration called for a general strike with the demand to let Mikhail Gorbachev address the people [22]. This declaration was distributed around Moscow in the form of flyers. State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Echo Moscow (russian:Эхо Москвы - Ekho Moskvy) is the independent Russian radiostation based in Moscow and broadcasted in many other Russian cities and in Internet. ... A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, on the making of the eponymous film. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... The 2nd Guards Tamanskaya Motor Rifle Division, also known as the Tamanskaya Division, Taman Division and Taman Guards, is one of the most famous divisions of the Russian Army. ... The 4th Guards Kantemirovskaya Tank Division (Cyrillic: гвардейская танковая Кантемировская дивизия, Guards Tank Kantemirovskaya Division), more usually known as the Kantemirovskaya Division or Kantemir Division, is an elite armoured division of the Russian Army. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... VDV flag. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... Tanks bombard the Russian White House on October 4, 1993. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... Ivan Stepanovich Silayev (Ива́н Степа́нович Сила́ев) (born on October 21, 1930 in Baktyzino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, USSR) is a Russian political figure. ... The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Russian: , Verkhovny Sovet SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Ruslan Khasbulatov speaks to Radio Free Europe in 2003 Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov (Руслан Имранович Хасбулатов) (born 1942) is a Russian economist and politician who played a central role in the events leading to the 1993 constitutional crisis in the Russian Federation. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ...


In the afternoon the citizens of Moscow began to gather around the White House and to erect barricades around it [23]. In response Gennady Yanayev declared the state of emergency in Moscow at 4 p.m.[24],[25]. Yanayev declared at the press conference at 5 p.m. that Gorbachev was "resting". He said: "Over these years he has got very tired and needs some time to get his health back”. Yanayev said GKChP was committed to continuing the reforms. However, his weak posturing, trembling hands and shaky expressions made his words unconvincing [26]. Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Янаев, Геннадий Иванович in Russian) (born August 26, 1937), Russian politician and statesman. ...


Meanwhile, Major Evdokimov, chief of staff of a tank battalion of Tamanskaya motorized infantry division who had orders to guard the White House declared his loyalty to the leadership of the Russian SFSR [27],[28]. Yeltsin climbed one of the tanks and addressed the crowd. Unexpectedly, this episode was included in the evening news program broadcasted by the state TV [29]. Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols A battalion is a military unit usually consisting of between two and six companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. ... The 2nd Guards Tamanskaya Motor Rifle Division, also known as the Tamanskaya Division, Taman Division and Taman Guards, is one of the most famous divisions of the Russian Army. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the...


August 20

At noon General Kalinin, the commander of Moscow military district who had been appointed by Yanayev military commandant of Moscow, declared the curfew in Moscow from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m., effective from August 20 [30],[31],[32]. This was understood as the sign that the attack on the White House was imminent. The Moscow Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. ... Tanks bombard the Russian White House on October 4, 1993. ...


The defenders of the White House prepared for the worst. Some of them were armed but most of the volunteers were unarmed. The tank company which had been under command of Major Evdokimov who had declared his loyalty to the leadership of the Russian SFSR was moved from the White House in the evening [33],[34]. The makeshift White House defense headquarters was headed by General Konstantin Kobets, a Russian SFSR people’s deputy. He had in his disposal a number of generals and senior officers (some of them retired) who volunteered for the defense of the White House [35],[36]. Obviously, the main hope of the defenders of the White House was that the risk of significant civilian casualties would prevent the attack. Eventually this hope was justified. In the afternoon of August 20 Vladimir Kryuchkov, Dmitriy Yazov and Boris Pugo finally decided to attack the White House. This decision was supported by other GKChP members. KGB general Ageev, the deputy of Kryuchkov, and Army general Achalov, the deputy of Yazov, planned “Operation Grom” (Thunder) which was to be carried out by Alpha Group and Vympel Group, the KGB's special forces detachments, with the support of the paratroopers, Moscow OMON, Dzerzhinsky division of Internal Troops, three tank companies and a helicopter squadron. Alpha Group commander General Viktor Karpukhin and other senior officers of Alpha Group together with General Alexander Lebed, deputy commander of the Airborne Troops, mingled through the crowds near the White House and assessed the possibility of undertaking such an operation. After that Viktor Karpukhin and Vympel Group commander Colonel Beskov tried to convince Ageev that the operation was impossible, it would result in bloodshed [37],[38],[39],[40]. Alexander Lebed, with the consent of Pavel Grachev, the commander of the Airborne Troops, returned to the White House and secretly informed the defense headquarters that the attack would begin at 2 a.m.[41],[42]. State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ... Boris Karlovich Pugo (Russian: Бори́с Ка́рлович Пу́го) (February 19, 1937 _ August 22, 1991, in Moscow, also spelled Boriss Pugo) was a Latvian (Russian_born) Communist political figure. ... A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... Emblem of Vympel Vympel (Russian: Вымпел meaning Pennant, also known as Vega Group or Spetsgruppa V) is a Russian counter-terrorism unit. ... Special Forces (SF) or Special Operations Forces (SOF) are highly-trained military units that conduct specialized operations such as reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and counter-terrorism actions. ... The OMON insignia OMON (Russian: Отряд милиции особого назначения; Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, Special Purpose Detachment of Militsiya) is a generic name for the system of special units of militsiya (state police) within the Russian and earlier the Soviet, Ministerstvo Vnutrennih Del (MVD; Ministry of Internal Affairs). ... Internal Troops (full name Internal Troops of the MVD), now called the Federal Guard are the 250,000 strong uniformed military mobile force of the Russian security forces (MVD) and are used to deal with major disturbances and internal security matters. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each rotor consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... A Squadron is a small unit or formation of cavalry, aircraft (including balloons), or naval vessels. ... A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... Aleksandr Ivanovich Lebed (Алексáндр Ивáнович Лéбедь) ( April 20, 1950– April 28, 2002) was a Russian general and politician. ... VDV flag. ... Emblem of Vympel Vympel (Russian: Вымпел meaning Pennant, also known as Vega Group or Spetsgruppa V) is a Russian counter-terrorism unit. ... Russian Defence Minister Pavel Grachev speaking in the State Duma in 1994. ... VDV flag. ...


August 21

At about 1 A.M. not far from the White House a column of IFVs of Tamanskaya motorized infantry division was blocked in a tunnel by barricades made of trolleybuses and street cleaning machines. Dmitriy Komar climbed one IFV and tried to “blind” the observation slit with a piece of tarpaulin but either fell to his death from the IFV or was shot. Then Vladimir Usov, who tried to help him, was shot (possibly unintentionally by a ricocheting bullet). At about the same time a third young man, Ilya Krichevskiy was also shot under unclear circumstances. Several other men were wounded. The IFV was set on fire by the crowd but no soldiers were killed.[43],[44],[45]. Tanks bombard the Russian White House on October 4, 1993. ... A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, on the making of the eponymous film. ... The 2nd Guards Tamanskaya Motor Rifle Division, also known as the Tamanskaya Division, Taman Division and Taman Guards, is one of the most famous divisions of the Russian Army. ... A trolleybus in Arnhem An electric trolleybus (also known as trolley bus or trackless trolley or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which the bus draws electricity using two trolley poles. ...


Alpha Group and Vympel Group did not move to the White House as it had been planned. When Dmitriy Yazov learned about this, he ordered the troops to pull out from Moscow. The fateful night ended. A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... Emblem of Vympel Vympel (Russian: Вымпел meaning Pennant, also known as Vega Group or Spetsgruppa V) is a Russian counter-terrorism unit. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ...


The troops began to move from Moscow at 8 A.M. The GKChP members met in the Defence Ministry and, not knowing what to do, decided to send a delegation to the Crimea in order to meet with Mikhail Gorbachev for negotiations. Vladimir Kryuchkov, Dmitriy Yazov, Oleg Baklanov, Alexander Tizyakov, chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet Anatoliy Lukianov and Deputy CPSU General Secretary Vladimir Ivashko flew to the Crimea. At 5 P.M. the delegation arrived at the Foros dacha but Mikhail Gorbachev refused to meet with it. Instead Gorbachev, after the communication with the dacha was restored, declared void all the decisions of GKChP and dismissed its members from their state offices. The USSR General Prosecutors Office started the investigation of the coup attempt [46],[47]. Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ... The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power... Anatoly Lukyanov Anatoly Ivanovich Lukyanov (Russian: Анатолий Иванович Лукьянов) (born 7 May 1930 in Smolensk) is a Russian Communist politician who was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR between 15 March 1990 and 22 August 1991. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (1932–1994) was briefly the acting General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the period from August 24, 1991 to August 29, 1991. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Prosecutor General of the USSR (Генеральный прокурор СССР in Russian, or Generalnyi prokuror SSSR), was the highest functionary of the Office of Public Prosecutor of the USSR, responsible for the whole system of offices of public prosecutors and supervision of their activities on the territory of the Soviet Union. ...


The aftermath

Mikhail Gorbachev flew to Moscow. So did the GKChP delegation. When Vladimir Kryuchkov, Dmitriy Yazov, and Alexander Tizyakov arrived in Moscow in the early hours of August 22 they were arrested at the airport. In the morning of August 22 Gennady Yanayev was arrested in his office. Boris Pugo together with his wife committed suicide on August 23. On the same day Valentin Pavlov and Vasily Starodubtsev were arrested. Oleg Baklanov, Valeriy Boldin, Oleg Shenin were arrested on August 24 [48]. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ... Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Янаев, Геннадий Иванович in Russian) (born August 26, 1937), Russian politician and statesman. ... Boris Karlovich Pugo (Russian: Бори́с Ка́рлович Пу́го) (February 19, 1937 _ August 22, 1991, in Moscow, also spelled Boriss Pugo) was a Latvian (Russian_born) Communist political figure. ... Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. ... Oleg Semyonovich Shenin is a Russian presidential candidate for the Presidential election of 2008 and the leader of the reconstituted Union of Communist Parties - Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


Since a number of heads of the regional executive committees supported GKChP, on August 21 Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR by its Decision No.1626-1 authorized Russian President Boris Yeltsin to appoint heads of regional administrations, though the Russian constitution effective at that moment did not provide such a right to the President [49]. Ispolkom (исполком) is an Russian language abbreviation for Ispolnitelny komitet (исполнительный комитет), which may be translated as executive committee. In the Soviet Union an ispolkom was a local organ of executive and regulatory power, an office of the local soviet. ... The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Russian: , Verkhovny Sovet SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ...


On August 22 the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR by its Decision No.1627/1-1 declared the historical Russian white-blue-red national flag the official national flag of Russia, instead of the Soviet red flag (21). In the night of August 23 – August 24 the monument to Feliks Dzerzhinskiy, the head of Vecheka, in front of the KGB building at Dzerzhinskiy Square (Lubianka) was dismantled. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Russian: , Verkhovny Sovet SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Polish: Feliks DzierżyÅ„ski, Russian: Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский, Belarusian: Фелікс Эдмундавіч Дзяржынскі; September 11, 1877 [O.S. August 30] –July 20, 1926) was a Polish Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, later known by many names during the history of the Soviet... The Cheka (ЧК in Russian) was the first (of many) Soviet secret police organizations. ... The Lubyanka (Russian: Лубянка) was one of the most infamous NKVD prisons in the Soviet Union. ...


On August 24 thousands of Moscow citizens took part in the funeral of Dmitriy Komar, Vladimir Usov and Ilya Krichevskiy. Mikhail Gorbachev posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union to them. Boris Yeltsin asked their relatives to forgive him for not being able to prevent their deaths [50]. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ...


The End of the CPSU

On August 24 Mikhail Gorbachev resigned from the office of the CPSU General Secretary [51]. Vladimir Ivashko was acting CPSU General Secretary until August 29 and then also resigned. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (1932–1994) was briefly the acting General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the period from August 24, 1991 to August 29, 1991. ...


On August 24 Russian President Boris Yeltsin by his Decree No. 83 transferred the archives of the CPSU to the state archive authorities. On August 25 Boris Yeltsin by his Decree No. 90 nationalized the property of the CPSU in Russia (which included not only the headquarters of party committees but also educational institutions, hotels, etc.) [52] . Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... Archive of the AMVC hahahahaAn archive refers to a collection of records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ...


On November 6 Boris Yeltsin by his Decree No.169 terminated the activity of the CPSU in Russia [53] . Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ...


The Disintegration of the USSR

On August 24 Mikhail Gorbachev created the so-called “Committee for the Operational Management of the USSR Economy” (Комитет по оперативному управлению народным хозяйством СССР), to replace the USSR Cabinet of Ministers (government) headed by Valentin Pavlov, a GKChP member. Russian prime minister Ivan Silaev headed this committee. The Belavezha Accords (Russian: ) is the agreement signed at the state Dacha near Visculi in Belarussian part of the BiaÅ‚owieża Forest (also known as Belovezhskaya Pushcha) on December 8, 1991, by the Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Boris Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk and Stanislav Shushkevich), which declared the... Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. ... Ivan Stepanovich Silayev (Ива́н Степа́нович Сила́ев) (born on October 21, 1930 in Baktyzino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, USSR) is a Russian political figure. ...


On August 24 the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine adopted the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine and called for a referendum on support of the Declaration of Independence. Verkhovna Rada. ... The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on August 24, 1991. ...


On August 27 the Supreme Soviet of Moldova declared the independence of Moldova from the Soviet Union. On August 30 and August 31 the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan and the Supreme Soviet of Kyrgyzstan respectively did the same.


On September 5 the USSR Congress of People’s Deputies adopted the USSR Law No.2392-1 “On the Authorities of the USSR in the Transitional Period” under which the USSR Supreme Soviet was reformed. Instead of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities (previous two chambers), both elected by the USSR Congress of Peoples Deputies, the new two chambers were the Soviet of the Union (Совет Союза) and the Soviet of Republics (Совет Республик). The Soviet of the Union was to be formed by the USSR people’s deputies elected by the citizens. The Soviet of Republics was to include 20 deputies from republic plus one deputy for each autonomous region in each union republic (both USSR people’s deputies and republican people’s deputies) delegated by the legislatures of the union republic. Russia was an exception with 52 deputies. However, the delegation of each union republic was to have only one vote in the Soviet of Republics. The laws were to be first adopted by the Soviet of the Union and then by the Soviet of Republics. The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power... The Soviet of Nationalities (Совет Национальностей in Russian), was one of the two chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot in accordance with the principles of Soviet democracy. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1993. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ...


Also the USSR State Council (Государственный совет СССР) which included the USSR President and the presidents of union republics was created. The “Committee for the Operational Management of the USSR Economy” was replaced by the USSR Interrepublican Economic Committee (Межреспубликанский экономический комитет СССР), also headed by Ivan Silaev.[54] The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... Ivan Stepanovich Silayev (Ива́н Степа́нович Сила́ев) (born on October 21, 1930 in Baktyzino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, USSR) is a Russian political figure. ...


On September 6 the newly created USSR State Council recognized the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania [55].


On September 9 the Supreme Soviet of Tajikiskan declared the independence of Tajikistan from the Soviet Union.


In September over 99 percent of voters in Armenia on a referendum approved the republic's commitment to independence. The immediate aftermath of that vote was the Armenian Supreme Soviet's declaration of full independence, on September 21. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


On October 27 the Supreme Soviet of Turkmenistan declared the independence of Turkmenistan from the Soviet Union.


After that the only republics remaining in the USSR were Russia, Byelorussia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. In November seven republics (Russia, Byelorussia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan) agreed to a new union treaty that would form a confederation called the Union of Sovereign States. However this confederation never materialized.


On December 1, the Ukraine held a referendum, in which more than 90% of residents supported the Act of Independence of Ukraine. is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on August 24, 1991. ...


On December 8, the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus (which adopted that name in August 1991) Boris Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk and Stanislav Shushkevich, as well as the Prime-ministers of the republics met in Minsk, the capital of Belarus, where they created the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and annulled the 1922 union treaty that had established the Soviet Union. Another signing ceremony was held in Alma-Ata on December 21 to expand the CIS to include the five republics of Central Asia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Georgia did not join until 1993; the three Baltic republics never joined. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992 Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Ukrainian: Леонід Макарович Кравчук born 10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. ... Stanislav Stanislavovich Shushkevich (Belarusian: Станісла́ў Станісла́вавіч Шушке́віч; StanisÅ‚aÅ­ StanisÅ‚avavič Å uÅ¡kievič) (b. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Verny, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is a city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,168,000. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


On December 25, 1991, Gorbachev announced his resignation as Soviet president; the red hammer and sickle flag of the Soviet Union was lowered from the Senate building in the Kremlin and replaced with the tricolour flag of Russia; the Soviet Union ceased to exist. December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Beginning of Radical Economic Reforms in Russia

See also: Economy of Russia

On November 1, 1991 the RSFSR Congress of People’s Deputies issued Decision No.1831-1 On the Legal Support of the Economic Reform whereby the Russian president (Boris Yeltsin) was granted the right to issue decrees required for the economic reform even if they contravened the laws. Such decrees entered into force if they were not repealed within 7 days by the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR or its Presidium [56] . Russia possesses ample supplies of many of the worlds most valued natural resources, especially those required to support a modern industrialized economy. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Russian: , Verkhovny Sovet SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


On November 6, 1991 Boris Yeltsin in addition to the duties of the President assumed the duties of the prime minister. Yegor Gaidar became deputy prime minister and simultaneously economic and finance minister. Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... Yegor Timurovich Gaidar () (born March 19, 1956) is a Russian economist and politician, and was the acting Prime Minister of Russia from June 15, 1992 to December 14, 1992. ...


On November 15, 1991 Boris Yeltsin issued Decree No. 213 On the Liberalization of Foreign Economic Activity on the Territory of the RSFSR whereby all Russian companies were allowed to import and to export goods and to acquire foreign currency (previously all foreign trade had been tightly controlled by the state) [57] . Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ...


On December 3, 1991 Boris Yeltsin issued Decree No.297 On the Measures to Liberalize Prices whereby from January 2, 1992 most previously existing price controls were abolished [58] . Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ...


The Trial of the Conspirators

The arrested GKChP members and their accomplices were charged with treason in the form of a conspiracy aimed at capturing power. However by the end of 1992 they were all released from custody pending trial. The trial in the Military Chamber of the Russian Supreme Court began on April 14, 1993 [59] . Traitor redirects here. ... The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is the final instance in administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases. ...


On February 23, 1994 the State Duma declared amnesty for the GKChP members and their accomplices, as well as for the participants of October 1993 events [60] . They all accepted the amnesty, except for General Valentin Varennikov who demanded the continuation of the trial and was finally acquitted on August 11, 1994 [61]. For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Boris Yeltsin was President of the Russian Federation at the time of the crisis. ... Valentin Varennikov interviewed by CNN in August of 1997 Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov (Russian: Валентин Иванович Варенников)(born December 15, 1923), Soviet general and Russian politician. ...


Historic importance

The collapse of the Soviet Union was called "the largest geopolitical catastrophe of the century" by the current president of Russia Vladimir Putin [54]. The Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk called the 1991 development "the funeral of the empire." [55]. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992 Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Ukrainian: Леонід Макарович Кравчук born 10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. ...


At the same time, the other superpower, the United States, significantly strengthened its position. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War ended. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ September 1991 internal KGB report on the involvement of KGB in the coup (in Russian)[1]
  2. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 51 of 23 July 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[2]
  3. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[3]
  4. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 51 of 23 July 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[4]
  5. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 59 of 20 August 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[5]
  6. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[6]
  7. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 59 of 20 August 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[7]
  8. ^ Gorbachev's interview to the Russian Service of BBC of 16 August 2001 (in Russian)[8]
  9. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 59 of 20 August 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[9]
  10. ^ Robert L. Hilliard; Michael C. Keith (2006). The Broadcast Century and Beyond: a Biography of American Broadcasting. Elsevier, p. 271. ISBN 0240805704. 
  11. ^ GKChP documents (in Russian) [10]
  12. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[11]
  13. ^ GKChP documents (in Russian) [12]
  14. ^ GKChP documents (in Russian) [13]
  15. ^ GKChP documents (in Russian) [14]
  16. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[15]
  17. ^ September 1991 internal KGB report on the involvement of KGB in the coup (in Russian)[16]
  18. ^ September 1991 internal KGB report on the involvement of KGB in the coup (in Russian) [17]
  19. ^ September 1991 internal KGB report on the involvement of KGB in the coup (in Russian)[18]
  20. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 55 of 6 August 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[19]
  21. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 57 of 13 August 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[20]
  22. ^ A Russian book on August 1991 events.[21]
  23. ^ A Russian book on August 1991 events.[22]
  24. ^ GKChP documents (in Russian) [23]
  25. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[24]
  26. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[25]
  27. ^ A Russian book on August 1991 events.[26]
  28. ^ "Izvestia", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[27]
  29. ^ "Moskovskie Novosty", 2001, No.33 (in Russian)[28]
  30. ^ A Russian book on August 1991 events.[29]
  31. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 51 of 23 July 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[30]
  32. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[31]
  33. ^ "Nezavisimoe Voiennoye Obozrenie", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[32]
  34. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[33]
  35. ^ "Nezavisimoe Voiennoye Obozrenie", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[34]
  36. ^ A Russian site on Heroes of the Soviet Union[35]
  37. ^ September 1991 internal KGB report on the involvement of KGB in the coup (in Russian)[36]
  38. ^ "Novaya Gazeta" No. 51 of 23 July 2001 (Extracts from the indictment of the conspirators - in Russian)[37]
  39. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[38]
  40. ^ "Argumenty i Facty", 15 August 2001.[39]
  41. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[40]
  42. ^ "Argumenty i Facty", 15 August 2001.[41]
  43. ^ A Russian site on Ilya Krichevskiy[42]
  44. ^ A Russian site on Heroes of the Soviet Union[43]
  45. ^ "Kommersant", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[44]
  46. ^ A Russian book on August 1991 events.[45]
  47. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[46]
  48. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[47]
  49. ^ Konsultant+ (Russian legal database)
  50. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[48]
  51. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[49]
  52. ^ Konsultant+ (Russian legal database)
  53. ^ Konsultant+ (Russian legal database)
  54. ^ Russian legal database[50]
  55. ^ Site of RIA-Novosti (Russian news agency)[51]
  56. ^ Konsultant+ (Russian legal database)
  57. ^ Konsultant+ (Russian legal database)
  58. ^ Konsultant+ (Russian legal database)
  59. ^ "Vzgliad", 18 August 2006 (in Russian)[52]
  60. ^ Konsultant+ (Russian legal database)
  61. ^ Timeline of the events (in Russian), Artem Krechnikov, Moscow BBC correspondent.[53]

See also

Group of eight conspirators holding top level positions within the KGB and the CPSU who conspired a coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev from August 18, 1991-August 20, 1991. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ...

External links

  • IRC logs: Transcript of internet chat from the time of the coup
  • TASS transmissions at the time of the coup (captured from short-wave radio transmissions, contains decoding errors)
  • Andrew Coyne: Getting to the Roots of a Deserved Failure
  • The St. Petersburg Times #696(63), 17.08.2001 The issue of The St. Petersburg Times devoted to the 10th anniversary of the coup attempt.
  • [56]Chronology of the Coup The USSR in 1991: The Implosion of a Superpower by Dr Robert F. Miller
  • 1991 Diplomatic Bluebook, Section 4. The Soviet Union by the Japanese Foreign Ministry
  • [57]: Memories of an anonymous Russian in Wiki Memory Archive
  • [58]: Memories of Sam Lafranco in Wiki Memory Archive

  Results from FactBites:
 
Soviet coup attempt of 1991 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1257 words)
During the Soviet Coup of 1991, also known as the August Putsch, Vodka Putsch or August Coup, a group of hardliners within the Soviet Communist party briefly deposed Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country.
The coup leaders were conservatives who felt that Gorbachev's reform program had gone too far and that a new union treaty that he had negotiated dispersed too much of the central government's power to the republics.
On December 25, 1991, a now-defeated Gorbachev announced his resignation as Soviet president; the red hammer and sickle flag of the USSR was lowered from the Kremlin and replaced with the tricolour flag of the Russian state; the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.
President of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (747 words)
The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991.
The office had not existed until 1990; previously the head of Soviet state had been the Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (Chairman of the All-Union Executive Committee, ВЦИК) from 1922-1938, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1938-1989, then the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet in 1989-90.
From the mid-1920s on, all effective executive political power was in the hands of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the Chairman exercising largely symbolic and figurehead duties.
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