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Encyclopedia > Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta
Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
Flag of Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Motto
"Tuitio Fidei et Obsequium Pauperum"  (Latin)
"Defence of the faith and assistance to the poor"
Anthem
"Ave Crux Alba"  (Latin)
"Hail, thou White Cross"

Capital Palazzo Malta, Rome
Official languages Italian
Government
 -  Grand Master Fra' Andrew Bertie
Currency Scudo

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), Order of Malta or Knights of Malta for short) is a Catholic order based in Rome, Italy. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a sovereign subject of international law.[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Sovereign_Military_Order_of_Malta. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Palazzo Malta, which is sometimes referred to as Palazzo di Malta or Palazzo dellOrdine di Malta, is the more important of the two headquarters of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head (in some national orders below the Sovereign Head of state) of various orders of knighthood, including military orders, various religious orders, and some sectarian orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order. ... Andrew Willoughby Ninian Bertie (born 15 May 1929) is the current (and first British) Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. ... The scudo was a unit of currency in Malta under the rule of the Order of Malta. ... A religious order is an organization of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with religious devotion. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


It takes its origins from the Knights Hospitaller, an organization founded in Jerusalem in 1080 as an Amalfitan hospital to provide care for poor and sick pilgrims to the Holy Land. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, it became a Catholic military order under its own charter. Following the loss of Christian territory in the Holy Land, the Order operated from Rhodes, over which it was sovereign, and later from Malta - where it administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily. Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... For the record label, see Hospital Records. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Although this state came to an end with the ejection of the Order from Malta by Napoleon, the Order as such survived. It retains its claims of sovereignty under international law and has been granted permanent observer status at the United Nations, although its claims of sovereignty are disputed by some scholars.[2] SMOM is considered to be the main successor to the medieval Knights Hospitaller, and today operates as a largely religious, charitable and hospitaller organization. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... In addition to the current 191 member states, the United Nations welcomes several other international agencies, entities, and one non-member state (for several years prior to their admission after a referendum in 2002, Switzerland was also an observer state). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

Contents

Name and insignia

The full official name is Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (in English) or Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta (in Italian). Conventionally, they are also known as the Order of Malta. The Order has a large number of local priories and associations around the world but there also exist a number of organizations with similar-sounding names that are unrelated, including numerous fraudulent (self-styled) orders seeking to capitalize on the name. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In ecclesiastical heraldry, the Order of Malta is one of only two Orders whose insignia may be displayed in a clerical coat of arms. (Laypersons have no such restriction.) The shield is surrounded with a silver rosary for professed knights, or for others the ribbon of their rank. Members may also display the Maltese Cross behind their shield instead of the ribbon (Noonan 1996). Cardinals place their coat of arms in their titular church in Rome: arms of Cardinal Darío Castrillón Hoyos at Ecclesiastical heraldry is the tradition of heraldry developed by Christian clergy. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... Maltese cross The insignia of a Serving Brother of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem The Maltese Cross is featured on the badge of the Bermuda Regiment, heir to the BVRC. Typical St. ...


International status of the Order

Blason of the Knights, from the façade of the church of San Giovannino dei Cavalieri, Florence.
Blason of the Knights, from the façade of the church of San Giovannino dei Cavalieri, Florence.

With its unique history and unusual present circumstances the exact status of the Order has been the subject of debate: it claims to be a traditional example of a sovereign entity other than a state. Its two headquarters in Rome, namely the Palazzo Malta in Via dei Condotti 68 (where the Grand Master resides and Government Bodies meet), and the Villa Malta on the Aventine (which hosts the Grand Priory of Rome, the Embassy of the Order to Holy See and the Embassy of the Order to Italy), are granted extraterritoriality. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1487 KB) Summary San Giovannino dei Cavalieri church in Florence, Italy Blason of Maltas chevaliers on the façade Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1487 KB) Summary San Giovannino dei Cavalieri church in Florence, Italy Blason of Maltas chevaliers on the façade Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Palazzo Malta, which is sometimes referred to as Palazzo di Malta or Palazzo dellOrdine di Malta, is the more important of the two headquarters of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. ... ... The Aventine Hill is one of the seven hills that ancient Rome was built on. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ...


However, unlike the Holy See, which is sovereign over the Vatican City, SMOM has had no sovereign territory (other than a few properties in Italy) since the loss of the island of Malta in 1798. The United Nations does not classify it as a "non-member state" but as one of the "entities and intergovernmental organizations having received a standing invitation to participate as observers". For instance, while the International Telecommunication Union has granted radio identification prefixes to such quasi-sovereign jurisdictions as the United Nations and the Palestinian Authority, SMOM has never received one. For awards purposes, amateur radio operators consider SMOM to be a separate "country", but stations transmitting from there use an entirely unofficial callsign starting with the prefix "1A0".[3] Likewise, for internet identification the SMOM has not sought, nor been granted, a top level domain (such as .com or.uk), while Vatican City uses its own domain (.va). The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... In addition to the current 191 member states, the United Nations welcomes several other international agencies, entities, and one non-member state (for several years prior to their admission after a referendum in 2002, Switzerland was also an observer state). ... An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... In broadcasting and radio communication, a callsign or call sign (also call letters) is a unique designation for a transmitting station. ...


Although most legal scholars accept a claim to sovereign status, a few leading experts in international law, notably Dr. Ian Brownlie, Dr. Helmut Steinberger, and Dr. Wilhelm Wengler, do not. Even taking into account its ambassadorial status among many nations, such a claim is sometimes rejected. Specifically Professor Dr Wilhelm Wengler, a German Professor of International law, addresses this point in his book "Völkerrecht", and rejects the notion that recognition of the Order by some states can make it a subject of international law. Conversely, Professor Rebecca Wallace, writing more recently in her book "International Law", explains that a sovereign entity does not have to be a country, and that SMOM is an example of this. The Holy See in 1953 proclaimed "in the Lord's name" that the Order of Malta was only a "functional sovereignty" - due to the fact that it did not have all that pertained to true sovereignty, such as territory. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ian Brownlie, CBE, QC, FBA, is a British jurist, specialising in international law. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

Foreign relations with the SMOM      diplomatic relations      other relations

SMOM has formal diplomatic relations with 97 states (many of which are non-Catholic), and has official relations with another 5 countries, non-state subjects of international law like the European Community and International Committee of the Red Cross, and a number of international organizations.[4] Its international nature is useful in enabling it to pursue its humanitarian activities without being seen as an operative of any particular nation. Its claimed sovereignty is also expressed in the issuance of passports, licence plates,[5] stamps,[6] and coins.[7] The latter are appreciated more for their subject matter rather than for use as postage or currency. Starting in 2005, SMOM issues stamps with the Euro as the unit of postage, while Scudo (pl. Scudi) remains the SMOM's official currency. The coincidence of Rome being the capital of the Italian Republic, the Holy See and the Order of Malta leads to a high density of diplomatic instances in the city. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) Summary based on world map from Wikipedia Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) Summary based on world map from Wikipedia Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... The scudo was a unit of currency in Malta under the rule of the Order of Malta. ...


Government of the Order

The proceedings of the Order are governed by its Constitutional Charter and the Order's Code. It is divided internationally into various territorial Grand Priories, Priories, and Sub-Priories. There are also national associations which operate in parallel with the priories. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A priory is a monastery governed by a prior or prioress. ...


The supreme head of the Order is the Grand Master, who is elected for life by the Council Complete of State. The present Grand Master is British, Fra' Andrew Bertie. Voters in the Council include the members of the Sovereign Council, other office-holders and representatives of the members of the Order. The Grand Master is aided by the Sovereign Council, which is elected by the Chapter General, the legislative body of the Order. The Chapter General meets every five years; at each meeting, all seats of the Sovereign Council are up for election. The Sovereign Council includes six members and four High Officers: the Grand Commander, the Grand Chancellor, the Grand Hospitaller and the Receiver of the Common Treasure. The Grand Commander is the chief religious officer of the Order and serves as "Interim Lieutenant" during a vacancy in the office of Grand Master. The Grand Chancellor is responsible for the administration of the Order. The Grand Hospitaller coordinates the Order's humanitarian and charitable activities. Finally, the Receiver of the Common Treasure is the Order's financial officer. Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head (in some national orders below the Sovereign Head of state) of various orders of knighthood, including military orders, various religious orders, and some sectarian orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order. ... Andrew Willoughby Ninian Bertie (born 15 May 1929) is the current (and first British) Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. ... A GRAND GREAT CHANCELLOR (or GREAT CHANCELLOR) is a Chancellor whose title is made loftier, compare Archchancellor. ...


Prior to the 1990s, all officers of the Order had to be of noble birth, i.e armigerous for at least 100 years. This remains the case. However, Knights of Magistral Grace (i.e. those without noble proofs), may make the Promise of Obedience and may, at the discretion of the Grand Master and Sovereign Council, enter the novitiate to become professed Knights of Justice. The latter are religious, essentially monks practising the triple vow of poverty, chastity and obedience, although seldom living in monastic community. Worldwide there are over 10,000 knights and dames, a small minority of whom are professed religious. Others choose to be a "Knight of Obedience". Membership of the Order is by invitation only and solicitations are not entertained. An armiger is a person entitled to use a coat of arms. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... A novitiate (also called a novice) is a member of a religious order who has not yet taken his/her vows. ... Knight of Obedience is a rank in the Souvereign and Military Order of Saint John of Rhodes and Malta. ...


The Order's finances are audited by a Board of Auditors, which includes a President and four Councillors, all elected by the Chapter General. The Order's judicial powers are exercised by a group of Magistral Courts, whose judges are appointed by the Grand Master and Sovereign Council.


See also

This is a list of Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller. ... The following were the Lord Priors of St John of Jerusalem in England, the Knights Hospitallers, until it was stripped of its properties and income by Henry VIII: Gabnabius, (or Gabnebius) of Naples, the first prior. ... The Knightly Order pro Merito Melitensi has been established in 1920. ... Krak des Chevaliers Gothic cloister by the fortress yard Krak des Chevaliers (also Crac des Chevaliers, fortress of the knights in a mixture of Arabic and French) was the headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria during the Crusades. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... A microstate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very little land area - usually both. ... Rhodes is the easternmost island of Greece, located 11 miles west of Turkey. ... Map of the Christian Quarter in Jerusalem, the Muristan with the Church of St. ... Logo of OMAC The Order of Malta Ambulance Corps (OMAC) is a charitable voluntary organisation in Ireland. ... Amateur Radio operation 1A0KM is located in the extraterritorial zone of Villa Magistrale allAventino in Rome, Italy, with special thanks due to the Grand Magistry for its assistance. ...

References

  1. ^ Riley-Smith, 170
  2. ^ http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/pkkmono.htm
  3. ^ http://www.arrl.org/awards/dxcc/list_1a0.html
  4. ^ http://www.orderofmalta.org/attdiplomatica.asp?idlingua=5
  5. ^ http://www.targheitaliane.it/smom/smom.html
  6. ^ http://www.orderofmalta.org/filatelica.asp?idlingua=5
  7. ^ http://www.orderofmalta.org/numismatica.asp?idlingua=5
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Atlas of the Crusades. Facts On File, Oxford (1991)
  • Cohen, R. [1920] (2004-04-15). in Julie Barkley, Bill Hershey and PG Distributed Proofreaders: Knights of Malta, 1523-1798. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2006-05-29. 
  • Noonan, Jr., James-Charles (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. Viking, p.196. ISBN 0-670-86745-4. 
  • Read, Piers Paul (1999). The Templars. Imago, p.118. ISBN 85-312-0735-5. 
  • Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Allen Lane, p.253. ISBN 0-7139-9220-4. 
  • Wallace, R.M.M (1992). International Law, p.76. 

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) (2721 words)
The flag of this order is the "reversed English flag" (the cross of St. John) with the Queen's crest in the canton.
SMOM is a legitimate and highly praiseworthy organization and is widely recognized as possessing sovereign status (useful in fulfilling a nonbelligerent honest broker's role in wartime situations).
The flag of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, abbreviated to the Order or SMOM, is a red flag with a white Latin cross.
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H.E. Ambassador José Antonio Linati Bosch, Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Order of Malta, which I have the honour to represent, is the oldest institution in the world established for the purpose of caring for the sick and needy, that is to say engaged in humanitarian assistance.
The Sovereign Order of Malta is present through its members in 40 countries and has diplomatic relations with 80 States, a fact that facilitates the effectiveness of its hospitaller activities.
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