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Encyclopedia > Southern United States
Historic Southern United States. The states in red were in the Confederacy and have historically been regarded as forming "the South." Sometimes they are collectively referred to as "Dixie." Those in stripes were considered "Border" states, and gave varying degrees of support to the Southern cause although they remained in the Union. (This image depicts the original, trans-Allegheny borders of Virginia, and so does not include West Virginia. See image below for post-1863 Virginia and West Virginia borders.)
Historic Southern United States. The states in red were in the Confederacy and have historically been regarded as forming "the South." Sometimes they are collectively referred to as "Dixie." Those in stripes were considered "Border" states, and gave varying degrees of support to the Southern cause although they remained in the Union. (This image depicts the original, trans-Allegheny borders of Virginia, and so does not include West Virginia. See image below for post-1863 Virginia and West Virginia borders.)
Modern definition The states in dark red are almost always included in modern day definitions of the South, while those in medium red are usually included. Maryland and Missouri are occasionally considered Southern, while Delaware is seldom considered a Southern state. Oklahoma is sometimes considered Southern because the area of Oklahoma, then known as Indian Territory, was allied with the Confederacy. West Virginia is considered Southern by many, because it was once part of Virginia.
Modern definition The states in dark red are almost always included in modern day definitions of the South, while those in medium red are usually included. Maryland and Missouri are occasionally considered Southern, while Delaware is seldom considered a Southern state. Oklahoma is sometimes considered Southern because the area of Oklahoma, then known as Indian Territory, was allied with the Confederacy. West Virginia is considered Southern by many, because it was once part of Virginia. [1][2]
The South as one of four regions of the United States.
The South as one of four regions of the United States.

The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive region in the southeastern and south-central United States. Because of the region's unique cultural and historic heritage, including early European colonial settlements, the doctrine of states' rights, the institution of slavery and the legacy of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, the South has developed its own customs, literature, musical styles, and varied cuisines. Image File history File links Info_non-talk. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links US_map-South_Modern. ... Image File history File links US_map-South_Modern. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x699, 107 KB) Summary Map of U.S. Census Regions and Divisions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x699, 107 KB) Summary Map of U.S. Census Regions and Divisions. ... For other uses, see Dixie (disambiguation). ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Slave redirects here. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Southern United States has a distinct cuisine that draws heavily on influences of the various groups that have inhabited the area. ...

Contents

Geography

As defined by the United States Census Bureau,[3] the Southern region of the United States includes 16 states (with a total 2006 estimated population of 109,083,752) and is split into three smaller units, or divisions: The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Other definitions include: The South Atlantic States form one of the nine divisions within the United States that are formally recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... The East South Central States constitute one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The West South Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...

The popular definition of the "South" is more informal and is generally associated with those states that seceded during the Civil War to form the Confederate States of America. Those states share commonalities of history and culture that carry on to the present day. The "border states" of the Civil War- specifically Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware roughly form the northern boundary of the "South". These states have a history of straddling the North-South divide, which was made clear when they did not secede during the Civil War even though they allowed slavery. Depending on the context, these states may or may not be considered part of the South. West Virginia is a unique case. Although West Virginia gave half its soldiers [5] and nearly two-thirds of its territory[6] to the Confederacy, early Union victories in the state and Union victory in the war insured that the history of the state would be written from the perspective of Wheeling rather than Richmond. This perspective is often responsible for the exclusion of West Virginia from many things Southern. Whether it is culturally part of the South again depends on context and on what distinction is drawn between Appalachian and Southern culture and an understanding of West Virginia's history. Geographically, Old South is a subregion of the American South, differentiated from the Deep South as being the Southern States represented in the original thirteen American colonies, as well as a way of describing the former lifestyle in the Southern United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New South is a term that has been used intermittently since the American Civil War to describe the American South, in whole or in part. ... The South Atlantic States form one of the nine divisions within the United States that are formally recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... The Cumberland Plateau includes much of eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia in the United States. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The counties most commonly associated with Western North Carolina. ... Western Maryland is the portion of U.S. state of Maryland that consists of Frederick, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a Southeast region of the United States, and organizations that need to subdivide the US are free to define a Southeast region to fit their needs. ... The Carolinas is a term used in the United States to refer collectively to the states of North and South Carolina. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Deep South (disambiguation). ... The Gulf South is a region of the United States that consists of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, all of which border the Gulf of Mexico on the Gulf Coast of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... For other uses, see Dixie (disambiguation). ... Red states show the core of the South Central, states shown as pink may or may not be included in the South Central, and thus their inclusion or exclusion varies from source to source. ... Red states show the core of the South Central, states shown as pink may or may not be included in the South Central, and thus their inclusion or exclusion varies from source to source. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


Biologically, the South is a vast, diverse region, having numerous climatic zones, including temperate, sub-tropical, tropical, and arid. Many crops grow easily in its soils and can be grown without frost for at least six months of the year. Some parts of the South, particularly the Southeast, have landscapes characterized by the presence of live oaks, magnolia trees, yellow jessamine vines, and flowering dogwoods. Another common environment is the bayous and swampland of the Gulf Coast, especially in Louisiana. The South is a victim of kudzu, an invasive fast-growing vine which covers large amounts of land and kills indigenous plant life. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... Southern live oaks on Skidaway Island, near Savannah, Georgia Live oak is a general term for a number of unrelated oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that happen to share the character of evergreen foliage. ... This article is about the plant. ... Yellow Jessamine (also known as evening trumpetflower or Carolina Jessamine; Gelsemium sempervirens, [L.] St. ... Subgenera Cornus Benthamidia Swida The Dogwoods comprise a group of 30-50 species of deciduous woody plants (shrubs and trees) in the family Cornaceae, divided into one to nine genera or subgenera (depending on botanical interpretation). ... Big Cypress Bayou in Jefferson, Texas off of U.S. Route 59. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Kudzu (disambiguation). ...


History

The predominant culture of the South has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists. In the 17th century, most were of English origins who settled mostly on the coastal regions of the South, but in the 18th century, large groups of Scots and Ulster-Scots (later called the Scots-Irish) settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont. In a census taken in 2000 of Americans and their self-reported ancestries, areas where people reported 'American' ancestry were the places where, historically, many Scottish and Scots-Irish Protestants as well as many English settlers settled in America: the interior as well as some of the coastal areas of the South, and the Appalachian region. It is believed the number of Scottish Americans could be in the region of 20 million and Scots-Irish Americans at 27 million. These people engaged in warfare, trade, and cultural exchanges with the Native Americans already in the region (such as the Creek Indians and Cherokees). After 1700, large groups of African slaves were brought in to work on the large plantations that dominated export agriculture, growing tobacco, rice, and indigo. Cotton became dominant after 1800. The explosion of cotton cultivation[7] made the "peculiar institution" of slavery an integral part of the South's early 19th century economy. British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... The James River winds its way among piedmont hills in central Virginia. ... Map showing the population density of Americans who declared Scottish ancestory in the census. ... Scots-Irish Americans are descendants of the Scots-Irish immigrants who came to North America in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Creeks are a Native American people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... There is no single indigo plant. A variety of plants have been used to produce indigo dye. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


The oldest university in the South, the College of William and Mary, was founded in 1693 in Virginia; it pioneered in the teaching of political economy and educated future U.S. Presidents Jefferson, Monroe and Tyler, all from Virginia. Indeed, the entire region dominated politics in the First Party System era: for example, four of the first five PresidentsWashington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe—were from Virginia. The two oldest public universities to open their doors to students are in the South - the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the University of Georgia, respectively. The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... The First Party System is a term of periodization used by some political scientists and historians to describe the political system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ...


Two major political issues that festered in the first half of the 19th century caused political alignment along sectional lines, strengthened the identities of North and South as distinct regions with certain strongly opposed interests and fed the arguments over states' rights that culminated in secession and the Civil War. One of these issues concerned the protective tariffs enacted to assist the growth of the manufacturing sector, primarily in the North. In 1832, in resistance to federal legislation increasing tariffs, South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification, a procedure in which a state would in effect repeal a Federal law. Soon a naval flotilla was sent to Charleston harbor, and the threat of landing ground troops was used to compel the collection of tariffs. A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over states' rights continued to escalate in the following decades. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The process of nullification may refer to: The Hartford Convention, in which New England Federalists considered secession from the United States of America. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


The second issue concerned slavery, primarily the question of whether slavery would be permitted in newly admitted states. The issue was initially finessed by political compromises designed to balance the number of "free" and "slave" states. The issue resurfaced in more virulent form, however, around the time of the Mexican War, which raised the stakes by adding new territories primarily on the Southern side of the imaginary geographic divide. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


Civil War

By 1855, the South was losing political power to the more populous North and was locked in a series of constitutional and political battles with the North regarding states' rights and the status of slavery in the territories. President James K. Polk imposed a low-tariff regime on the country (Walker Tariff of 1846), which angered Pennsylvania industrialists, and blocked proposed federal funding of national roads and port improvements. Once the North came to power in 1861, many Southerners felt it was time to secede from the union. In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... The 1846 Walker tariff was a United States Democratic Party-passed bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig-backed Black Tariff of 1842 under president John Tyler. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Seven cotton states decided on secession after the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. They formed the Confederate States of America. In 1861, they were joined by four more states. The United States government refused to recognize the seceding states as a new country and kept in operation its second to last fort in the South, which the Confederacy captured in April 1861 at the Battle of Fort Sumter, in the port of Charleston, triggering the Civil War. In the four years of war which followed, the South found itself as the primary battleground, with all but two of the main battles taking place on Southern soil. The Confederacy retained a low tariff regime for European imports but imposed a new tax on all imports from the North. The Union blockade stopped most commerce from entering the South, so the Confederate taxes hardly mattered. The Southern transportation system depended primarily on river and coastal traffic by boat; both were shut down by the Union Navy. The small railroad system virtually collapsed, so that by 1864 internal travel was so difficult that the Confederate economy was crippled. For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 1 dead 5 injured 4 injured The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12 – April 13, 1861), was a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The Union (so-called because they fought for the United States of America) eventually defeated the Confederate States of America (the formal name of the southern American states during the Civil War). The South suffered much more than the North, primarily because the war was fought almost entirely in the South. Overall, the Confederacy suffered 95,000 killed in action and 165,000 who died of disease, for a total of 260,000,[8] out of a total white Southern population at the time of around 5.5 million.[9] Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in the South.[10] Northern casualties exceeded Southern casualties, however. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ...


Reconstruction

Main article: Reconstruction

After the Civil War, the South was largely devastated in terms of its population, infrastructure and economy. The republic also found itself under Reconstruction, with military troops in direct political control of the South. Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy lost many of the basic rights of citizenship (such as the ability to vote) while with the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African Americans) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to African American males), African Americans in the South began to enjoy more rights than they had ever had in the region. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Northern Carpetbaggers came south to participate in politics and business. Some were representatives of the Freedmen's Bureau and other agencies of Reconstruction; some were humanitarians with the intent to help black people; yet some were adventurers who hoped to benefit themselves by questionable methods.[2] In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ...


By the 1890s, though, a political backlash against these rights had developed in the South. Organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan—a clandestine organization sworn to perpetuate white supremacy—used lynchings, and other forms of violence and intimidation to keep African Americans from exercising their political rights (the well-known cross burnings did not become a Klan ritual until the emergence of the Second Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s), while the Jim Crow laws were created to legally do the same thing. It would not be until the late 1960s that these changes would be undone by the American Civil Rights Movement. Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Lynching is murder (mostly by hanging) conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution. ... For the practice in Europe, see Fiery cross. ... The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


20th century

The first major oil well in the South was drilled at Spindletop near Beaumont, Texas, on the morning of January 10, 1901. Other oil fields were later discovered nearby in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting “Oil Boom” permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central states and led to the first significant economic expansion after the Civil War. Spindletop is a salt dome oil field located in south Beaumont, Texas (approx. ... Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: , Counties Settled 1835 Incorporation 1838 Gentilic Beaumonter Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Becky Ames  - City Manager Kyle Hayes  - Mayor Pro - Tem Nancy Beaulieu Area  - City 222. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


The economy, which for the most part had still not recovered from the Civil War, was dealt a double blow by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the economy suffered significant reversals and millions were left unemployed. Beginning in 1934 and lasting until 1939, an ecological disaster of severe wind and drought caused an exodus from Texas and Arkansas, the Oklahoma Panhandle region and the surrounding plains, in which over 500,000 Americans were homeless, hungry and jobless.[11] Thousands left the region forever to seek economic opportunities along the West Coast. This is a list of civil wars. ... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas in 1935 Buried machinery in barn lot. ... Crowd gathering on Wall Street. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... The Oklahoma Panhandle is the extreme western region of the state of Oklahoma, comprising Cimarron County, Texas County, and Beaver County. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Nearly all southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War. With the region devastated by its loss and the destruction of its civil infrastructure, much of the South was generally unable to recover economically until after World War II. The South was noted by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as the "number one priority" in terms of need of assistance during the Great Depression, instituting programs such as the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1933. Locked into low productivity agriculture, the region's growth was slowed by limited industrial development, low levels of entrepreneurship, and the lack of capital investment. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


World War II marked a time of change in the South as new industries and military bases sprang up across many areas of the region providing badly need capital and infrastructure. People from all parts of the US came to the South for military training and work in the regions many bases and new industries. Farming shifted from cotton and tobacco to include soybeans, corn, and other foods. This growth increased in the 1960 and greatly accelerated into the 80's and 90's. Large urban areas with over 4 million people rose in Texas, Georgia, and Florida. Rapid expansion in industries such as autos, telecommunications, textiles, technology, banking, and aviation gave some states in the South an industrial strength to rival large states elsewhere in the country. By the 2000 census, The South (along with the West) was leading the nation in population growth. However, with this growth came long commute times and serious air pollution problems in cites such as Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Miami, Austin, Charlotte, and other cities. Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ...


Poverty

States in maroon have an average household income of less than $35,000.00 per year. States in red have average household incomes between $35,000.00-$40,000.00. States in yellow have household incomes between $40,000-$45,000.00. States in teal have household incomes between $50,000.00-$55,000.00 per year. Maryland is the only state with an average household income exceeding $55,000.00 per year.
States in maroon have an average household income of less than $35,000.00 per year. States in red have average household incomes between $35,000.00-$40,000.00. States in yellow have household incomes between $40,000-$45,000.00. States in teal have household incomes between $50,000.00-$55,000.00 per year. Maryland is the only state with an average household income exceeding $55,000.00 per year.

The South has historically been financially disadvantaged when compared to the United States as a whole. After the Civil War, nearly the entire economic infrastructure of the region was in ruins. As agriculture had been the foundation of the Southern economy at the time, with the passing of the 13th Amendment (which outlawed slavery), planted resources could not be farmed and harvested as efficiently, eventually sending many plantation owners region-wide into poverty. Additionally, since there were few industrial businesses located in the south at the time, there were not many other possible sources of income. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The word Maroon can have the following meanings: Maroon is a color mixture composed of brown and purple. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... A yellow Tulip. ... Tasman Empire Airways Limited (TEAL) was the forerunner of Air New Zealand. ...


Former slaves were also a victim to this as they had no training or experience in anything besides plantation agriculture, and non-agricultural work was scarce.


After World War II, the development of the Interstate Highway System, household air conditioning and later, passage of civil rights bills the south was successful at attracting industry and business from other parts of the country, particularly the Rust Belt region of the Northeast and the Great Lakes. Poverty rates and unemployment declined as a result. Federal programs such as the Appalachian Regional Commission also contributed to economic growth. Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Rust Belt, a term coined from Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) is a United States federal-state partnership that works with the people of Appalachia to create opportunities for self-sustaining economic development and improved quality of life. ...


While much of the Southern United States has advanced considerably since World War II, poverty still persists today in some areas. Areas like the Black Belt, the eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia areas in Appalachia, and the Mexican border area along the Rio Grande in Texas make up the brunt of poverty in the South today. For other uses, see Black Belt. ... The Eastern Mountain Coal Fields is a region in Kentucky. ... Southern West Virginia is a culturally and geographically distinct region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Culture

Of all the regions of the United States the South is most distinct, in both the minds of its residents and those in other parts of the country. Depending on one's attitude, and perhaps latitude, the South and the "idea" of the South is and/or has been feared, revered, hated, loved, and stereotyped, for better or worse. It is disdained by some, yet an object of intense attachment and loyalty for others. And these emotions are not necessarily aligned with the one Mason and Dixon surveyed. Some born in the South shun their history and heritage, while there are many transplanted northerners who will frankly state they would never, ever, return to the colder climes (both literally and metaphorically), from which they came.[citation needed] Modern definition The states in dark red are almost always included in modern day definitions of the South, while those in medium red are usually included. ...


All in all though, the South exists with a certain separateness from the rest of the country. Perhaps it might be summed up well by certain passages in Tim Jacobson's book "Heritage of the South." Jacobson wrote:


"More than any other part of America, the South stands apart...Thousands of Northerners and foreigners have migrated to it...but Southerners they will not become. For this is still a place where you must have either been born or have "people" there, to feel it is your native ground.


Natives will tell you this. They are proud to be Americans, but they are also proud to be Virginians, South Carolinians, Tennesseans, and Texans. But they are conscious of another loyalty too, one that transcends the usual ties of national patriotism and state pride. It is a loyalty to a place where habits are strong and memories are long. If those memories could speak, they would tell stories of a region powerfully shaped by its history and determined to pass it on to future generations.


Or, as Florence King says in her book "Southern Ladies and Gentlemen",


"Put a fence around the South and you'd have one big madhouse."


Southern culture has been and remains generally more socially conservative than that of the rest of the country. Because of the central role of agriculture in the antebellum economy, society remained stratified according to land ownership. Rural communities often developed strong attachment to their churches as the primary community institution. Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


The southern lifestyle, especially in the deep south, is often joked about. Southerners are often generally viewed as more laid back, and relaxed even in stressed situations. That, of course, is a stereotype, and not always the case. But, traditionally, the southern lifestyle is viewed as slower paced when in more rural areas. Southerners are also stereotyped as being resistant to change, especially in societal circles, and mannerisms. Southerners are also reputed to be very polite and well-mannered and particularly welcoming to visitors; This characteristic has been labeled Southern hospitality. For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... For the Ludacris single, see Southern Hospitality. ...


Religion

Until the mid 19th century traditional Southerners were either Episcopalian or Presbyterian due to the South's close ancestral ties to England, Scotland and the Irish province of Ulster. Around the beginning of the Civil War and from thereafter, Baptist and Methodist churches became the most prevalent forms of Christianity in the region. Perhaps more than any other region of an industrialized nation, the South has a high concentration of Christian adherents, resulting in the reference to parts of the South as the "Bible Belt", from the presence of evangelical and fundamentalist Protestants, conservative Catholicism, as well as Pentacostalism and Charismatics. This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... When under Gaelic rule, Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the túatha. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The approximate extent of the Bible Belt, indicated in red The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of the United States of America in which socially conservative Christian Evangelical Protestantism is a dominant part of the culture. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... For a description of the personality trait, see Charismatic authority. ...


There are significant Catholic populations in most cities in the South, such as, Atlanta, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans, Baltimore and Louisville. Rural areas of the Gulf coast, particularly those populated by Cajuns and Creoles, are also heavily Catholic. In general, the inland regions of the South such as Arkansas, Tennessee and Alabama have stronger concentrations of Baptists, Methodists, Church of Christ, and other Protestants. Eastern and northern Texas are heavily Protestant, while the southern parts of the state have Mexican American Catholic majorities. The South Florida area is home to the country's second largest concentration of Jewish people. Cities such as Miami, Atlanta, Dallas and Houston have significant Jewish and Muslim communities. Immigrants from Southeast Asia and South Asia have brought Buddhism and Hinduism to the region as well. Atlanta has one of the largest Kurd populations outside of the middle east. This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Savannah redirects here. ... It has been suggested that List of people from Mobile, Alabama be merged into this article or section. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Louisville redirects here. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Location of metropolitan area in the state of Florida Major cities Miami, Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida West Palm Beach, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 15,896 km² (6,137 mi²) 2,621 km² (1,011 mi²) 16. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Houston redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Dialects

It has been said that Southerners are most easily distinguished from other Americans by their speech, both in terms of accent and idiom. However, there is no single "Southern Accent." Rather, Southern American English is a collection of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the South. Southern American English can be divided into different sub-dialects, with speech differing between, for example, the Appalachian region and the coastal "low country" around [[Charleston, South Carolina|Charleston,South Carolina] and Savannah, Georgia. Along this part of the southeastern coast Gullah is still spoken by some African Americans, particularly the older generation. The South Midlands dialect was influenced by the migration of Southern dialect speakers into the American West. The dialect spoken to various degrees by many African Americans, African American Vernacular English, shares many similarities with Southern dialect. Folklorists in the 1920s and later argued that Appalachian language patterns more closely mirror Elizabethan English than other accents in the United States.[12] // Southern American English as defined by the monophthongization of to before obstruents (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006:126). ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Savannah redirects here. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Shakespeares writings are universally associated with Early Modern English Early Modern English refers to the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 1400s) to 1650. ...


Cuisine

In addition to linguistics, the cuisine of the South is often described as one of its most distinctive traits. But just as history and culture varies across the broad region known as the South, the traditional cuisine varies as well. In modern times, there is little difference between the diet of typical Southerners and the diet in other regions of the U.S, but the South draws on multiple unique culinary influences to form its "traditional" foods. "Southern Cuisine" also provides some of the best examples of distinctly American cuisine - that is, foods and styles that were born in the United States as opposed to adopted from elsewhere. The cuisine of the Southern United States is defined as the regional culinary form of states generally south of the Mason-Dixon Line westerly to the state of Texas. ...


The food most commonly associated with the term "Southern Food" is often called "soul food" and is characterized by the heavy use of high-calorie lards and fats. This style is often attributed to influence of the African-American slave population though it draws the mix of African influences as well as Native American, Scots-Irish, and others. Southern fried chicken, vegetables cooked in lard or fat, black-eyed peas, cornbread, and biscuits are just a few examples of foods typically lumped into this broad category. For other uses, see Soul food (disambiguation). ... KFCs Fried chicken with french fries. ...


Barbecue is a food typically associated with the South, however it should be noted that it is also heavily favored and common throughout the Midwest too. Consisting of meat that has been slow-cooked and heavily seasoned, it is characterized by sharp regional divides in style-preferences. In Texas it is often beef based, while in North Carolina it is typically pork based and further subdivided into Eastern (vinegar-based) and Western Carolina (ketchup-based) styles. South Carolina also has a distinct mustard-based sauce that is unique to the midlands area. Kansas City, Missouri and Memphis are also considered Barbecue hubs, drawing on styles from multiple areas. Western Kentucky is also known for its barbecue, with Owensboro hosting the International Bar-B-Q Festival the second weekend of May. A barbecue in a public park in Australia A barbecue on a trailer at a block party in Kansas City Pans on the top shelf hold hamburgers and hot dogs that were grilled earlier when the coals were hot. ... Owensboro is the third largest city in Kentucky and the county seat of Daviess County. ... The logo of the International Bar-B-Q Festival The International Bar-B-Q Festival is an event held in Owensboro, Kentucky every second weekend in May[1] since 1979. ...


The unique history of Louisiana and the Mississippi Delta provides a unique culinary environment as well. Cajun and Creole evolved from the broad mix of cultural influences in this area - including Acadian, African, Caribbean, French, Native American, and Spanish. The shared flood plain of the Yazoo and Mississippi Rivers The Mississippi Delta is the distinct northwest section of the state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. ... Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ... Cajun cuisine originates from the French-speaking Acadian or Cajun immigrants deported by the English from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. ... Dishes typical of Creole food Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana (centered on the Greater New Orleans area) that blends French, Spanish, French Caribbean, African, and American influences. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Indigenous peoples in the United States are distinct groups of peoples who are indigenous to what is now states or territories of the United States of America. ...


Texas and its proximity and shared history with Mexico ultimately helped give rise to the modern Tex-Mex cuisine. Tex-Mex is a term for a type of American food which is used primarily in Texas and the Southwestern United States to describe a regional cuisine which blends food products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-Americans that are influenced by the cuisines of...


As with most of America, a wide variety of cuisines of other origins are now available throughout the South, such as Chinese, Italian, French, Middle Eastern, Thai, Japanese, and Indian as well as restaurants still serving primarily Southern specialties, and so-called "home cooking" establishments. Atlanta in particular along with Houston, and Dallas have major Asian populations. Atlanta has more East Indians than any city in the South. The term Middle Eastern cuisine refers to the various cuisines of the Middle East. ...


Drink

Many of the most popular American soft drinks today originated in the South (Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, Mountain Dew, Royal Crown Cola and its related Nehi products and Dr Pepper). In addition, there are some soft drinks available only in the South to this day (such as Sundrop and Cheerwine), demonstrating its instrumental history in developing these types of drinks. A highly sweetened iced tea, typically called sweet tea is also associated with Southern cuisine. Lemonade is also a popular summer beverage. Dr. Enuf is also a regional favorite and is not widely available elsewhere. Bottled in Johnson City, TN, the beverage has been around since 1949 and is considered to be an acquired taste. A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... The current Pepsi logo Pepsi-Cola (often shortened to Pepsi), is a carbonated cola soft drink manufactured by PepsiCo, and the principal rival of Coca-Cola. ... Mountain Dew is a caffeinated, sweet, citrus-flavored soft drink produced by PepsiCo, Inc. ... R.C. Cola (or Royal Crown Cola) is a cola soft drink developed in 1905 by Columbus, Georgia pharmacist Claud A. Hatcher. ... An advertisement for Nehi soda on a matchcover Nehi (pronounced , like knee high) is an American, flavored soft drink. ... For the alcoholic cocktail said to taste the same, see Flaming Dr. Pepper. ... Sundrop is a citrus-flavored soda produced by Cadbury-Schweppes. ... Cheerwine Cheerwine is a soft drink produced by the Carolina Beverage Corporation of Salisbury, North Carolina. ... A glass of sweet tea Sweet tea is a form of iced tea in which sugar or some other form of sweetener is added to the hot water before brewing, while brewing the tea, or post-brewing, but before the beverage is chilled and served. ... This article is about the drink made with lemons. ...


The South has long had an ambivalent attitude toward alcoholic beverages. Widespread support for Prohibition existed in the Southern states before and after the 18th Amendment was in force in the USA. Many southern states are control states that monopolize and highly regulate the distribution and sale of alcoholic drinks. Many counties in the South, particularly outside of larger metropolitan areas, are dry counties that do not allow for alcohol sales in retail outlets. However, many dry counties still allow for "private clubs" (often with low daily fees) to serve alcohol on the premises. Beer is still widely popular in the South, though its consumption is often frowned upon in some religious circles.The most popular beers in the south are those produced by Anheuser Busch particularly Budweiser and Busch. Cartersville, a suburb of Atlanta, has a massive production facility for Anheuser Busch. Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Map of Alcoholic Beverage Control States, current as of February 2006. ... A dry county is a county in the United States whose government forbids the sale of alcoholic beverages. ...


The upper South, specifically Kentucky, is known for its production of bourbon whiskey, which is also a popular base for cocktails. Jack Daniels is also produced in the South, in Lynchburg, TN. Due to widespread restrictions on alcohol production, illegally distilled liquor or moonshine has long been associated (often rather stereotypically) with working class and poor people in much of the region. The mint julep is similarly depicted as a popular beverage among more affluent Southerners. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... The distinctive bottle of Jack Daniels whiskey is familiar around the world. ... Lynchburg is a consolidated city-county government whose boundaries coincide with those of Moore County, Tennessee. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... The Mint Julep is a mixed alcoholic drink, or cocktail, distinctive to the southern United States. ...


Tobacco

The South was distinctive for its production of tobacco, which earned premium prices from around the world. Most farmers grew a little for their own use or traded with neighbors who grew it. It was the main cash crop in North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland. Pennsylvania and Delaware also grew Tobacco but to a lesser extent. Commercial sales became important in the late 19th century as major tobacco companies rose in the South, becoming one the largest employers in cities like Durham, North Carolina, Louisville, Kentucky, and Richmond, Virginia. In 1938, R. J. Reynolds marketed eighty-four brands of chewing tobacco, twelve brands of smoking tobacco, and the top-selling Camel brand of cigarettes. Reynolds sold large quantities of chewing tobacco, though that market peaked about 1910 as people shifted to cigarettes.[13] Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Durham, Orange, Wake Government  - Mayor Bill Bell Area  - City  94. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Richard Joshua R.J. Reynolds (1850-1918) was an American businessman and founder of the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. ... Chewing tobacco is a smokeless tobacco product. ... Camel is a brand of cigarettes that was introduced by U.S. company R.J. Reynolds Tobacco (RJR) in 1913. ...


In the late 20th century, use of smokeless tobacco by adolescent American males increased by 450% for chewing tobacco and by 1500%, or fifteenfold, for snuff. From 1978 to 1984, there was a 15% compound annual growth rate in U.S. smokeless tobacco sales. Usage is highest in the South and in the rural west. In 1992, 30% of all male high school seniors in the southeastern United States were regular users of chewing tobacco or snuff—more than smoked cigarettes, according to the Center for Disease Control.[14][15]


A historian of the American South in the late 1860s reported on typical usage in the region where it was grown, paying close attention to class and gender:[16]

The chewing of tobacco was well-nigh universal. This habit had been widespread among the agricultural population of America both North and South before the war. Soldiers had found the quid a solace in the field and continued to revolve it in their mouths upon returning to their homes. Out of doors where his life was principally led the chewer spat upon his lands without offence to other men, and his homes and public buildings were supplied with spittoons. Brown and yellow parabolas were projected to right and left toward these receivers, but very often without the careful aim which made for cleanly living. Even the pews of fashionable churches were likely to contain these familiar conveniences. The large numbers of Southern men, and these were of the better class (officers in the Confederate army and planters, worth $20,000 or more, and barred from general amnesty) who presented themselves for the pardon of President Johnson, while they sat awaiting his pleasure in the ante-room at the White House, covered its floor with pools and rivulets of their spittle. An observant traveller in the South in 1865 said that in his belief seven-tenths of all persons above the age of twelve years, both male and female, used tobacco in some form. Women could be seen at the doors of their cabins in their bare feet, in their dirty one-piece cotton garments, their chairs tipped back, smoking pipes made of corn cobs into which were fitted reed stems or goose quills. Boys of eight or nine years of age and half-grown girls smoked. Women and girls "dipped" in their houses, on their porches, in the public parlors of hotels and in the streets.

Literature

Main article: Southern literature

Perhaps the most famous southern writer is William Faulkner, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1949. Faulkner brought new techniques such as stream of consciousness and complex narrative techniques to American writings (such as in his novel As I Lay Dying). Southern literature (sometimes called the literature of the American South) is defined as American literature about the Southern United States or by writers from this region. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique that seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes, either in a loose interior monologue, or in connection to his or her sensory reactions to external occurrences. ... As I Lay Dying is a novel written by the American author William Faulkner. ...


Other well-known Southern writers include Mark Twain (whose Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer are two of the most read books about the South), Zora Neale Hurston, Eudora Welty, Thomas Wolfe, William Styron, Flannery O'Connor, Carson McCullers, James Dickey, Willie Morris, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, Walker Percy, Barry Hannah, Robert Penn Warren, Cormac McCarthy, James Agee and Harry Crews. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... Eudora Welty (b. ... Photo by Carl Van Vechten For the contemporary author and journalist, see Tom Wolfe Thomas Clayton Wolfe (October 3, 1900 – September 15, 1938) was an important American novelist of the 20th century. ... William Clark Styron, Jr. ... Mary Flannery OConnor (March 25, 1925 – August 3, 1964) was an American novelist, short-story writer and essayist. ... Carson McCullers, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1959 Carson McCullers (February 19, 1917 – September 29, 1967) was an American writer. ... James Dickey (February 2, 1923 – January 19, 1997) was a popular United States poet and novelist. ... William Weaks Willie Morris (November 29, 1934 — August 2, 1999), was an American writer and editor born in Jackson, Mississippi, though his family later moved to Yazoo City, Mississippi, which he immortalized in his works of prose. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the pseudonym Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright and one of the prominent playwrights of the twentieth century. ... Truman Capote (pronounced ) (30 September 1924 – 25 August 1984) was an American writer whose non-fiction, stories, novels and plays are recognized literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffanys (1958) and In Cold Blood (1965), which he labeled a non-fiction novel. ... Walker Percy (May 28, 1916 – May 10, 1990) was an American Southern author whose interests included philosophy and semiotics. ... Barry Hannah (born 1942) is an American novelist and short story writer. ... Robert Penn Warren Robert Penn Warren (April 24, 1905 – September 15, 1989) was an American poet, novelist, and literary critic, and was one of the founders of The New Criticism. ... For the musician, see Cormac McCarthy (musician). ... James Rufus Agee (November 27, 1909 – May 16, 1955) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, screenwriter, journalist, poet, and film critic. ... www. ...


Possibly the most famous southern novel of the 20th century is Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell, published in 1937. Another famous southern novel, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, won the Pulitzer Prize after it was published in 1960. For the film, see Gone with the Wind (film). ... For the Canadian politician, see Margaret Mitchell (Canadian politician); for the Scottish politician, see Margaret Mitchell (Scottish politician). ... To Kill a Mockingbird is a Southern Gothic bildungsroman novel by Harper Lee. ... Nelle Harper Lee (born April 28, 1926) is an American novelist known for her Pulitzer Prize – winning 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird, her only major work to date. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


Music

The South offers some of the richest music in the United States. The musical heritage of the South was developed by both whites and blacks, both influencing each other directly and indirectly.


The South's musical history actually starts before the Civil War, with the songs of the African slaves and the traditional folk music brought from the British Isles. Blues was developed in the rural South by Blacks at the beginning of the 20th century. In addition, gospel music, spirituals, country music, rhythm and blues, soul music, funk, rock and roll, beach music, bluegrass, jazz (including ragtime, popularized by Southerner Scott Joplin), and Appalachian folk music were either born in the South or developed in the region. This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Blues music redirects here. ... Gospel music is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. ... A spiritual is a African-American song, usually with a religious text. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, the first half of Billboards country and western music category, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... For other uses, see Rhythm and blues (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For the novel, see Beach Music (novel). ... Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Scott Joplin Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 and January 1868,[1] died April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. ... Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ...


In general, country music is based on the folk music of white Southerners, and blues and rhythm and blues is based on black southern forms. However, whites and blacks alike have contributed to each of these genres, and there is a considerable overlap between the traditional music of blacks and whites in the South, particularly in gospel music forms. A stylish variant of country music (predominantly produced in Nashville) has been a consistent, widespread fixture of American pop since the 1950s, while insurgent forms (i.e. bluegrass) have traditionally appealed to more discerning subcultural and rural audiences. Blues dominated the Black music charts from the advent of modern recording until the mid-1950s, when it was supplanted by the less guttural and forlorn sounds of rock and R&B. Nevertheless, unadulterated blues (along with early rock and roll) is still the subject of reverential adoration throughout much of Europe and cult popularity in isolated pockets of the United States.


Zydeco, Cajun, and swamp pop, despite having never enjoyed greater regional or mainstream popularity, still thrive throughout French Louisiana and its peripheries, such as Southeastern Texas. These unique Louisianian styles of folk music are celebrated as part of the traditional heritage of the people of Louisiana. Conversely, bluegrass music has acquired a sophisticated cachet and distinct identity from mainstream country music through the fusion recordings of artists like Bela Fleck, David Grisman, and the New Grass Revival; traditional bluegrass and Appalachian mountain music experienced a strong resurgence after the release of 2001's O Brother, Where Art Thou?. Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada. ... Swamp pop musician Jivin Gene, circa 1959. ... Louisiana sold in 1803 by Napoléon to USA, which was a portion of the historical extent of French Louisiana Louisiana (French language: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Béla Fleck (born July 10, 1958 in New York City, New York) is an American banjo player. ... David Grisman David Grisman (born March 23, 1945 in Hackensack, New Jersey) is a noted bluegrass/newgrass mandolinist and composer of acoustic music. ... New Grass Revival is a great bluegras band. ... O Brother, Where Art Thou? is a dark comedy film written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, set in Mississippi during the Great Depression (specifically, 1937). ...


Rock n' roll largely began in the South in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Early rock n' roll musicians from the South include Buddy Holly, Little Richard, Fats Domino, Bo Diddley, Elvis Presley, Ray Charles, James Brown, Otis Redding, Carl Perkins, and Jerry Lee Lewis, among many others. Hank Williams and Johnny Cash, while generally regarded as "country" singers, also had a significant role in the development of rock music. In the 1960s, Stax Records emerged as a leading competitor of Motown Records, laying the groundwork for later stylistic innovations in the process. For the Weezer song, see Buddy Holly (song). ... Richard Wayne Penniman (born December 5, 1932), better known by the stage name Little Richard, is an African-American singer, songwriter, and pianist, who began performing in the 1940s and was a key figure in the transition from rhythm & blues to rock and roll in the mid-1950s. ... Antoine Dominique Fats Domino (born February 26, 1928) is a classic R&B and rock and roll singer, songwriter and pianist. ... Bo Diddley (born December 30, 1928) aka The Originator, is an influential American rock and roll singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Elvis redirects here. ... For the composer and conductor of the Ray Charles Singers, see Ray Charles (composer). ... For other persons named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation). ... Otis Ray Redding, Jr. ... Carl Lee Perkins (April 9, 1932 – January 19, 1998) was an American pioneer of rockabilly music, a mix of rhythm and blues and country music that was recorded most notably at Sun Records in Memphis beginning in 1954. ... Jerry Lee Lewis (born September 29, 1935), also known by the nickname The Killer, is an American rock and roll and country music singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... For other persons named Hank Williams, see Hank Williams (disambiguation). ... For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... Stax Records is an American record label, originally based out of Memphis, Tennessee. ...


The South has continued to produce rock music in later decades. In the 1970s, a wave of "Southern rock" and blues rock groups, led by The Allman Brothers Band, Lynyrd Skynyrd, ZZ Top, and 38 Special, became popular. Macon, Georgia-based Capricorn Records helped to spearhead the Southern rock movement, and was the original home to many of the genre's most famous groups. At the other end of the spectrum, along with the aforementioned Brown and Stax, New Orleans' Allen Toussaint and The Meters helped to define the funk subgenre of rhythm and blues in the 1970s. Blues-rock is a hybrid musical genre combining elements of the blues with rock and roll, with an emphasis on the electric guitar. ... The Allman Brothers Band is a band from Macon, Georgia, labeled by the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as the principal architects of Southern rock. ... Lynyrd Skynyrd (pronounced lĕh-nérd skin-nérd) (pronounced ) is an iconic U.S. Southern rock band. ... ZZ Top is an American blues rock band formed in 1969 in Houston, Texas. ... .38 Special (also written 38 Special and Thirty-Eight Special) is an American rock band named for the . ... Macon is a city located in central Georgia, USA. It is among the largest metropolitan areas in Georgia, and the county seat of Bibb County, It lies near the geographic center of Georgia, approximately 75 miles (129 km) south of Atlanta, hence the citys nickname as the Heart of... Capricorn Records is an independent record label which was launched by Phil Walden and Frank Fenter in 1969 in Macon, Georgia. ... Paul Shaffer (L) and Allen Toussaint on the September 7, 2005 show of The Late Show with David Letterman Allen Toussaint (born January 14, 1938) is an American musician, songwriter and record producer and one of the most influential figures in New Orleans R&B. In the 1960s and 1970s... The Meters were a band that performed and recorded from the late 1960s until 1977. ...


Many who got their start in the regional show business in the South eventually banked on mainstream national and international success as well: Elvis Presley and Dolly Parton are two such examples of artists that have transcended genres. Dolly Rebecca Parton (born January 19, 1946) is an American, Grammy Award-winning country music singer/songwriter, composer, author, actress, and philanthropist. ...


Many of the roots of alternative rock are often considered to come from the South as well, with bands such as R.E.M., Pylon, and The B-52's forever associated with the musically fertile college town of Athens, Georgia. Cities such as Austin, Knoxville, Chapel Hill, Nashville, and Atlanta also have thriving indie rock and live music scenes. Austin is home to the long-running South by Southwest music and arts festival, while several influential independent music labels (Sugar Hill, Merge, Yep Rock and the now-defunct Mammoth Records) were founded in the Chapel Hill area. Several influential death metal bands have recorded albums at Morrisound Recording in Temple Terrace, Florida and the studio is considered an important touchstone in the genre's development. Alternative music redirects here. ... R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), Mike Mills (bass guitar), and Michael Stipe (vocals). ... Pylon performing at AthFest 2005 in Athens, Georgia, USA, June 24, 2005. ... The B-52s are a New Wave rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, an important center of alternative rock. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Nickname: Location within the U.S. State of Tennessee. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Orange, Durham, and Chatham Founded 1793 Government  - Mayor Kevin C. Foy Area  - City  19. ... “Nashville” redirects here. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Downtown Austin, Texas, where SXSW is held each spring Bloc Party performing at Stubbs BBQ in 2007 Carrie Rodriguez, a SXSW 2007 performer Morrissey at SXSW 2006 South by Southwest (SXSW) is a set of interactive, film, and music festivals and conferences that have taken place every spring in... This article is about the musical genre. ... Morrisound Recording is a recording studio owned and operated by brothers Jim and Tom Morris and located in Tampa, Florida. ... Temple Terrace is a city in north-central Hillsborough County, Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Recently, the spread of rap music (which is arguably the only major American music not started in the South) has led to the rise of the sub-genre Dirty South. Atlanta, Dallas, Houston, Memphis, Miami, and New Orleans have long been major centers of hip-hop culture Hip hop music is a style of popular music. ... For other uses of the term Dirty South, see The Dirty South Dirty South is a style of rap music that popped up in the latter half of the 1990s and is based in southern cities and states such as Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, Atlanta, Miami or South Florida, Mississippi...


Also, an electronic music sub-genre known as Drum and Bass that has thrived on the East Coast has gained a recent popularity in the south, mixing with various southern Jungle, Hip-Hop and Breakbeat scenes. Notable bands and artists are Evol Intent and Gridlok. Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, dnb, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... Evol Intent is a hardstep drum and bass/IDM group formed in Atlanta, Georgia, USA in 2000. ... Gridlok is drum and bass producer and DJ based out of San Francisco, USA. He used to be a classical violin player before he submerged himself into the drum and bass realm. ...


Sports

Football

While the South has had a number of professional football teams appear in the Super Bowl, it is much more renowned for its love of College football. The SEC, ACC, and Big 12 are the conferences in which the majority of large southern public universities play. The University of Alabama considers itself tied with Notre Dame for the most (12) national football championships, and the University of Oklahoma has the highest college football winning percentage since 1936, when the AP poll was implemented. It also features very fierce, deep-seated rivalries like the Iron Bowl played annually between Auburn University and the University of Alabama near the end of every November. The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force. ... The Southeastern Conference (SEC) is a college athletic conference headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, which operates in the southeastern part of the United States. ... The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is one of the oldest collegiate athletic leagues in the United States. ... The Big 12 Conference is a college athletic conference of twelve schools located in the central United States. ... The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship school of the University of Alabama System. ... The University of Notre Dame IPA: is a Catholic[4] institution located in Notre Dame, an unincorporated section of St. ... A mythical national championship (often abbreviated MNC) is a national championship that is won without a tournament to determine an undisputed national champion. ... University of Oklahoma, abbreviated OU, is a coeducational public research university located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. ... The Iron Bowl logo. ... Auburn University (AU or Auburn) is a state university located in Auburn, Alabama, USA. With more than 24,100 students and 1,200 faculty, it is the second largest university in the state,[5] and according to U.S. News & World Report, has a selectivity rating of more selective. ... The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship school of the University of Alabama System. ...


High school football is extremely competitive in the region. Texas high school football culture has been featured in movies and books such as Friday Night Lights and Varsity Blues while Virginia football was featured in the movie Remember the Titans while Alabama football was featured in the documentury Two-A-Days Friday Night Lights in the a 1990 book and 2004 movie that documents the coach and players of a high school football team and the small, economically-depressed Texas town of Odessa that supports and is obsessed with them. ... For other uses, see Varsity Blues (disambiguation). ... Remember the Titans is an American drama film released in 2000. ... This article is about the MTV television series. ...


Basketball

Basketball, particularly college basketball, is also very popular in the South, especially in North Carolina and Kentucky; the two states are home to four of the winningest and most NCAA tournament included programs in college basketball history: the North Carolina Tar Heels, Duke Blue Devils, Kentucky Wildcats,and the Louisville Cardinals.[17]. [18] Game between Illinois State Redbirds & Ball State Cardinals, February 17, 2007 in an ESPN Bracketbuster contest. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... For University of Louisvilles independent weekly student newspaper, see The Louisville Cardinal. ...


Baseball

Baseball's popularity is often tied to Major League Baseball teams like the Atlanta Braves, Houston Astros, Texas Rangers, Tampa Bay Rays and Florida Marlins. Roughly half of the Major League Baseball franchises hold spring training in Florida, playing their preseason games in what is known as the "Grapefruit League". Minor league baseball is also closely followed in the South (with the South being home to more minor league teams than any other region of the United States), and college baseball is particularly popular in the southernmost tier of states. This article is about the sport. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) East Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 21, 35, 41, 42, 44 Name Atlanta Braves (1966–present) Milwaukee Braves (1953-1965) Boston Braves (1941-1952) Boston Bees (1936-1940) Boston Braves (1912-1935) Boston Rustlers (1911) Boston Doves (1907-1910) Boston... Major league affiliations National League (1962–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 5, 24, 25, 32, 33, 34, 40, 42, 49 Name Houston Astros (1965–present) Houston Colt . ... Major league affiliations American League (1961–present) West Division (1972–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 26, 34, 42 Name Texas Rangers (1972–present) Washington Senators (1961-1971) Other nicknames None in common use Ballpark Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (1994–present) a. ... Major league affiliations American League (1998–present) East Division (1998–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 12, 42 Name Tampa Bay Rays (2008–present) Tampa Bay Devil Rays (1998-2007) Other nicknames Ballpark Tropicana Field (1998–present) Major league titles World Series titles (0) none AL Pennants (0) none Division titles... Major league affiliations National League (1993–present) East Division (1993–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 5, 42 Name Florida Marlins (1993–present) Other nicknames The Fish Ballpark Dolphin Stadium (1993–present) a. ... A Grapefruit League game at the LA Dodgers camp in Vero Beach, Florida In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of exhibition games which precedes the regular season. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... College baseball is baseball as played on the intercollegiate level at institutions of higher education, predominantly in the United States. ...


NASCAR

The South is the birthplace of NASCAR auto racing, which has an enormous and devoted following. The organization is headquartered in Daytona Beach, Florida, the vast majority of teams center their operations in suburban Charlotte, North Carolina, and the majority of NASCAR drivers have historically come from the South. The NASCAR NEXTEL Cup season starts each year in Daytona Beach with the Daytona 500, and the series' fastest track is Atlanta Motor Speedway in Hampton, Georgia. Talladega, Alabama is home to the International Motorsports Hall of Fame. Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... Daytona Beach in 2005 Daytona Beach is a city in Volusia County, Florida, USA. As of 2004, the population estimates recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau is 64,422. ... Charlotte redirects here. ... The NEXTEL Cup Series is NASCARs top racing series. ... The Daytona 500 is a 200-lap, 500 mile (805 km) NASCAR NEXTEL Cup Series race held annually at the Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. ... Atlanta Motor Speedway is a superspeedway in Hampton, Georgia, USA, 20 miles (32 km) south of Atlanta. ... Hampton is a city located in western Henry County and partially in the Clayton County panhandle region, in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Talladega is a city located in Talladega County, Alabama. ... The International Motorsports Hall of Fame is a Hall of Fame dedicated to enshrining those who have contributed the most to auto racing either as a driver, owner, developer or engineer. ...


Other sports

The South would not seem to be a prominent winter-sports destination, but the Tampa Bay Lightning, Dallas Stars and Carolina Hurricanes have all won the National Hockey League's Stanley Cup in recent years. In addition, the mountains of West Virginia and the western parts of Virginia and North Carolina climates cold enough to host several popular downhill skiing resorts. Atlanta was the host of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. Lacrosse is also growing in the South. High School participation has increased dramatically and Colleges are beginning to add Varsity programs. High Schools from Texas, Tennessee, Georgia, and Florida can compete with teams from the traditional East Coast hotbeds.[citation needed] The Tampa Bay Lightning are a professional ice hockey team based in Tampa, Florida, USA. They are members of the Southeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The Dallas Stars are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. ... The Carolina Hurricanes are a professional ice hockey team based in Raleigh, North Carolina. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (French: ) is the championship trophy of the National Hockey League (NHL), the major professional ice hockey league in Canada and the United States. ... Alpine skiing (or downhill skiing) is a recreational activity and sport involving sliding down snow-covered hills with long, thin skis attached to each foot. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... (Redirected from 1996 Summer Olympic Games) Categories: 1996 Summer Olympics ... For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation). ...


Many rural and some suburban Southerners view hunting and fishing as a way of life; deer and duck hunting and bass fishing are of particular social and economic importance. Squirrels and birds such as quail and dove are also hunted. The prevalence of gun ownership among many Southerners is closely tied to these traditions, and gun control measures often encounter vehement opposition in the South in part due to this cultural heritage. This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) Bass (IPA /bæs/) is a name shared by many different species of popular game fish. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ...


Film

The South has contributed to some of the most financially successful movies of all time, including Gone with the Wind (1939) and Smokey and the Bandit (1977). Georgia is also a huge location for film production. The second largest studio complex in the United States, EUE Screen Gems, is located in Wilmington, North Carolina. Over the past 20 years, many films and television programs have been made on location in eastern North Carolina.[19] Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... Smokey and the Bandit is a 1977 movie starring Burt Reynolds, Sally Field, Jackie Gleason, Jerry Reed, Pat McCormick, Paul Williams, and Mike Henry. ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ...


A number of film festivals - notably the South by Southwest music and arts festival in Austin and the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival, based in Durham, NC, are held within the region. Downtown Austin, Texas, where SXSW is held each spring Bloc Party performing at Stubbs BBQ in 2007 Carrie Rodriguez, a SXSW 2007 performer Morrissey at SXSW 2006 South by Southwest (SXSW) is a set of interactive, film, and music festivals and conferences that have taken place every spring in... The Full Frame Documentary Film Festival is one of the United States premier documentary film festivals held over the course of four days each spring at the Carolina Theater in Durham, North Carolina. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Durham, Orange, Wake Government  - Mayor Bill Bell Area  - City  94. ...


Cultural variations

There continues to be debate about what constitutes the basics elements of Southern culture.[20] This debate is influenced partly because the South is such a large region. As a result, there are a number of cultural variations on display in the region.


Among the variations found in Southern culture are:

  • Historical, political, and cultural divisions continue to divide the "upcountry" or "hill" culture of the Appalachian and Ozark mountain regions from that of low-lying areas such as the Virginia Tidewater, Gulf Coast, and Mississippi Delta. The hill country, as a rule, tends to have a much lower percentage of African-Americans than the rest of the South outside of larger cities. The hill country's population is strongly associated with a Scots-Irish heritage. The lowland South has, aside from a generally large African American population, many whites of predominantly English descent (aside from southern Louisiana). Many upland areas were also not supportive of the Confederate cause during the American Civil War (see Andrew Johnson), and contained bases of Republican Party support when the south as a whole was largely Democratic (though this particular divide has been reduced with the dominance of the Republican Party in much of the south today).
  • The formation of West Virginia in 1863 underlines the old divide between the highlands and the rest of the South. While West Virginia is often defined as a southern state, its peculiar geographic shape means that the northernmost tip is at about the same latitude as central New Jersey. This has caused the northernmost part of the state, as well as a number of northern non-panhandle cities, such as Morgantown, West Virginia, which are about an hour's drive from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to increasingly become exurbs of the city, resulting in a less "Southern" culture, although elements of it are still evident. The easternmost tip of the state is close enough to Washington, D.C., that it too has started to become an exurb of that area with a unique North-South "hybrid" culture. The two easternmost counties, Berkeley and Jefferson, are considered part of the Washington Metropolitan Area by the Census Bureau. Huntington, West Virginia, near the state's boundary with Ohio and Kentucky, is often identified with the Rust Belt, (although it is not officially considered part of the Rust Belt), but it also has more of a Southern climate and environment compared to the state's Northern Panhandle. West Virginia was created from 50 western counties of Virginia during the Civil War. Though two-thirds of the territory of the proposed state consisted of secessionist counties [21], the Wheeling Unionists were successful in guiding their Statehood bill through Congress, which was signed by President Lincoln. Because of the confusing circumstances of its creation some do not consider West Virginia to be part of the South. However, West Virginia largely shares in the Appalachian culture that extends through a large swath of the inland South.
  • Areas having an influx of outsiders may be less likely to hold onto a distinctly Southern identity and cultural influences. For this reason, urban areas during the Civil War were less likely to favor secession than agricultural areas. Today, partly because of continuing population migration patterns between urban areas in the North and South, even historically "Southern" cities like Atlanta, Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Nashville, Richmond, Dallas, and Houston have assimilated regional identities distinct from a normal "Southern" one. However, while these metropolitan areas may have had their original southern culture somewhat diluted, they are still widely considered to be "Southern" cities.
  • South Florida has been transformed by the rapid influx of migrants, retirees, and Jewish Americans from the Northern United States and immigration from Latin America. Miami, Florida has large communities of immigrants from Cuba, Brazil, Haiti and other parts of Latin America. While many do not see South Florida as part of the cultural South, the Florida Panhandle, northeastern areas, North Central Florida, Nature Coast, Central Florida, and the middle of South Florida (that is, the "inland" areas around the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades region) also called the Florida Heartland remain culturally tied to the South. The metropolitan areas of Tampa and Orlando are a complex blend of fast-growing traditional "Southern" metropolitan areas, (such as Atlanta, Charlotte, Dallas, Nashville, and Raleigh-Durham) and the South Florida metropolitan area. While the areas have more southern culture than the South Florida metropolitan area, they both have less southern culture than traditional "Southern" metropolitan areas, and in addition, have considerably fast growing Hispanic populations (much like South Florida). The city of Palm Coast, (one of the fastest growing cities in the United States and with most of its growth coming from New York and New Jersey), and the Daytona metropolitan area, which contain many more retirees and migrants from the northern states, fall closer as far as culture is concerned, to the South Florida metropolitan area than both the Tampa and Orlando metropolitan areas. The Florida Suncoast region is also usually excluded culturally from the southern states due to its especially high retiree and "snow-bird" population (most of who move from the Midwestern states) even for normal standards in Florida.
  • Some regions of Texas are associated with the South more than the Southwest (primarily East Texas, parts of Central Texas, and North Texas), while other regions share more similarities with the Southwest than the South (primarily far West Texas, parts of Central Texas, and South Texas). The Texas Panhandle and the South Plains parts of West Texas do not easily fit into either category. The Texas Panhandle has much in common both culturally and geographically with Midwestern states like Kansas and Nebraska, while the South Plains, though originally settled primarily by Anglo Southerners, has become a blend of both Southern and Southwestern culture due to the large and fast growing Hispanic population located there. The size and cultural distinctness of Texas prohibit easy categorization of the entire state in any recognized region of the United States; geographic, economic, and even cultural diversity between regions of the state preclude treating Texas as a region in its own right. Texas' larger cities have also attracted migrants from other regions of the United States and immigrants from Latin America and Asia. However, Texas is usually considered a Southern state rather than a Western one, as it was a member of the Confederacy, and over 86% of Texans identify themselves as living in the South.[22]
Further information: Geography of Texas
Plurality ancestry per US county, 2000: German English Norwegian Finnish Dutch Mexican Spanish Native "American" African Irish French Italian
Plurality ancestry per US county, 2000: German English Norwegian Finnish Dutch Mexican Spanish Native "American" African Irish French Italian
  • Before its statehood in 1907, Oklahoma was known as "Indian Territory." The majority of the Native American tribes in Indian Territory sided with the Confederacy during the Civil War. Oklahoma has the nation's largest Native American population. Oklahoma is also the home of Gilcrease Museum, which houses the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art of the American West plus Native American art and artifacts and historical manuscripts, documents, and maps. Oklahoma is sometimes described as being part of the "Great Southwest." However, because of its geographic location, Oklahoma is privy to Southern culture. Southern culture is apparent in Oklahoma, particularly in the southeastern region of the state. On a whole, most consider Oklahoma to be a Southern state.
  • Louisiana, having been colonized by France and Spain rather than Great Britain, has a number of distinct cultural traditions, especially within the Cajun, Creole, Latin American and Caribbean influenced culture of the southern portion of the state. The Gulf Coast regions of Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and northern Florida also share a similar French/Spanish colonial history but lack the heavy concentration of French influences present in Louisiana, especially from the Acadians and their Cajun descendants.The relatively tolerant attitudes toward alcohol use, gambling, and prostitution that have generally prevailed in the New Orleans region stand in stark contrast to the more conservative, Protestant beliefs of much of the rest of the Deep South.
  • Delaware is not considered to be a southern state by many, especially New Castle County (the northernmost of the state's three counties), which is essentially the outermost portion of the Philadelphia region. While Maryland retains some southern culture in rural Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore of Maryland, the areas along the I-95 corridor, including metropolitan Baltimore and the state's suburbs of Washington, D.C., are most often considered to be culturally part of the Northeastern United States. The Washington and Baltimore metropolitan areas are sometimes combined to form the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. Like West Virginia, the state was part of the Union during the Civil War, partially because of immense pressure to remain so to avoid the District of Columbia from being completely surrounded by Confederate territory.
  • Northern Virginia has been largely settled by Northerners attracted to job opportunities resulting from expansion of the federal government during and after World War II. Still more expansion resulted from the dot-com bubble around the turn of the 21st century. Economically linked to Washington, D.C., residents of the region tend to consider its culture more Northern, as do Southerners. Some in Virginia refer to the area as "Occupied Virginia."[citation needed] However, it remains politically somewhat more moderate than their neighbors across the Potomac River. Nevertheless, the region swung the 2006 Senate election to the Democrat.
  • The most recent shift in "Southern" cultural influence and demographics has occurred in North Carolina. As recently as the mid-1980s, this was a very entrenched "Southern" state culturally and demographically (for example, the prominence of extremely conservative politicians such as former Senator Jesse Helms). However, many newcomers have transformed the landscape since then. Many are from the Northeast and especially from the New York City and Cleveland metropolitan areas. Much of this migration has occurred in the Charlotte and Raleigh-Durham areas because of economic growth (banking/finance in Charlotte's case, high-tech in Raleigh-Durham's); and the Asheville area by retirees who a generation ago might have moved to Florida but prefer the climatic balance produced by the combination of a relatively high elevation and a southerly latitude. The most extreme example of this is found in Cary, North Carolina, a suburb in the Raleigh-Durham area that has exploded in population since 1980, almost exclusively with Northern transplants to the region. Cary has even been turned into a backronym by locals: "Concentrated Area of Relocated Yankees" or "Containment Area for Relocated Yankees". Politically, the state is still conservative (the 2004 presidential election was easily won by George W. Bush, though early exit polling had the race much closer than initially expected), but in the Raleigh-Durham area and to a lesser extent the Charlotte area, "Southern" accents are becoming less common in metropolitan areas; and North Carolina's 3 largest metro areas (Charlotte, Raleigh-Durham and the Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point "Piedmont Triad" area) have experienced the fastest rise in Latino and Asian American population of any part of the Southeast during recent years. A report released by The Brookings Institute in May 2006 entitled Diversity Spreads Out, showed that North Carolina's largest metro areas have been highly attractive to some minority groups. The Charlotte metro area ranked 2nd nationally with a 49.8% growth rate in its Hispanic population between 2000 and 2004, followed in 3rd place by the Raleigh-Durham metro area at 46.7%[23]. To a much larger degree, the same effect is occurring in the Atlanta metropolitan area.
  • Kentucky, at the confluence of the Upper South and the Midwest, served as an important Border State during the Civil War and reflects the influences of both South and North [24]. Though the state's official government and a majority of its citizens supported the Union, a star on the Confederate flag represents a small rebel government that was present in Southern Kentucky before 1863. Cultural studies of the state present a complicated, mixed picture; A 1987 peer-reviewed study on regional geography, published by a professor of geography at the University of Kansas, presented participants with a wide range of choices, including South, Midwest, East, West, and "Other"; given multiple choices, this study found only a minority - 47.8% - of Kentuckians identifying with the South, followed by 33% identifying with the Midwest; in neighboring Tennessee, a large majority of residents - over 80% - identified with the South and only 1.5% identified as Midwestern [25]. However a recent and ongoing (late 2000's) study conducted and published by the University of North Carolina found that, 79% of Kentuckians identified the state as Southern geographically and culturally, while 68% of Kentuckians identified themselves as "Southerners" culturally. These findings were based on a simple "yes or no" choice regarding Southern identification. [26] [3]. As those large differences in findings between two scholarly sources reveal, exact percentages for regional affinity are difficult to establish in Kentucky, and regional identification often varies dramatically based on location in the state. For example, Northern Kentucky is considered to be the most Midwestern region of the state as it is culturally and economically attached to Cincinnati; nonetheless, studies show that a significant minority of people in Northern Kentucky still identify with the South. Conversely, Southern Indiana is highly Southern in comparison to most of the Midwest, as it is culturally and economically attached to Louisville. Some sources treat Southern Indiana as essentially the upper tip of Upland South culture while others maintain that Southern culture, while significant, is not dominant in the region.[4]. Louisville is also viewed as culturally and economically Midwestern in some analyses[27] and as Southern in others, and it is often described as both "the Gateway to the South" and "the northernmost Southern city and southernmost Northern city." While varying degrees of Northern cultural influence can be found in Kentucky outside of the Golden Triangle region, cities such as Owensboro, Bowling Green, and Paducah, along with most of the state's rural areas, have largely remained distinctly Southern in character.
  • Although Missouri is often considered a Midwestern state, the Ozarks are typically lumped in with the Highland South, while Little Dixie in north-central Missouri is an outlier of Lowland Southern culture. The large migration of blacks, as well as poor white southerners during the depression, has given the city of St. Louis a significant amount of Southern culture.

The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Ozark redirects here. ... The Tidewater region of Virginia is the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia, centered on Hampton Roads. ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... The shared flood plain of the Yazoo and Mississippi Rivers The Mississippi Delta is the distinct northwest section of the state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Northern panhandle The Northern Panhandle is a region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Morgantown is a city in Monongalia County,GR6 West Virginia, on the banks of the Monongahela River. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey to travel to New York City A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute out of the community to earn their livelihood. ... Eastern panhandle The Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia is a narrow stretch of territory in the northeast of the state, bordering Maryland and Virginia. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Berkeley County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Jefferson County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Region (United States) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Huntington is a city located in the U.S. State of West Virginia along the Ohio River. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Rust Belt, a term coined from Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Charlotte (also known as candle stick) is a figure skating grace move - one of the spirals, where the skater is bended and glides on its one leg with the other one lifted to the air. ... For other uses of this name, see Raleigh. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Durham, Orange, Wake Government  - Mayor Bill Bell Area  - City  94. ... For other cities named Nashville, see Nashville (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Houston redirects here. ... Location of metropolitan area in the state of Florida Major cities Miami, Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida West Palm Beach, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 15,896 km² (6,137 mi²) 2,621 km² (1,011 mi²) 16. ... Retirement is the status of a worker who has stopped working. ... American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are American citizens who were born Jews or who have converted to Judaism. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Miami redirects here. ... The Florida Panhandle is the region of the state of Florida which includes the westernmost 16 counties in the state. ... Location in the state of Florida Major cities Jacksonville Fernandina Beach St. ... North Central Florida is a region of the U.S. state of Florida. ... Image:Map of Florida Nature Coast. ... Central Florida is the central region of the United States state of Florida, on the East Coast. ... Lake Okeechobee from space, September 1988 View of Lake Okeechobee from Pahokee. ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ... Map of the Florida Heartland The Florida Heartland is a region of Florida located to the north and west of Lake Okeechobee, composed of six inland, non-metropolitan counties — DeSoto, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, and Okeechobee. ... The Tampa-St. ... The Orlando-Kissimmee, Florida, Metropolitan Statistical Area, also known as the Orlando Area, Metro Orlando or (more colloquially) Greater Orlando, is the state of Floridas third most densely populated metropolitan region. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Palm Coast is a city located in Flagler County, Florida. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Daytona Beach is a city located in Volusia County, Florida. ... 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The dry plains of West Texas, have often been divided up into tracks of land divided by barbed wire fences. ... South Texas is a region of the U.S. state of Texas which lies roughly south of, or beginning at, San Antonio. ... The Texas Panhandle is a region of the state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. ... Region in West Texas comprising the area north of the Caprock Escarpment on the Llano Estacado, and extending north into the Texas Panhandle. ... The geography of Texas covers a wide and far reaching scope. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3766x2820, 1311 KB) A chart of the top ancestries in the US, as provided by the 2000 census. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3766x2820, 1311 KB) A chart of the top ancestries in the US, as provided by the 2000 census. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana, USA. For uses of the term Creole in other countries and cultures, see Creole (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... New Castle County is the northern-most county of the three counties in the state of Delaware. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Southern Maryland counties. ... The Eastern Shore of Maryland is composed of the states nine counties east of the Chesapeake Bay. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main highway on the East Coast of the United States,[1] paralleling the Atlantic Ocean from Maine to Florida and serving some of the best-known cities in the country including Boston, New York City, and... Baltimore redirects here. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Region (United States) be merged into this article or section. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Region (United States) be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Northern Virginia Northern Virginia (NoVA) consists of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William counties and the independent cities of Alexandria, Falls Church, Fairfax, Manassas, and Manassas Park. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... 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The Atlanta metropolitan area, commonly referred to as Metro Atlanta in Georgia, is the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the United States and consists of 28 counties in Georgia. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Russellville Convention was a sovereignty convention held by secessionists on November 18 through 20, 1861 in Russellville, Kentucky after the state government formally declared neutrality in the American Civil War. ... The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU or just Kansas) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ... The University of North Carolina is a seventeen campus system which includes all sixteen public four-year universities in North Carolina, United States and one public residential high school. ... The term Northern Kentucky generally refers to the three northernmost counties in Kentucky. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Southern Indiana, in the United States, is notable because it is culturally and geographically more similar to the South than it is to the rest of the state of Indiana. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Golden Triangle is an economic region in Kentucky which contains most of the states population, wealth, and population growth. ... Bowling Green is a city located in Warren County, Kentucky. ... Paducah is a city located in McCracken County, Kentucky at the confluence of the Tennessee River and the Ohio River. ... Ozark redirects here. ... The Little Dixie is a 17 county region of Missouri found predominately along the Missouri River. ... Figure 1. ...

Beyond the South

While areas west of Texas are rarely if ever included as parts of the "South," many areas of New Mexico, Arizona, and California were predominantly settled by Southerners, at least in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. For instance, pro-Confederate governments were established in what is now Arizona and New Mexico during the Civil War. During the Great Depression and Dust Bowl crisis, a large influx of migrants from areas such as Oklahoma, Arkansas, and the Texas Panhandle settled in California. These "Okie" and "Arkie" migrants and their descendants remain a strong influence on the culture of the Central Valley of California, especially around the cities of Bakersfield and Fresno. Similar migrations occurred after World War II of Southerners into the industrial cities up the Midwest, particularly in Missouri to St. Louis, (both the state and the city are more often considered the Midwest than the South), Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. Many Southerners who have emigrated to other states continue nevertheless to identify proudly as Southerners, without actually continuing to live in the South. Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas in 1935 Buried machinery in barn lot. ... The Texas Panhandle is a region of the state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. ... The California Central Valley The California Central Valley dominates the central portion of the state of California. ... Bakersfield is the county seat of Kern County, California, in the United States. ... Fresno, a Spanish word for ash tree (from Latin fraxinus) is a common placename in Spanish speaking areas. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


African Americans from the South moved to the industrial cities of the Midwest and West Coast in large numbers during the Great Migration beginning in World War I and extending after World War II. Many African Americans throughout the United States, as well as a considerable number of whites, have "Northern" and "Southern" branches of their families. Many elements of African American culture, such as music, literary forms, and cuisine remain rooted in the South. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... was when erikson martinez was rich ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Over the past half-century, a number of Latinos have migrated to the American South from Mexico and Latin America. Urban areas such as Atlanta, New Orleans and Nashville have seen a major increase in Latino immigrants over the past ten to fifteen years; and factory and agribusiness jobs have also brought Mexican and Latin American workers to some of the more rural regions in the U.S. South. [5] [6] [7] Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ...


Politics

In the century after Reconstruction, the white South strongly identified with the Democratic Party. This lock on power was so strong the region was politically called the Solid South. The Republicans controlled parts of the Appalachian mountains and competed for power in the border states, but otherwise it was rare for a Southern politician to be a Republican before the 1960s. Politics of the Southern United States (or Southern politics) refers to the political landscape of the Southern United States. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ...


Increasing support for civil rights legislation by the Democratic party at the national level during the 1940s caused a split between conservative Southern Democrats and other Democrats in the country. Until the passage of the Civil Rights laws of the 1960s, conservative Southern Democrats ("Dixiecrats") argued that only they could defend the region from the onslaught of northern liberals and the civil rights movement. In response to the Brown decision of 1954, the Southern Manifesto was issued in March 1956, by 101 southern congressmen (19 senators, 82 House members). It denounced the Brown decisions as a "clear abuse of judicial power [that] climaxes a trend in the federal judiciary undertaking to legislate in derogation of the authority of Congress and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the states and the people." The manifesto lauded "those states which have declared the intention to resist enforced integration by any lawful means." It was signed by all southern senators except Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, and Tennessee senators Albert Gore, Sr. and Estes Kefauver. Virginia closed schools in Warren County, Charlottesville, and Norfolk rather than integrate, but no other state followed suit. An element resisted integration, led by Democratic governors Orval Faubus of Arkansas, Ross Barnett of Mississippi, Lester Maddox of Georgia, and, especially George Wallace of Alabama. They appealed to a blue collar electorate. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... The Southern Manifesto was a document written in 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Sr. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... Warren County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Charlottesville is an independent city located within the confines of Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States, and named after Princess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the wife of King George III of England. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955-1967. ... Ross Robert Barnett (January 22, 1898 – November 6, 1987) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi from 1960 to 1964. ... Lester Garfield Maddox Lester Garfield Maddox (September 30, 1915 – June 25, 2003) was an American Democratic Party politician who was governor of the U.S. state of Georgia from 1967 to 1971. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ...


The Democratic Party's dramatic reversal on civil rights issues culminated when Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Meanwhile, the Republicans were beginning their Southern strategy, which aimed to solidify the Republican Party's electoral hold over conservative white Southerners. Southern Democrats took notice that 1964 Republican Presidential candidate Barry Goldwater had voted against the Civil Rights Act, and in the presidential election of 1964, Goldwater's only electoral victories outside his home state of Arizona were in the states of the Deep South. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... For other uses, see Deep South (disambiguation). ...


The transition to a Republican stronghold took decades. First, the states started voting Republican in presidential elections—the Democrats countered by nominating such Southerners as Jimmy Carter in 1976 and 1980, Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, and Al Gore in 2000. Then the states began electing Republican senators and finally governors. Georgia was the last state to do so, with Sonny Perdue taking the governorship in 2002. In addition to the middle class and business base, Republicans attracted strong majorities from the evangelical Christian vote, which had not been a distinct political demographic prior to 1980. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... George Ervin Sonny Perdue III (born December 20, 1946) is the governor of the U.S. state of Georgia. ...


There was major resistance to desegregation in the mid 1960s to early 1970s. Those issues faded away, replaced by culture wars between the conservatives and liberals over issues such as abortion and gay marriage. Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... The term culture war has been used to describe ideologically-driven and often strident confrontations typical of American public culture and politics since at least the 1980s. ... Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ...


Presidential history

The South has produced the first winning presidential candidates for all but one major political party in the history of the United States. The exception is the Federalist Party which claimed its first (and only) presidential victory with John Adams, of Massachusetts, in 1796. The following is a list of presidents who represent their party's first candidate to reach the country's highest office: ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ...

(Note: The first President, George Washington, of Virginia, was unaffiliated with any political party.) Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Hardin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. ...


Additionally, the South produced most of the U.S. Presidents prior to the Civil War. Memories of the war made it impossible for a Southerner to become President unless he either moved North (like Woodrow Wilson) or was a vice president who moved up (like Harry Truman and Lyndon B. Johnson). In 1976, Jimmy Carter defied this trend and became the first Southerner to break the pattern since Zachary Taylor in 1848. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... For the victim of Mt. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ...


The last three presidents, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, have all been from the South: George H.W. Bush was a congressman from Texas, Clinton was governor of Arkansas, and George W. Bush was governor of Texas. Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Other politicians and political movements

The South has produced numerous other well-known politicians and political movements.


In 1948, a group of Democratic congressmen, led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, split from the Democrats in reaction to an anti-segregation speech given by Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota, founding the States Rights Democratic or Dixiecrat Party. During that year's Presidential election, the party unsuccessfully ran Thurmond as its candidate. James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 1968 Presidential election, Alabama Governor George C. Wallace ran for President on the American Independent Party ticket. Wallace ran a "law and order" campaign similar to that of Republican candidate, Richard Nixon. Nixon's Southern Strategy of electoral votes downplayed race issues and focused on culturally conservative values, such as family issues, patriotism, and cultural issues that appealed to Southern Baptists. The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ... The American Independent Party is a California political party. ... Nixon redirects here. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ...


In 1994, another Southern politician, Newt Gingrich, ushered in 12 years of GOP control of the House. Gingrich became Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in 1995, but was forced to resign after mishandling the impeachment of Southerner Bill Clinton in 1998. Tom DeLay was the most powerful Republican leader in Congress until his abrupt criminal indictment in 2005. Most recent Republican Senate leaders are from the South, including Howard Baker of Tennessee, Trent Lott of Mississippi, Bill Frist of Tennessee, and Mitch McConnell of Kentucky. Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives from Sugar Land, Texas. ... Howard Henry Baker, Jr. ... Chester Trent Lott Sr. ... William Harrison Bill Frist, Sr. ... Addison Mitchell Mitch McConnell, Jr. ...


Race relations

Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ...

History

African Americans have a long history in the South, stretching back to the early settlements in the region. Beginning in the early 17th century, black slaves were purchased from slave traders who brought them from Africa (or, less often, from the Caribbean) to work on plantations. Most slaves arrived in the 1700-1750 period. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ...

Further information: History of slavery in the United States + African Americans have a long history in the South, stretching back to the early settlements in the region. Beginning in the early 17th century, slaves were purchased from slave traders who brought them to work on plantations. Most slaves arrived in the 1700-1750 period.
Further information: History of slavery in the United States

- Slavery ended with the South's defeat in the American Civil War. During the Reconstruction period that followed, African Americans saw advancements in the civil rights and political power in the South. However, as Reconstruction ended, Southern Redeemers moved to prevent black people from holding power. After 1890, the Deep South disfranchised many African Americans. The leading white demagogue was Senator Ben Tillman of South Carolina, who proudly proclaimed in 1900, "We have done our level best [to prevent blacks from voting]...we have scratched our heads to find out how we could eliminate the last one of them. We stuffed ballot boxes. We shot them. We are not ashamed of it."[28] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... Benjamin Ryan Tillman (August 11, 1847 - July 3, 1918) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina from 1890 to 1894 and as a United States Senator from 1895 until his death. ...


- With no voting rights and no voice in government, blacks were subjected to what was known as the Jim Crow laws, a system of universal segregation and discrimination in all public facilities. Blacks were given separate schools (in which all students, teachers and administrators were black). Most hotels and restaurants served only whites. Movie theaters had separate seating; railroads had separate cars; buses were divided forward and rear. Neighborhoods were segregated as well. Blacks and whites did shop in the same stores. Blacks were not called to serve on juries, and they were not allowed to vote in the Democratic primary elections (which usually decided the election outcome). The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ...


Civil Rights

In response to this treatment, the South witnessed two major events in the lives of 20th century African Americans: the Great Migration and the American Civil Rights Movement. The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans during the Great Migration, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses[1]. The Great Migration was the movement of over 1 million[1] African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


The Great Migration began during World War I, hitting its high point during World War II. During this migration, Black people left the racism and lack of opportunities in the South and settled in northern cities like Chicago, where they found work in factories and other sectors of the economy. (Katzman, 1996) However, Chicago quickly became the most segregated city in the north. This migration produced a new sense of independence in the Black community and contributed to the vibrant Black urban culture seen during the Harlem Renaissance. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... The Harlem Renaissance(also known as the Black Literary Renaissance and The New Negro Movement) refers to the flowering of African American cultural and intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s. ...


The migration also empowered the growing Civil Rights Movement. While the movement existed in all parts of the United States, its focus was against the Jim Crow laws in the South. Most of the major events in the movement occurred in the South, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Mississippi Freedom Summer, the March on Selma, Alabama, and the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. In addition, some of the most important writings to come out of the movement were written in the South, such as King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail". Many civil rights landmarks can be found around the South. The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta includes a museum that chronicles the American Civil Rights Movement as well as Martin Luther King, Jr.'s boyhood home on Auburn Avenue. Additionally, Ebenezer Baptist Church is located in the Sweet Auburn district as is the King Center, location of Martin Luther and Coretta Scott King's gravesites. Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... Freedom Summer (also known as the Mississippi Summer Project) was a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register to vote as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. ... Selma is a city in Alabama located on the banks of the Alabama River in Dallas County, Alabama, of which it is the county seat. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... Martin Luther King Jr The Letter from Birmingham Jail or Letter from Birmingham City Jail, commonly but incorrectly rendered Letter from a Birmingham Jail, was an open letter on April 16, 1963 written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Interior of Ebenezer Baptist Church, view from behind the pulpit. ... The MLK National Historic Site honors the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


As a result of the Civil Rights Movement, Jim Crow laws across the South were dropped. Today, while many people believe race relations in the South to still be a contested issue, many others now believe the region leads the country in working to end racial strife. A second migration appears to be underway, with African Americans from the North moving to the South in record numbers.[citation needed]


Symbolism

The Battle Flag of the Confederacy has become a highly contentious image throughout the United States because of its use as a symbol of defiance by many in the South who opposed the Civil Rights Movement. Although it and other reminders of the Old South can be found on automobile bumper stickers, on tee shirts, and flown from homes, restrictions (notably on public buildings) have been imposed as a result groups such as the League of the South continue to promote secession from the United States, citing a desire to protect and defend the heritage of the South. On the other side of this issue are groups like the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), which believes that the League of the South is a hate group, and vice versa. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Geographically, Old South is a subregion of the American South, differentiated from the Deep South as being the Southern States represented in the original thirteen American colonies, as well as a way of describing the former lifestyle in the Southern United States. ... The League of the South is a Southern nationalist organization whose ultimate goal is a free and independent Southern republic. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ...


Other symbols of the Antebellum South include the Bonnie Blue Flag and Magnolia trees. In the last two generations, the South has changed dramatically. After two centuries in which the region's main economic engine was agriculture, the South has in recent decades seen a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, and the financial sector. Examples of this include the surge in tourism in Florida and along the Gulf Coast; numerous new automobile production plants such as Mercedes-Benz in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Hyundai in Montgomery, Alabama and the BMW production plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina; the two largest research parks in the country, Research Triangle Park in North Carolina (the world's largest research park) and the Cummings Research Park in Huntsville, Alabama (the world's fourth largest research park); and the corporate headquarters of major banking corporations Bank of America and Wachovia in Charlotte, Regions Financial, Amsouth, and Compass in Birmingham, SunTrust and the district headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, and BB&T in Winston-Salem; several Atlanta-based corporate headquarters and cable television networks such as CNN, TBS, TNT, Turner South, Cartoon Network, and The Weather Channel. This economic expansion has enabled parts of the South to boast some of the lowest unemployment rates in the United States.[29] Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before the war. In United States history and historiography Antebellum is sometimes used instead of the term pre_Civil War, especially in the South. ... For the song of the same name, see The Bonnie Blue Flag The Bonnie Blue Flag, a single white star on a blue field, was the flag of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. ... This article is about the plant. ... Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. ... South Korean business tycoon Chung Ju-yung, founder and honorary chairman of Hyundai Group, 1998 Hyundai refers to a group of companies founded by Chung Ju-yung in South Korea, and related organizations. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Spartanburg is the largest city and the county seat of Spartanburg CountyGR6 in South Carolina, and is the second-largest city of the three primary cities in the Upstate region of South Carolina. ... Research Triangle Park (RTP) is the largest research park in the world. ... Cummings Research Park, located primarily in the city of Huntsville, Alabama is the second largest research park in the United States, and the fourth largest in the world. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ... Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... For Moravian settlements in North Carolina, see Wachovia, North Carolina. ... Charlotte (also known as candle stick) is a figure skating grace move - one of the spirals, where the skater is bended and glides on its one leg with the other one lifted to the air. ... Regions Financial Corporation NYSE: RF is a publicly held company based in Birmingham, Alabama. ... AmSouth Bancorporation NYSE: ASO is a publicly held company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, at the Amsouth Center. ... Compass Bancshares (NASDAQ: CBSS) is a publicly held company based in Birmingham, Alabama. ... This article is about the British city. ... SunTrust Banks, Inc. ... The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta is responsible for the 6th District of the Federal Reserve, which covers Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. ... The BB&T Corporation (NYSE: BBT) is one of Americas largest banks, offering full-service commercial and retail banking services along with other financial services like insurance, investments, retail brokerage, mortgage, corporate finance, consumer finance, payment services, international banking, leasing, and trust. ... Winston-Salem is a city located in Forsyth County, North Carolina. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... TBS also stands for Tokyo Broadcasting System, a Japanese television network. ... Turner Network Television, usually referred to as TNT, is an American cable TV network created by media mogul Ted Turner and currently owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. ... Turner South was begun in 2000 by Turner Broadcasting System as the first regional entertainment network developed especially for viewers in the southern U.S. The regional cable TV network offered movies, tv series, sitcoms, regional news updates, and unique original programming, plus professional sports coverage for Atlanta Braves (Major... For Cartoon Network outside of the United States, see Cartoon Network around the world. ... For the Australian Weather Channel with the same name, see The Weather Channel, Australia The Weather Channel (TWC) is a cable and satellite television network that broadcasts weather and weather-related news 24 hours a day. ...


Largest Cities in the Southern U.S.

Rank City State(s) and/or Territory July 1, 2006
Population Estimate
1 Houston TX 2,144,491
2 San Antonio TX 1,296,682
3 Dallas TX 1,232,940
4 Jacksonville FL 794,555
5 Austin TX 709,893
6 Memphis TN 670,902
7 Ft Worth TX 653,320
8 Baltimore MD 631,366
9 Charlotte NC 630,478
10 El Paso TX 609,415

Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Dallas redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: , Country United States State Texas Counties Tarrant and Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City  298. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Charlotte (also known as candle stick) is a figure skating grace move - one of the spirals, where the skater is bended and glides on its one leg with the other one lifted to the air. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...

Major metropolitan areas in the Southern U.S.

Rank Metropolitan Area State(s) and/or Territory July 1, 2006
Population Estimate
1 Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington TX 6,003,967
2 Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown TX 5,539,949
3 Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta GA 5,539,223
4 Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach FL 5,463,857
5 Washington–Arlington–Alexandria DCVAMDWV 5,290,400
6 Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater FL 2,697,731
7 BaltimoreTowson MD 2,658,405
8 Charlotte–Gastonia–Concord NCSC 2,191,604
9 Orlando-Kissimmee FL 1,984,855
10 San Antonio TX 1,942,217
11 Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News VANC 1,649,457
12 Raleigh-Durham NC 1,565,223
13 Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point NC 1,513,576
14 Austin–Round Rock TX 1,513,565
15 Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin TN 1,455,097
16 Jacksonville FL 1,277,997
17 Memphis TNMSAR 1,274,704
18 Louisville KYIN 1,245,920
19 Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson SC 1,203,795
20 Richmond VA 1,194,008
21 Birmingham–Hoover–Cullman AL 1,180,206
22 New Orleans-Metairie-Bogalusa LA 1,069,428
23 Knoxville-Sevierville-La Follette TN 1,010,978

The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, is the seventh-largest metropolitan area and one of the most diverse[2] in the United States consisting of 10 counties within the state of Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Atlanta metropolitan area, commonly referred to as Metro Atlanta in Georgia, is the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the United States and consists of 28 counties in Georgia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Largest metro area Atlanta metro area Area  Ranked 24th  - Total 59,411 sq mi (154,077 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 2. ... The Miami Urbanized Area stretches along the Atlantic Coast for most of the length of the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach Metropolitan Area, but is confined to a relatively narrow area between the coast and the Everglades. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA is a U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as of November 2004. ... ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The Tampa-St. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Towson is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Counties most commonly associated with the Charlote Metro area are in dark red, counties often included are light red, and counties sometimes included are in orange. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The Orlando-Kissimmee, Florida, Metropolitan Statistical Area, also known as the Orlando Area, Metro Orlando or (more colloquially) Greater Orlando, is the state of Floridas third most densely populated metropolitan region. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... The Piedmont Triad, Triad, or North Carolina Triad is a region of North Carolina in the Piedmont that consists of the area centered around the cities of Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, and Burlington. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Map of Texas highlighting the Austin-Round Rock metropolitan area. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro, TN is the 39th largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the United States[1] and the largest metropolitan area in the state of Tennessee, encompassing its north central section. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Upstate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman Combined Statistical Area The Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman Combined Statistical Area sometimes known as Greater Birmingham, is made up of 8 counties in Central Alabama. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... , Metairie (local pronunciations , ) is a suburb of New Orleans. ... Bogalusa is a city in Washington Parish, Louisiana, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: Location within the U.S. State of Tennessee. ... Sevierville (pronounced ) is a city in and the county seatGR6 of Sevier County , Tennessee, United States of America. ... La Follette is a city located in Campbell County, Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...

See also

For other uses, see Deep South (disambiguation). ... 16 states and Washington, D.C. are defined as the Southern region of the United States by the Census Bureau. ... The history of the Southern United States reaches back thousands of years and included the Mississippian peoples, well known for their mound building. ... Politics of the Southern United States (or Southern politics) refers to the political landscape of the Southern United States. ... The Plain Folk of the Old South, often called yeomen, were the middling white United States Southerners of the 19th century who owned few slaves or none. ... // Southern American English as defined by the monophthongization of to before obstruents (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006:126). ... Southern literature (sometimes called the literature of the American South) is defined as American literature about the Southern United States or by writers from this region. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The approximate extent of the Bible Belt, indicated in red The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of the United States of America in which socially conservative Christian Evangelical Protestantism is a dominant part of the culture. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, the first half of Billboards country and western music category, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ...

Notes

  1. ^ David Williamson. UNC-CH surveys reveal where the ‘real’ South lies. Retrieved on 22 Feb, 2007.
  2. ^ http://www.pfly.net/misc/GeographicMorphology.jpg
  3. ^ http://www.census.gov/geo/www/us_regdiv.pdf US Census Bureau's official map
  4. ^ Mary Johnston. Pioneers of the Old South, A Chronicle of English Colonial Beginnings. Retrieved on 19 May, 2007.
  5. ^ "Although early estimates noted that Union soldiers from the region outnumbered Confederates by more than three to one, more recent and detailed studies have concluded that there were nearly equal numbers of Union and Confederate soldiers." http://www.wvculture.org/HiStory/civwaran.html
  6. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1964, pg. 49, map of Secessionist counties from vote of May 23, 1861
  7. ^ The Peculiar Institution of American Slavery. Retrieved on 22 Aug, 2006.
  8. ^ Nineteenth Century Death Tolls: American Civil War. Retrieved on 22 Aug, 2006.
  9. ^ American Civil War, Those Confederate States
  10. ^ The Deadliest War
  11. ^ First Measured Century: Interview: James Gregory. Retrieved on 22 Aug, 2006.
  12. ^ Wilson, Charles Morrow. “Elizabethan America.” Atlantic Monthly, August 1929, 238—44. Reprinted in Appalachian Images in Folk and Popular Culture, ed. W. K. McNeil, 205—14. 1989.
  13. ^ Nannie M. Tilley (1985). The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, 363. ISBN 0-8078-1642-6. 
  14. ^ Centers for Disease Control (1987). Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States. Retrieved on 22 Aug, 2006.
  15. ^ David Moyer, MD (2000). The Tobacco Reference Guide: Smokeless Tobacco. Retrieved on 22 Aug, 2006.
  16. ^ Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer (1917). A History of the United States since the Civil War v. 1. Negro University Press, 93. ISBN 0-8371-2642-8. 
  17. ^ Men's College Basketball Almanac. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  18. ^ [http://www.basketball.com/menscollege/records/NCAADiv1TournApps.shtml Men's College Basketball Almanac NCAA Appearances. Although many may think that the University of Alabama is just a football related school they have also made many SEC championship appearances. The south's largest state, Texas, is also home to three fo the best teams in the NBA. The San Antonio Spurs, Houston Rockets, and Dallas Mavericks.]. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  19. ^ IMDB. Titles with locations including Wilmington, NC. Retrieved on 22 Aug, 2006.
  20. ^ Jason Sanford. Where is the South in today's Southern literature. Retrieved on 22 Aug, 2006.
  21. ^ Richard Curry "A House Divided, pgs. 142-47
  22. ^ Randy Hill. Texas and the Deep South. Retrieved on 27 Nov, 2006.
  23. ^ Ethnic Population Change. Retrieved on 7 July, 2007.
  24. ^ Anand Singh. Kentucky - USA State. Retrieved on 27 July, 2007.
  25. ^ Dr. James R. Shortridge. Changing Usage of Four American Regional Labels. Retrieved on 6 Feb, 2007.
  26. ^ David Williamson. UNC-CH surveys reveal where the 'real' South lies. Retrieved on 22 Feb, 2007.
  27. ^ Meyer, David R. (December 1989). "Midwestern Industrialization and the American Manufacturing Belt in the Nineteenth Century". The Journal of Economic History 49 (4): 921-937. Retrieved on 2007-02-05. 
  28. ^ Rayford Logan (1997). The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. New York: Da Capo Press, 91. ISBN 0-306-80758-0. 
  29. ^ "State jobless rate below US average", The Decatur Daily, Aug 19, 2005. Retrieved on February 12, 2007. 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rayford Wittingham Logan (January 7, 1897 - November 4, 1982) was an African American historian and Pan-African activist. ...

References

  • Cash, Wilbur J. The Mind of the South (1941),
  • Richard N. Current, et. al (1987). American History: A Survey 7th ed.. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-31549-9. 
  • Flynt, J. Wayne Dixie's Forgotten People: The South's Poor Whites (1979). deals with 20th century.
  • David M. Katzman. "Black Migration", The Reader's Companion to American History. Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • James Grossman (1996). "Chicago and the 'Great Migration'". Illinois History Teacher 3 (2). 
  • Grady McWhiney. In Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South (1988)
  • Mary Odem "Global Lives, Local Struggles: Latin American Immigrants in Atlanta'" Southern Spaces 2006
  • John O. Allen and Clayton E. Jewett (2004). Slavery in the South: A State-by-State History. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32019-5. 
  • Rayford Logan (1997). The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80758-0. 
  • William B. Hesseltine (1936). A History of the South, 1607-1936. Prentice-Hall. 
  • George Sanchez "Latinos, the American South, and the Future of U.S. Race Relations" Southern Spaces 2007
  • (1979) in Robert W. Twyman. and David C. Roller, ed.: Encyclopedia of Southern History. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-0575-9. 
  • Winders, Jamie. "Latino Migration and Nashville, Tennessee," Southern Spaces 2004.
  • (1989) in Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, ed.: Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1823-2. 

--- External sources Rayford Wittingham Logan (January 7, 1897 - November 4, 1982) was an African American historian and Pan-African activist. ...

Further reading

  • Edward L. Ayers (1993). The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508548-5. 
  • Monroe Lee Billington (1975). The Political South in the 20th Century. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-13983-9. 
  • Earl Black and Merle Black (2002). The Rise of Southern Republicans. Belknap press. ISBN 0-674-01248-8. 
  • W. J. Cash (1935). The Mind of the South. ISBN 0-679-73647-6. 
  • Pete Daniel (2000). Lost Revolutions: The South in the 1950s. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4848-4. 
  • Michael Kreyling (1998). Inventing Southern Literature. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-045-1. 
  • Heather A. Haveman (2004). "Antebellum literary culture and the evolution of American magazines". Poetics 32: 5-28. 
  • Eugene D. Genovese (1976). Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. ISBN 0-394-71652-3. 
  • Lawrence W. Levine (1978). Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-502374-9. 
  • Peter J. Parish (1989). Slavery: History and Historians. Westview Press. ISBN 0-06-430182-6. 
  • Howard N. Rabinowitz (September 1976). "From Exclusion to Segregation: Southern Race Relations, 1865-1890". Journal of American History 43: 325-50. 
  • Nicol C. Rae (1994). Southern Democrats. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508709-7. 
  • Jeffrey A. Raffel (1998). Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29502-6. 
  • C. Vann Woodward (1955). The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514690-5. 
  • Richard Wright (1945). Black Boy. Harper & Brothers.  a novel.
  • Gavin Wright. Old South, New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy Since the Civil War. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-2098-7. 
  • Michael Andrew Grissom (1989). Southern by the Grace of God. Pelican. ISBN 0-88289-761-6. 

For other persons of the same name, see Richard Wright. ... This article is about a novel. ...

External links

  • DocSouth: Documenting the American South - numerous online text, image, and audio collections
  • Center for the Study of the American South - an academic center devoted to the study of "southern history, literature, and culture as well as ongoing social, political, and economic issues"
  • Dixie's dead, long live the South
  • Southern Arts Federation
  • Southern Spaces-- an open-access peer-reviewed scholarly journal examining the spaces and places of the American South.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Southern United States - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (4888 words)
Southern American English is a dialect of the English language spoken throughout the South.
Characteristics of southern literature including a focus on a common southern history, the significance of family, a sense of community and one’s role within it, the community's dominating religion and the burden religion often brings, issues of racial tension, land and the promise it brings, and the use of southern dialect.
The easternmost tip of the state is close enough to Baltimore and Washington, DC that it too has started to become an exurb of these areas with a unique North-South "hybrid" culture (in fact, the two easternmost counties, Berkeley and Jefferson, are considered part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area by the Census Bureau).
Southern United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6530 words)
The United States government refused to recognize the new country, and kept in operation its second to last fort in the South, which the Confederacy captured in April 1861 at the Battle of Fort Sumter, in the port of Charleston, South Carolina, triggering the Civil War.
Southern Democrats took notice of the fact that 1964 Republican Presidential candidate Barry Goldwater had voted against the Civil Rights Act, and in the presidential election of 1964, Goldwater's only electoral victories outside his home state of Arizona were in the states of the Deep South.
Characteristics of southern literature including a focus on a common southern history, the significance of family, a sense of community and one's role within it, the community's dominating religion and the burden religion often brings, issues of racial tension, land and the promise it brings, and the use of southern dialect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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