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Encyclopedia > Soviet Decrees

Decrees (Russian: декреты) were legislative acts of the highest Soviet institutions, primarily of the Council of People's Commissars (the highest executive body) and of the Supreme Soviet or VTsIK (the highest legislative body), [1] issued between 1917 and 1924. Such acts issued after 1924 are referred to as Decisions (Russian: постановление) or Ukases in Soviet sources. Soviet redirects here. ... Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссаров, Sovet Narodnykh Komissarov, the Council of Peoples Commissars, sometimes... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The term Central Executive Committee refers to governing bodies with executive power of various parties and governments. ... Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ...

Contents

Bolshevik Initial Decrees

The Bolshevik Initial Decrees were announced as soon as the Bolsheviks declared their success in the October Revolution (October 26, 1917). The decrees conformed to the popular Bolshevik slogan "Peace, Bread, and Land", taken up by the masses during the July Days (July 1917) uprising of workers and military forces. The slogan articulated the grievances of the peasantry, armed forces and proletariat (the working-class sections of Russian society), and as revisionist historian Christopher Read suggests, "The Bolsheviks were successful in uniting the diverse revolutionary movements and directing them towards one goal." Red October redirects here. ... The July Days took place between July 4 and 7 July in 1917 in Russia when sailors and industrial workers of Petrograd rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. ...


The Decree on Peace outlined measures for Russia's withdrawal from the First World War without "payment of indemnities or annexations". This decree was aimed at securing the support of many soldiers on the disintegrating Russian front.


The Decree on Land outlined measures by which the peasants were to divide up rural land among themselves, and advocated the forceful dissolution of many wealthy estates by peasant forces. These measures no doubt contributed to an increase in Bolshevik support amongst the peasantry, but were counterproductive in that the Russian war front disintegrated as soldiers (formerly peasants) returned to secure land for themselves.


The Workers' Decrees outlined measures for minimum wage, workers' hours, and the running of factories by elected workers' committees, and secured Bolshevik support amongst the working classes.


The Bolsheviks also declared approximately 100 other decrees outlining the formal setup of Bolshevik government in relation to Soviet administration.


The significance of the initial decrees has been the subject of much historical debate. Some Liberal historians see the decrees as policy-making designed to secure the support of the population at a time of instability within the regime, only so they could be betrayed by the Bolsheviks pointing the way to totalitarianism (Richard Pipes). More recently, revisionist historians have seen the initial decrees of a fusion of support of the masses and that of the Bolsheviks who intended to undertake measures to improve their quality of life. Historian Richard Acton states, "The cleavage of the goals of the masses and that of the Bolsheviks was fundamental."


List of Soviet Decrees

1917

New Style Date Decree Name Issued by E-text
November 8 Decree on Peace 2nd Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies [1]
Decree on Land 2nd Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies [2]
Decree on Establishment of the Workers' and Peasants' Government 2nd Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies [3]
November 9 Decree on Press Sovnarkom [4]
November 11 Decree on an Eight-Hour Working Day Sovnarkom
November 22 Decree on Establishment of the State Commission on Enlightenment Sovnarkom [5]
November 24 Decree Abolishing Classes and Civil Ranks VTsIK [6]
December 5 Decree on Courts VTsIK [7]
December 15 Decree on the Formation of the Supreme Economic Council of National Economy VTsIK, Sovnarkom [8]
December 27 Decree on the Nationalization of the Banks VTsIK [9]
December 29 Decree on the Election of Officers and on the Organization of Authority in the Army VTsIK, Sovnarkom
Decree on the Equalization of Rights of All Serving in the Army VTsIK, Sovnarkom
December 31 Decree on the State Independence of Finland Sovnarkom [10]

Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... The Decree On Peace, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies on the 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. ... The Decree On Land, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies on 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The term Central Executive Committee refers to governing bodies with executive power of various parties and governments. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

1918

New Style Date Decree Name Issued by E-text
January 4 Decree on the Clock Change Sovnarkom [11]
January 19 Decree on the Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly VTsIK [12]
January 28 Decree on Establishment of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army Sovnarkom [13]
February 2 Decree on Freedom of Conscience, Church and Religious Societies Sovnarkom [14]
February 3 Decree on the Annullation of State Debts VTsIK [15]
February 8 Decree on Introduction of the Western European Calendar Sovnarkom [16]
February 11 Decree on Establishment of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Fleet Sovnarkom [17]
February 15 Decree on Courts N2 VTsIK [18]
February 21 Decree "The Socialist Fatherland Is in Danger" Sovnarkom [19]
April 12 Decree on the Dismantling of Monuments Erected in Honor of the Tsars and Their Servants and on the Formulation of Projects of Monuments to the Russian Socialist Revolution Sovnarkom [20]
April 14 Decree on the Flag of the Russian Republic VTsIK [21]
April 22 Decree on the Nationalization of External Trade Sovnarkom
Decree on Establishing Compulsory Military Training for Workers and Peasants of Age 18 to 40 VTsIK
May 2 Decree on the Nationalization of the Sugar Industry Sovnarkom
May 13 Decree Giving the Food Commissariat Extraordinary Powers to Combat

Village Bourgeoisie Who Were Concealing and Speculating on Grain Reserves Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Summer time or summertime is often used as a way of referring to Summer (the season of the year) It may also refer to: Summertime (1937 film), a 1937 comedy film by Ugo Betti. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye Sobranie) was a democratically elected constitutional body convened in Russia after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II. It met for 13 hours, 4 p. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Red October redirects here. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105 in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 This flag was adopted by the Russian SFSR in 1954. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ...

VTsIK, Sovnarkom
May 13 Decree on Forests Sovnarkom
May 29 Decree on the Compulsory Recruitment into the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army VTsIK
June 11 Decree on the Organisation of the Village Poor and Supply to Them of Grain, Prime Necessities and Agricultural Implements VTsIK
June 28 Decree on the Nationalization of Large-Scale Industry and Railway Transportation Enterprises Sovnarkom
September 4 Decree on the Nationalization of Private Railroads Sovnarkom
September 5 Decree on Red Terror Sovnarkom
September 14 Decree on the Introduction of the International Decimal Metric System Sovnarkom
October 5 Decree on Registration and Protection of Monuments of Culture and Ancient Art, Owned by Private Persons, Societies and Institutions Sovnarkom
October 19 Decree on the Establishment of the Labour Commune of Volga Germans Sovnarkom
October 31 Decree on the Social Security of Working People Sovnarkom [22]

May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... The Red Terror was a campaign of mass arrests and deportations targeted against counterrevolutionaries in Russia during the Russian Civil War. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Volga German ASSR location map Volga German ASSR map 1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjet-Republik der Wolga-Deutschen, Russian: Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья) was an autonomous republic established in the Soviet Union, with its capital at the Volga port of Engels... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Social security primarily refers to a field of social welfare concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ...

1919

New Style Date Decree Name Issued by E-text
January 4 Decree on Release from Military Service Due to Religious Beliefs Sovnarkom
January 11 Decree on Surplus Appropriation System Sovnarkom
February 8 Decree on the Introduction of Time Measurement According to International Time Zone System Sovnarkom
April 22 Decree on the Order of Preservation and Annihilation of Archive Acts Sovnarkom [23]
July 29 Decree on Abolishing Private Property Rights on Archives of Russian Writers, Composers, Painters and Scientists, Preserved in Libraries and Museums Sovnarkom [24]
December 26 Decree on Eradication of Illiteracy among the Population of the Russian SFSR Sovnarkom

Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prodrazvyorstka (prodovolstvennaya razvyorstka) (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка in Russian, or food apportionment) was... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... Likbez (Russian: ликбе́з = ликвида́ция безгра́мотности) was a campaign of eradication of illiteracy in Soviet Russia in 1920s and 1930s. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the...

1920

New Style Date Decree Name Issued by E-text
January 29 Decree on the Universal Labour Conscription Sovnarkom
June 8 Decree on Labour Rewarding with Premiums Sovnarkom [25]
June 17 Decree on General Wage Regulations Sovnarkom [26]

Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ...

1921

New Style Date Decree Name Issued by E-text
March 21 Decree on the Replacement of Surplus Appropriation System by the Food Tax VTsIK [27]
March 28 Decree on the Free Exchange, Purchase and Selling of Agricultural Goods in Guberniyas that Ended Surplus Appropriation System Sovnarkom
April 7 Decree on Consumers' Cooperation Sovnarkom
July 7 Decree on Producers' Cooperation VTsIK, Sovnarkom

Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... Prodrazvyorstka (prodovolstvennaya razvyorstka) (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка in Russian, or food apportionment) was... Prodnalog (Prodovolstvenniy nalog) (Продналог, продовольственный налог in Russian, or food tax) was a fixed food tax in Soviet Russia, introduced by the... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Prodrazvyorstka (prodovolstvennaya razvyorstka) (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка in Russian, or food apportionment) was... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... A consumers cooperative is a business owned by its customers for their mutual gain. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ...

1922

New Style Date Decree Name Issued by E-text
March 17 Decree on the Universal Food Tax for Agricultural Goods VTsIK, Sovnarkom
November 15 Decree on the Unification of the Russian SFSR with the Far Eastern Republic VTsIK [28]
December 19 Decree on Giving Exit Visas and Passports for Going Abroad Sovnarkom [29]

Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Prodnalog (Prodovolstvenniy nalog) (Продналог, продовольственный налог in Russian, or food tax) was a fixed food tax in Soviet Russia, introduced by the... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image of an entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... For other Types of Travel Document, see Travel Document. ...

1924

New Style Date Decree Name Issued by E-text
December 19 Decree on Transforming Labour Commune of Volga Germans into ASSR VTsIK

Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Volga German ASSR location map Volga German ASSR map 1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjet-Republik der Wolga-Deutschen, Russian: Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья) was an autonomous republic established in the Soviet Union, with its capital at the Volga port of Engels...

References

  1. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on "Декрет", available online here
  • Acton, Edward (1990). Rethinking the Russian Revolution. London: E. Arnold. ISBN 978-0-7131-6609-5. 
  • Fiehn, Terry; and Chris Corin (2002). Communist Russia Under Lenin and Stalin. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-7488-7. 
  • Fitzpatrick, Sheila (1994). The Russian Revolution, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-289257-7. 
  • Pipes, Richard (1990). The Russian Revolution. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-272086-1. 
  • Read, Christopher (1996). From Tsar to Soviets: The Russian People and Their Revolution, 1917-21. London: UCL Press. ISBN 978-1-85728-358-7. 

 
 

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