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Encyclopedia > Soviet atomic bomb project
Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right)
Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right)

The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. The USSR tested its first nuclear weapon in 1949. Andrei Sakharov and Igor Kurchatov Kurchatov died in 1960, therefore this is PD. From [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet atomic bomb project Categories: Pre-1973 Soviet Union images ... Andrei Sakharov and Igor Kurchatov Kurchatov died in 1960, therefore this is PD. From [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet atomic bomb project Categories: Pre-1973 Soviet Union images ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... Igor The Beard Kurchatov Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov (И́горь Васи́льевич Курча́тов) (January 8, 1903 – February 7, 1960), Soviet/Russian physicist. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...

Contents

Nuclear physics in the Soviet Union

Soviet interest in nuclear physics had begun just after the annus mirabilis in physics in 1932, in which a variety of important nuclear discoveries and achievements were made (the identification of the neutron and positrons as fundamental particles, the operation of the first cyclotron to values of over 1 MeV, and the first splitting of the atomic nucleus by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton). The mineralogist Vladimir Vernadsky had made a number of public calls even before 1917 for a survey of Russia's uranium deposits. But such surveys were never made, as it was discovered that the main motivation for uranium ores at the time—radium, which had scientific as well as medical uses—could be retrieved from borehole water from the Ukhta oilfields. Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... See also: John Cockroft (politician) Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (May 27, 1897 - September 18, 1967) was a British physicist. ... Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (October 6, 1903 – June 25, 1995) was an Irish physicist, the winner of the 1951 Nobel Prize for Physics along with Sir John Douglas Cockcroft. ... Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Владимир Иванович Вернадский) (March 12, 1863, N.S. [ February 28, O.S. ] – January 6, 1945) was a Russian mineralogist and geochemist who first... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Ukhta (Russian: ), also spelled Uchta, is an important industrial city in the Komi Republic of northwestern Russia. ...


Although much of the ideology of the Soviet Union revolved around science for primarily practical and industrial applications, nuclear physics was not strong in the country. Fearing the possibility of something like Lysenkoism in physics, Soviet physicists, led by Abram Ioffe, had attempted to emphasize their commitment to strengthening the Soviet economy and industry, and were purposefully avoiding lines of research which could be accused of being too "theoretical" and "impractical", which is what nuclear physics was generally perceived to be in the 1920s and early 1930s. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Abram Fedorovich Ioffe (Russian: , October 29, 1880 [O.S. October 17] – October 14, 1960) was a prominent Soviet/Russian physicist born in the Ukraine. ...


After the discovery of nuclear fission in the late-1930s, scientists in the Soviet Union, like scientists all over the world, realized that nuclear reactions could, in theory, be used to release large amounts of binding energy from the atomic nucleus of uranium. As in the West, the news of fission created great excitement amongst Soviet scientists and many physicists switched their lines of research to those involving nuclear physics in particular, as it was considered a promising field of research. Few scientists thought it would be possible to harness the power of nuclear energy for human purposes within the span of many decades. Soviet nuclear research was not far behind Western scientists: Yakov Frenkel did the first theoretical work on fission in the Soviet Union in 1940, and Georgii Flerov and Lev Rusinov concluded that 3±1 neutrons were emitted per fission only days after similar conclusions had been reached by the team of Frederic Joliot-Curie. For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... In nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles. ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Yakov Frenkel Yakov Ilich Frenkel, Russian: (February 10, 1894, Rostov-on-Don – January 23, 1952, St. ... G. Flerov Georgii N. Flerov (also, Georgy Nikolaevich Flerov) (March 2, 1913-November 19, 1990) was a prominent Soviet nuclear physicist. ... Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie né Joliot (March 19, 1900 – August 14, 1958) was a French physicist. ...


Beginnings of the program

Joseph Stalin was first informed of American nuclear research because of a letter sent to him in April 1942 by Georgii Flerov, who pointed out that nothing was being published in the physics journals by Americans, Britons, or Germans, on nuclear fission since the year of its discovery, 1939, and that indeed many of the most prominent physicists in Allied countries seemed not to be publishing at all. This nonevent was very suspicious, and accordingly Flerov urged Stalin to start a program. However, because the Soviet Union was still involved with the war with Germany on its home front, a large scale domestic effort could not yet be undertaken. “Stalin” redirects here. ... G. Flerov Georgii N. Flerov (also, Georgy Nikolaevich Flerov) (March 2, 1913-November 19, 1990) was a prominent Soviet nuclear physicist. ...


Administration and personnel

The administrative head of the project was Stalin's former chief of security Lavrentii Beria, and its scientific head was the physicist Igor Kurchatov. The project started outside Moscow and later moved to the village of Sarov, which then disappeared from the maps for forty-five years. Lavrenty Beria Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (Russian: Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия) (29 March 1899 - 23 December 1953), Soviet politician and police chief, is remembered chiefly as the executor of Joseph... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the fundamental laws of the Universe. ... Igor The Beard Kurchatov Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov (И́горь Васи́льевич Курча́тов) (January 8, 1903 – February 7, 1960), Soviet/Russian physicist. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronounciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 878. ... Sarov (Russian: ) is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ...


Other important figures were Yuli Khariton and the future dissident and lead theoretical designer of their hydrogen bomb, Andrei Sakharov. Julii Borisovich Khariton (Ю́лий Бори́сович Харито́н, February 27, 1904 - December 18, 1996) was a Soviet physicist working in the field of atomic energy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ...


Espionage

The project had the benefit of much espionage information gathered from the Manhattan Project, which the Soviets code-named Enormoz. The intelligence obtained by Pavel Sudoplatov's agents under the the control of Lavrentiy Beria from the Atomic SpiesAlan Nunn May, Klaus Fuchs, Theodore Hall and the Rosenbergs—was not however shared freely among the project's scientists, but was rather used as a "check" on the accuracy of their work. After the United States used its atomic weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945, and published the Smyth Report outlining the basics of their wartime program, Beria had the scientists duplicate the American process as closely as possible in terms of development of resources and factories. The reason was expedience: the goal was to produce a working weapon as soon as possible, and after Hiroshima and Nagasaki they knew that the Allied design would work. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Pavel Sudoplatov 1907 - 1996 Pavel Sudoplatov (1907 - September, 1996) was a member of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union who rose to the rank of major general. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... The Rosenbergs Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953) were American Communists who were thrust into the world spotlight when they were tried, convicted, and executed for spying for the Soviet Union. ... Alan Nunn May (May 2, 1911 — January 12, 2003) was a British atomic scientist and a spy who supplied secrets of British and American atomic bomb research to the Soviets during the Manhattan project. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... Theodore Halls ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... The Rosenbergs Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953) were American Communists who captured and maintained world attention after being tried, convicted, and executed for spying for the Soviet Union. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Smyth Report was the common name given to an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Allied World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project. ...


Beria largely distrusted the scientists working under him, which was why he rarely gave them direct access to intelligence information after 1945. He was fond of having multiple teams of scientists working on the same problems, who would only find out the existence of the other team of scientists when they were brought together before Beria to explain the differences in their results with one another. Though Beria was not the chief of security at this time, his reputation for ruthlessness was always present, and the Soviet atomic bomb project received status as the highest priority of national security after 1945.


Scholar Alexei Kojevnikov has estimated, based on newly released Soviet documents, that the primary way in which the espionage may have sped up the Soviet project was that it allowed Khariton to avoid dangerous tests to determine the size of the critical mass ("tickling the dragon's tail," as they were called in the U.S., consumed a good deal of time and claimed at least two lives; see Louis Slotin). A sketch used by doctors to determine the amount of radiation to which each person in the room had been exposed during the excursion. ...


Logistical problems the Soviets faced

The single largest problem during the early Soviet project was the procurement of uranium ore, as it had no known domestic sources at the beginning of the project. The first Soviet nuclear reactor was fueled using uranium confiscated from the remains of the German atomic bomb project - eventually, however, large domestic sources were discovered. General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... The German experimental nuclear pile at Haigerloch The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ...


Important Soviet nuclear tests

Joe One, the first Soviet atomic test.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 159 KB)First Soviet Atomic test, Joe One From [1] tracing to [2] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 159 KB)First Soviet Atomic test, Joe One From [1] tracing to [2] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... External links http://gawain. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ...

First Lightning

The first Soviet atomic test was First Lightning (Первая молния) August 29, 1949, and was code-named by the Americans as Joe 1. It was a replica of the American Fat Man bomb whose design the Soviets knew from espionage. A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... External links http://gawain. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... External links http://gawain. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ...

The first (not "true") Soviet hydrogen ("Super") test, dubbed "Joe 4".

Joe 4, Soviet atomic test File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet atomic bomb project Military history of the Soviet Union Joe 4 ... Joe 4, Soviet atomic test File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet atomic bomb project Military history of the Soviet Union Joe 4 ... The first (not true) Soviet Hydrogen (Super) Test, dubbed Joe 4 Joe 4 was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a hydrogen bomb and was on August 12, 1953. ...

Joe Four

The first Soviet test of a hydrogen bomb was on August 12, 1953 and was nicknamed Joe 4 by the Americans; it was not a "true" fusion bomb (it was more like a "boosted" fission bomb than a staged thermonuclear device, and had a yield comparable to large fission weapons; around 90% of its yield was directly or indirectly from fission). The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The first (not true) Soviet Hydrogen (Super) Test, dubbed Joe 4 Joe 4 was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a hydrogen bomb and was on August 12, 1953. ... Boosted fission weapons are a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction. ...

RDS-37

The mushroom cloud from the first "true" Soviet hydrogen bomb test in 1955.

The first Soviet test of a "true" hydrogen bomb in the megaton range was on November 22, 1955. It was dubbed RDS-37 by the Soviets. It was of the multi-staged, radiation implosion thermonuclear design called Sakharov's "Third Idea" in the USSR and the Teller-Ulam design in the USA. soviet atomic bomb test First Soviet test of a thermonuclear device. ... soviet atomic bomb test First Soviet test of a thermonuclear device. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RDS-37 was a Soviet name for their first nuclear test of a true hydrogen bomb. ... The term radiation implosion describes the process behind a class of devices which use high levels of electromagnetic radiation to compress a target. ... The basics of the Teller-Ulam configuration: a fission bomb suspended above fusion fuel. ...

A color image of RDS-37.
A color image of RDS-37.


Joe 1, Joe 4, and RDS-37 were all tested at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan. Image File history File links Rsd_37_nuclear_test. ... Image File history File links Rsd_37_nuclear_test. ... RDS-37 was a Soviet name for their first nuclear test of a true hydrogen bomb. ... The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Unions nuclear weapons. ...


Tsar Bomba

Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16.

The Tsar Bomba was the largest nuclear device ever detonated, and was a fusion bomb with a yield of ~50 megatons. It was detonated on October 30, 1961, and was capable of approximately 100 megatons, but was purposely reduced shortly before the launch. Although weaponized, it was not a realistic weapon of war, but was part of saber-rattling between the Soviet Union and United States during the Cold War. The explosion was hot enough to induce third degree burns at 100 km. got from http://www. ... got from http://www. ... Sarov (Саро́в) is a town in Russia. ... A Tsar Bomba-type casing on display at Chelyabinsk-70 . ... The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Saber noise. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This page deals with the type of injury called burns; for other meanings of burn see burn (disambiguation) In medicine, a burn is a type of injury to the skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, or radiation (an example of the latter is sunburn). ...


The test was conducted at Site C on Novaya Zemlya Island in the Arctic Sea. Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... The Arctic Ocean, located entirely in the north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five oceans (after the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean), and the shallowest. ...


Chagan

Chagan nuclear test, photo not to be confused with Joe 1.

Chagan was shot in the Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy or Project 7, the Soviet equivalent of the US Operation Plowshare to investigate peaceful uses of nuclear weapons. It was an underground test (note the debris fallout in the photo), and was fired on January 15, 1965. The site was a dry bed of the Chagan River at the edge of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and was chosen such that the lip of the crater would dam the river during its high spring flow. The resultant crater had a diameter of 408 meters and was 100 meters deep. A major lake (10,000,000 m3) soon formed behind the 20-35 m high upraised lip, known as Lake Chagan or Lake Balapan. Image File history File links Chagan_nuclear_test. ... Image File history File links Chagan_nuclear_test. ... Chagan nuclear test, not to be confused with Joe 1. ... External links http://gawain. ... Chagan nuclear test, not to be confused with Joe 1. ... Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy was a Soviet program to investigate peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs). ... The 1962 Sedan plowshares shot displaced 12 million tons of earth and created a crater 320 feet (97. ... Chagan (nuclear test) in Soviet Union 1965 was used to create a dam on Semipalatinsk river Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development including the creation of canals. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Unions nuclear weapons. ... Chagan nuclear test. ...


The area is still radioactive (as of 2006). The test apparently violated the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty, and the United States complained to the Soviets, but the matter was dropped. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty...


The photo is sometimes confused with Joe 1 in the literature.


Secret cities

During the Cold War the Soviet Union created at least ten closed cities, known as Atomgrads, in which nuclear weapons-related research and development took place. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, all of the cities changed their names (most of the original code-names were simply the oblast and a number). All are still legally "closed", though some have parts of them accessible to foreign visitors with special permits (Sarov, Snezhinsk, and Zheleznogorsk). A closed city (town) is a city/town with travel and residency restrictions in the former Soviet Union, or in a CIS country. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ...

Cold War name Current name Established Primary function(s)
Arzamas-16 Sarov 1946 Weapons design and research, warhead assembly
Sverdlovsk-44 Novouralsk 1946 Uranium enrichment
Chelyabinsk-40 and later 65 Ozyorsk 1947 Plutonium production, component manufacturing
Sverdlovsk-45 Lesnoy 1947 Uranium enrichment, warhead assembly
Tomsk-7 Seversk 1949 Uranium enrichment, component manufacturing
Krasnoyarsk-26 Zheleznogorsk 1950 Plutonium production
Zlatoust-36 Tryokhgorny 1952 Warhead assembly
Penza-19 Zarechny 1955 Warhead assembly
Krasnoyarsk-45 Zelenogorsk 1956 Uranium enrichment
Chelyabinsk-70 Snezhinsk 1957 Weapons design and research

Sarov (Russian: ) is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ... Novouralsk (Russian: ) is a closed town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. ... Ozyorsk or Ozersk (Russian: Озёрск) is a city, formerly known as Chelyabinsk-40 then Chelyabinsk-65, in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. ... Lesnoy (Russian: ) is a closed town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. ... Seversk (Северск) is a town (since 1956) in Tomsk Oblast, Russia on the bank of Tom River. ... Zheleznogorsk (Russian: ; approx. ... Tryokhgorny (Russian: ; also spelled Trekhgorny, Tryokhgorniy, Trehgorny) is a town in Russia, in Chelyabinsk Oblast, founded in 1952, and earlier known under the name Zlatoust-36. ... Coat of arms of Zarechny Zarechny (Russian: ) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Pyshma River east of Yekaterinburg at . ... Zelenogorsk (Russian: ) is a closed town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... Snezhinsk (Russian: Снежинск) is a closed city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. ...

See also

Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... Sarov (Саро́в) is a town in Russia. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... // At the fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Stalin attacked the left by expelling Trotsky and his supporters from the party and then moving against the right by abandoning Lenins New Economic Policy which had been championed by Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Joseph Stalin and Kliment Voroshilov depicted saluting a military parade in Red Square above the message Long Live the Worker-Peasant Red Army— a Dependable Sentinel of the Soviet Borders! The military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A Tsar Bomba-type casing on display at Chelyabinsk-70 . ... The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Unions nuclear weapons. ... Julii Borisovich Khariton (Ю́лий Бори́сович Харито́н, February 27, 1904 - December 18, 1996) was a Soviet physicist working in the field of atomic energy. ... Pavel Sudoplatov 1907 - 1996 Pavel Sudoplatov (1907 - September, 1996) was a member of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union who rose to the rank of major general. ...

References

The two most authoritative books on the Soviet project are Holloway and Rhodes, both published in 1995:

  • David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy 1939-1956 (Yale University Press, 1995), ISBN 0-300-06664-3
  • Richard Rhodes, Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (Simon and Schuster, 1995), ISBN 0-684-80400-X

Since their writing, though, a number of important documents have been released by the Russian government under the heading Atomnyi Proekt SSSR starting in 1998, which have suggested significant changes from the other historical sources (which were bound by certain methodological problems relating to the state of declassification at the time of their writing). Many corrections have been made in a number of chapters in Kojevnikov's 2004 book:

  • Alexei Kojevnikov, Stalin's Great Science: The Times and Adventures of Soviet Physicists (Imperial College Press, 2004), ISBN 1-86094-420-5

External links

  • http://www.kiae.ru/ Kurchatov institute
  • PBS.org on Kurchatov
  • Soviet and Nuclear Weapons History
  • Russian Nuclear Weapons Museum (in Russian)
  • Images of Soviet bombs (in Russian) — RDS-1, RDS-6, Tsar Bomba, and an ICBM warhead
  • Annotated bibliography on the Russian nuclear weapons program from the Alsos Digital Library

  Results from FactBites:
 
BIGpedia - Manhattan Project - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (3294 words)
The Manhattan Project, or more formally, the Manhattan Engineering District, was an effort during World War II to develop the first nuclear weapons by the United States with assistance from the United Kingdom and Canada.
When the detonation wave from the fission bomb moved through the mixture of deuterium and tritium nuclei, they would fuse together to produce much more energy than fission could, in the process of nuclear fusion, just as elements fused in the sun produce light and heat.
The Hiroshima bomb, Little Boy, was based on uranium-235, a rare isotope of uranium that has to be physically separated from more prevalent uranium-238 isotope, which is not suitable for use in an explosive device.
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