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Encyclopedia > Soviet Communist Party
This article is part of the Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to implement that system. As a theoretical social and economic system, communism would be a type of egalitarian society with no... Communism series.
cleaned up version of image:Hammer_sickle.png File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 22:12, 13 Apr 2005 . . Zscout370...

Schools of communism


Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. Marx drew on Georg Hegels philosophy, the political economy of Adam Smith, Ricardian economics, and 19th century French socialism to develop... Marxism
Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism (a form of Communism); it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). Leninism was developed mainly by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir... Leninism
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. The term is sometimes used more loosely to denote various political currents claiming a tradition of Marxist opposition to both Stalinism and capitalism. An adherent of Trotskyism is called a Trotskyist; the term Trotskyite is pejorative. Trotsky advocated proletarian... Trotskyism
Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). Leninism was developed mainly by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, and it was... Marxism-Leninism
Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. Leon Trotsky described the system as totalitarian, and this description has become widely used by critics of Stalinism. Stalinism as political theory The term Stalinism is sometimes used to... Stalinism
Franklinism
Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–... Maoism
Juche (pronounced Joo-cheh), also Kimilsungism, is the official government-sponsored ideology of North Korea. The name is Korean for self-reliance; in this sense autarchy. Juche has developed from Stalinism and the teachings of Kim Il-sung; it is often confused with Stalinism proper, despite important differences. Juche has... Juche
Anarcho-Communism, or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. However, the terms Anarcho-Communism and Libertarian Communism should not be considered synonyms for libertarian socialism. Anarcho-Communism is a particular branch of libertarian socialism. Anarcho-Communism was first formulated in the Italian section of the First... Anarcho-Communism
Titoism is a term for policies and practices based on the principle that in each country, the means of attaining ultimate communist goals must be dictated by the conditions of that particular country, rather than by a pattern set in another country. In other words, the communist goal should be... Titoism
Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. Left Communism is also... Left communism
Council communism was a radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. Its primary organisation was the Communist Workers Party of Germany (KAPD). Council communism continues today as a theoretical and activist position within Marxism, and also within Libertarian Socialism (Anarchism). The central argument of Council... Council communism
Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various European communist parties to widen their appeal by embracing middle-class themes, rejecting unquestioning support of the Soviet Union and express more clearly their fidelity to the democratic institutions. It was precisely those Communist Parties most strongly entrenched in their respective... Eurocommunism


Classic Communist parties


The Communist Party of Cuba (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Cuba, PCC) is the ruling party of Cuba. It operates on a Marxist-Leninist model. History The original Communist Party of Cuba was formed in the 1920s and was a member of the Comintern. It was later renamed the Peoples... Cuba
Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China ( Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. The party was founded in 1921, and fought the Kuomintang during the Chinese Civil... China
Stamp featuring Ho Chi Minh commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Communist Party The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam) is the ruling party in Vietnam. It is a Marxist-Leninist Communist Party supported by (and is a part... Vietnam
The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was the ruling party of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 until the 1991. The dominant figure in its history was Josip Broz Tito. Origins Before World War I the Slavic people in the Balkans... Yugoslavia
USSR
The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. While the CPUSA played a significant role in organizing industrial unions and defending the rights of African-Americans in the 1930s and 1940s, it was effectively eliminated as a... USA
The Communist Party of Germany (in German, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was formed in December of 1918 from the Spartacist League, which originated as a small factional grouping within the Social Democratic Party (SPD) opposed to the First World War on the grounds that it was an imperialist war... Germany
KKE sticker The Communist Party of Greece, better known by its acronym KKE (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, Kommunistiko Komma Elladas), is the major communist party in Greece. It... Greece
The Fourth Estate The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. Amedeo... Italy
Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia), was founded in 1920 in Semarang, as the successor of the Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging (ISDV, Indian Social Democratic Association). PKI was initially called Perserikatan Komunis di Hindia (Communist Association of the Indies). PKI was the first Asian communist party and became a... Indonesia


Officially Socialist States


The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. Since its founding in 1949, it has been led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.3... People's Republic of China
The Republic of Cuba is an archipelago in the northern Caribbean that lies at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. To the north are found the United States and the Bahamas, to the west Mexico, to the south the Cayman Islands and... Cuba
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia. It borders China, Laos, Cambodia, and the Gulf of Tonkin. National motto: Ðộc lập, tự do, hạnh phúc (Vietnamese: Independence, Liberty, Happiness) Official language Vietnamese Capital Hanoi President Tran Duc Luong Prime... Vietnam
North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... North Korea
The Lao Peoples Democratic Republic is a landlocked country in southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (commonly known in the west as Burma) and the Peoples Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. The term Lao is... Laos


Proclaimed Socialist Revolutions


Note: This article needs additional contributors badly. If you can research earlier years of the conflict or assist in archiving current events (try Google News for sources), please do so! The Nepal Civil War, a conflict between Maoist/communist insurgents and the government of Nepal, was launched by the Communist... Nepal Civil War
Shining Paths Flag Sendero Luminoso or Shining Path is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru; it calls itself the Communist Party of Peru (Partido Comunista del Perú). Its stated goal is to replace Peruvian bourgeois institutions with a communist peasant revolutionary regime. After the capture of its leader Abimael... Shining Path


Other articles


What is Communism As a theoretical social and economic system, communism would be a type of egalitarian society with no state, no privately owned means of production and no social class. In communism, all property is owned by the community as a whole, and all people have equal social and... History of Communism
A Communist party is a party which promotes Communism. Many such parties formally use the term Communist in their official name. Communist Parties first began to be established in various countries across the world after the creation of the Communist International by the Russian Bolsheviks. Throughout the 20th century, Communist... Communist Party
There are, at present, a number of communist parties active in various countries across the world, and a number who used to be active. The formation of communist parties in various countries was first initiated by the formation of the communist Third International by the Russian Bolsheviks. Undoubtedly the most... Full list of well-known communist parties
Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from a Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized... Bolsheviks
Soviet Communist Party
Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China ( Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. The party was founded in 1921, and fought the Kuomintang during the Chinese Civil... Chinese Communist Party
The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. The slogan at the top says proletarians of all countries, unite! The Comintern (from Communist International), also known as the Third International, was an international Communist organization founded in... Comintern
The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. It was led by Vladimir Lenin and marked the first officially communist revolution of the twentieth century, based upon the ideas... October Revolution
The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. The Cominform was a Soviet dominated organisation of Communist parties founded in September, 1947 at a conference of Communist party leaders in Szklarska Poreba... Cominform
Map of Warsaw Pact member countries. The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty, officially named the Treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance was a military alliance of the Eastern European Soviet Bloc countries, who intended to organize against the perceived threat from the NATO alliance (which had been established... Warsaw Pact
During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. The Eastern Bloc is also often equated with the Warsaw Pact. Another organization encompassing... Communist bloc
A Soviet propaganda poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organisation of communist states and a kind of Eastern European equivalent to the European Economic Community. The military counterpart to the Comecon... Comecon
The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. Socialism is a concept, an ideology and a collection of party-based political movements that have evolved and branched over time. Initially, it was based on the organized working class, with the purpose of building a classless... Socialism
A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce and how they are to be priced and allocated, and may include state ownership of the means of production. Since most known planned economies... Planned economy
-1... Anti-communism

 (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Communism&action=edit)

The Communist Party of the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... Soviet Union ( Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from a Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized... Bolshevik A political faction is a grouping of individuals within a political organisation, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with some kind of political purpose (referred to in this article as the “broader organisation”). It may also be referred to as a power bloc... faction of the The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая... Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January events January 8 - West Germany has 8 million refugees inside its borders. January 24 - Sudden heavy snowfall in Algeria. January 24 - Vincent Massey sworn in as first Canada-born Governor-General of Canada. February... 1952 to 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the party's name since 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). In 1925 the party became the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) (Всесоюзная коммунистическая партия (большевиков), ВКП(б)); both VKP(b) and AUCP(b) abbreviations are in use. In 1934 it became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks). Finally in 1952 it became simply the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or CPSU. This article follows the course of the party from 1918 until its dissolution in 1991. For information on the pre-1918 party see Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from a Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized... Bolshevik.


Once the Third International or The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. The slogan at the top says proletarians of all countries, unite! The Comintern (from Communist International), also known as the Third International, was an international Communist organization founded in... Comintern was formed in 1919, the Democratic centralism is a political concept referring to the governance of political parties and groups. The democratic aspect of this methodology describes the freedom of members of the political party to discuss and debate matters of policy and direction, but once the decision of the party is made by majority... democratic centralist Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism (a form of Communism); it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). Leninism was developed mainly by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir... Marxist-Leninist structure of the CPSU was copied by the other Comintern members resulting in A Communist party is a party which promotes Communism. Many such parties formally use the term Communist in their official name. Communist Parties first began to be established in various countries across the world after the creation of the Communist International by the Russian Bolsheviks. Throughout the 20th century, Communist... Communist parties being formed around the world.


For most of the history of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union, the Communist Party was virtually indistinguishable from the government and was the only political party tolerated by the government and its security forces. Consequently, the history of the USSR and the CPSU are deeply intertwined and overlapping. Therefore, it is useful for those interested in the history of the CPSU to also consult the The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. The first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined... History of Russia series of articles.

Contents

Structure

VKP(b)

In 1919 a The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The body was made up of the top members of the Central Committee... Politburo was created initially with five members, to run the party on a day to day basis. Previously, the highest body of the party had been the The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Its full name was Центра́льный Комите́т Ком... Central Committee. The first full members of the Politburo were Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was... Lenin, 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Л... Trotsky, Categories: People stubs | Old Bolsheviks | Soviet politicians | Exonerated Soviet death sentences | Russian Jews ... Kamenev, Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Stalin and Nikolai Nikolaevich Krestinsky (October 13, 1883 - March 15, 1938) was an original Bolshevik revolutionary, then one of five members of the Politburo, before finally being executed in the Great Purges. His trial on March 12, 1938 is interesting and an example of a strange denial to an admission of guilt... Krestinsky with Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin ( Russian: Николай Иванович Бухарин), ( October 9 ( September 27 Old Style) 1888 – March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. Bukharin was... Bukharin, Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евсе́евич Зино́вьев, real name Ovsel Gershon Aronov Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also... Zinoviev and Categories: Stub | 1875 births | 1946 deaths | Old Bolsheviks | Soviet politicians | Leaders of the Soviet Union ... Kalinin as candidate members (ie alternates). Through the 1920s A Party Congress is a general conference of a political party. The Congress is attended by delegates who represent the party membership. In most parties the Party Congress is the highest decision making body of the organisation and elects the partys leadership bodies such as, the National Executive Committee... Party Congresses were held almost every year.


CPSU

The governing body of the CPSU was the The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. During the history, the name was changed according to the then current name of the party. The frequency of party congresses also varied with the meetings being annual... Party Congress which initially met annually but whose meetings became less frequent, particularly under Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Stalin. Party Congresses would elect a The 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China meets in 2002 The Central Committee is a leading body of an organization, most often a political party, especially Communist parties. However other organizations have Central Committees such as the Mennonite church (see Mennonite Central Committee) and Alcoholics Anonymous. There... Central Committee which, in turn, would elect a The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The body was made up of the top members of the Central Committee... Politburo. Under Stalin the most powerful position in the party became the The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (sometimes called First Secretary) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Lenins death in 1924. The position was originally an administrative one when it was created in 1922 with Stalin being the first to... General Secretary who was elected by the Politburo. In 1952 the title of General Secretary became First Secretary and the Politburo became the Presidium before reverting to their former names under Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev  listen? ( Russian: Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев) ( December 19, 1906 – November 10, 1982) was effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership... Brezhnev in 1966.


In theory, supreme power in the party was invested in the Party Congress, however, in practice the power structure became reversed and, particularly after the death of Lenin, supreme power became the domain of the General Secretary.


At lower levels, the organizational hierarchy was managed by Party Committees, or partkoms (партком). A partkom was headed by the elected partkom secretary (секретарь парткома). At enterprises, institutions, A kolkhoz (Russian: колхо́з) was a form of collective farming in the Soviet Union that existed along with state farms or sovkhozes. The word is a contraction of коллекти́вное хоз... kolkhozes, etc., they were called as such, i.e., "partkoms". At higher levels the Committees were abbreviated accordingly: raikoms (райком) at See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. A raion, or rayon (район in Russian and Ukrainian), is a subnational entity of Belarus, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, or the former Soviet Union. A raion is an entity two steps below the national level. It... raion level, obkoms (обком) at An oblast (Russian, Ukrainian: о́бласть) is a name for the subnational entity of Bulgaria, Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union. In the Soviet Union and the mentioned post-Soviet republics, oblasts are one step below the national level and further subdivided... oblast levels (known earlier as gubkoms (губком) for Guberniya (also gubernia, guberniia, and gubernya) (Russian: губе́рния) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as province or Governorate General. A guberniya was ruled by a governor (Russian: губерна́то... guberniyas), gorkom (горком) it city level, etc.


The bottom level of the Party was the primary party organization (первичная партийная организация) or party cell (партийная ячейка). It was created within any organizational entity of any kind where there were at least three communists. The management of a cell was called party bureau (партийное бюро, партбюро). A partbureau was headed by the elected bureau secretary (секретарь партбюро).


At smaller party cells, secretaries were regular employees of the corresponding plant/hospital/school/etc. Sufficiently large party organizations were usually headed by an exempt secretary (освобожденный секретарь), who drew his salary from the Party money.


Membership

Membership in the party ultimately became a privilege with Communist Party members becoming an elite, or The Russian term nomenklatura (номенклату́ра), derived from the Latin nomenclatura meaning a list of names, was originally the list of higher responsibility positions or jobs whose occupants needed to be approved by the Communist Party of the Soviet... nomenklatura, in Soviet society. Members of the nomenklatura would enjoy special privileges such as shopping at well-stocked stores, have preference in obtaining housing and access to Dacha (Russian: да́ча) is a name for summer home or vacation house in Russia and CIS countries where people spend their summer holidays and grow fruit and vegetables for their own use. A dacha often has a separate banya (Russian: ба́ня, meaning... dachas and holiday resorts, being allowed to travel abroad, send their children to the best universities and obtain prestigious jobs for them. It became virtually impossible to join the Soviet ruling and managing elite without being a member of the Communist Party.


Membership had its risks, however, especially in the 1930s when the party was subjected to purges under Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Stalin. Membership in the party was not open. To become a party member one had to be approved by various committees and one's past was closely scrutinised. As generations grew up never having known anything but the USSR, party membership became something one generally achieved after passing a series of stages. Children would join the Czechoslovak pioneers A pioneer movement is an organization for children operated by a communist party. Typically children enter into the organization in elementary school and continue until adolescence. The adolescents then typically joined the Komsomol or a similar organization. In most communist countries, membership of the pioneer movement is, while... Young Pioneers and then, at the age of 14, graduate to the Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist... Komsomol (Young Communist League) and ultimately, as an adult, if one had shown the proper adherence to Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. In a Western context, it usually refers to the control that party leaders have over its legislative members. Party discipline tends to be extremely strong in Westminster systems such... party discipline or had the right connections one would become a member of the Communist Party itself.


When the Bolsheviks became the All-Russian Communist Party it had a membership of approximately 200,000. In the late 1920s under Stalin, the party engaged in a heavy recruitment campaign (the "Lenin Levy") of new members from both the working class and rural areas. This was both an attempt to "proletarianize" the party and an attempt by Stalin to strengthen his base by outnumbering the An Old Bolshevik (старый большевик) was a member of the Bolsheviks before the Russian Revolution. Josef Stalin removed nearly all Old Bolsheviks from power during the Great Purges of the 1930s. Most were executed for treason after... Old Bolsheviks and reducing their influence in the party.


By 1933, the party had approximately 3.5 million members and candidate members but as a result of the The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The term repression was officially used to denote the prosecution of people recognized as counter-revolutionaries and enemies of... Great Purge party membership fell to 1.9 million by 1939. In 1986, the CPSU had over 19 million members or approximately 10% of the USSR's adult population. Over 44% of party members were classified as industrial workers, 12% were collective farmers. The CPSU had party organizations in fourteen of the USSR's 15 republics. In the Russian federation itself there was no separate Communist Party as affairs were run directly by the CPSU.


History

Main article: History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was to a significant degree determined by a person who was the head of the party in particular periods of time. Civil War Initially, following the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks dealt leniently with enemies of the revolution, in one case releasing... History of the CPSU


With some exceptions, the course of the CPSU was largely determined by its General Secretary. The history of the CPSU since the death of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was... Lenin can thus be divided into the eras of Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... Khrushchev, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev  listen? ( Russian: Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев) ( December 19, 1906 – November 10, 1982) was effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership... Brezhnev and Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. His attempts at reform led to the end of the Cold War, but also inadvertently caused the end of the political... Gorbachev.


End of Communist rule

The growing likelihood of the dissolution of the USSR itself led conservative elements in the CPSU to launch the The Soviet Coup of 1991 or the August Coup crushed the hopes of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev that he could at least hold the union together in a decentralized form. However, in the eyes of the remaining Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) conservatives, he had gone too far... August Coup in 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991 which temporarily removed Gorbachev from power. On August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 134 days remaining. Events 1561 - Mary Stuart returns to Scotland. 1692 - Salem Witch Trials: In Salem, Massachusetts five women and a clergyman are executed after being convicted of witchcraft. 1782 - Battle... August 19, 1991, a day before a Union Treaty was to be signed devolving power to the republics, a group calling itself the "State Emergency Committee" seized power in Moscow declaring that Gorbachev was ill and therefore relieved of his position as president. Soviet vice-president Gennadiy Yanayev (born 1937) was Vice-President of the Soviet Union and leader of the August Coup of 1991. Not a prominent member of the party, but one with a reputation for hard work and loyalty, he was Mikhail Gorbachevs choice in 1990 to be vice-president of the... Gennadiy Yanayev was named acting president. The committee's eight members included For other meanings, see KGB (disambiguation). The Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti  listen? (or KGB) ( Russian: Комите́т Госуда́рственной Безопа́снос... KGB chairman Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov (Крючков, Владимир Александрович in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. A hard-line Soviet politician; Communist Party member from 1944. Joined... Vladimir Kryuchkov, Internal Affairs Minister Boris Karlovich Pugo (Russian: Бори́с Ка́рлович Пу́го) (February 19, 1937 _ August 22, 1991, in Moscow, also spelled Boriss Pugo) was a Latvian (Russian_born) Communist political figure. Pugo was born in Kalinin, USSR... Boris Pugo, Defense Minister Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). In 1979-1980, Yazov was a commander of the Central Army Group. In... Dmitriy Yazov, and Prime Minister Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. He was one of the leaders of the August Coup that attempted to depose Mikhail Gorbachev in 1991. Pavlov had been a government economist and head of the... Valentin Pavlov. The coup dissolved due to large public demonstrations and the efforts of Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin  listen? (Борис Николаевич Ельцин, b. February 1, 1931, Sverdlovsk [now Yekaterinburg], Russia, USSR), became the first President of Russia in 1991, and the first democratically elected leader in... Boris Yeltsin who became the real power in Russia as a result. Gorbachev returned to Moscow as president but resigned as General Secretary and vowed to purge the party of conservatives. Yeltsin had the CPSU formally banned within Russia. The For other meanings, see KGB (disambiguation). The Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti  listen? (or KGB) ( Russian: Комите́т Госуда́рственной Безопа́снос... KGB was disbanded as were other CPSU-related agencies and organisations. Yeltsin's action was later declared unconstitutional but by this time the USSR had ceased to exist.


After the The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. Changing relations with the United States might also have been an impetus for reform. While it was Jimmy Carter who had officially ended the policy of Détente following Soviet intervention... collapse of the Soviet Union, Russian adherents to the CPSU tradition, particularly as it existed before Gorbachev, reorganised themselves as the Communist Party supporters attend a May Day rally in Moscow The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Росси́йск... Communist Party of the Russian Federation.


Related articles

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Became synonymous with leader of the party under Stalin. Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee Leading body within the Politburo. Headed by the General Secretary or First Secretary. Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee The political bureau of the Central... Organization of the Communist Party of the USSR, A Communist party is a party which promotes Communism. Many such parties formally use the term Communist in their official name. Communist Parties first began to be established in various countries across the world after the creation of the Communist International by the Russian Bolsheviks. Throughout the 20th century, Communist... Communist Party, The following is a list of self identified socialists. Individuals qualify for this list if known by reason of their identification as socialists in whole or major part. Therefore individuals who might be socialists but who are not known as a result of that are not listed unless their socialism... List of socialists


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