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Encyclopedia > Southern Slavs

The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. They are defined by speaking Slavic languages and reside chiefly in Eastern Europe, but are also found in Asia. The idea that the Slavic people have something in common apart from the origin of their languages is connected with romantic nationalism, the panslavism movement and the notion of race as the biological basis of nations. World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... World map showing location of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain political claims based on that belief, above all the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation is... National flag of all Slavs approved on the Pan-Slav convention in Prague in 1848 The 19th century movement Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples. ... A race is a population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ...

Contents


Ethno-cultural subdivisions

Slavs are customarily divided into three major subgroups: East Slavs, West Slavs, and South Slavs, each with a somewhat different background. Basically, the East Slavs may all be traced to Slavic speaking populations that were organised as Kievan Rus beginning in the 9th century AD. Almost all of the South Slavs can be traced to originally non-Slavic (Turkic or Sarmatian) steppe populations that were assimilated to the Slavic language during this same general period, as they migrated to the Balkans. The West Slavs (and the Slovenes) do not share either of these backgrounds, but gradually expanded so far to the West that they fell into the cultural sphere of Western (Roman Catholic) Christendom around this timeframe. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ...


(*) Classification disputed. Lipovans or Lippovans (Old Faith Believers, Old Rite Followers) are a small (about 40,000) Slavic ethnic group of Russian origin residing in the delta of the Danube River in Tulcea county of eastern Romania. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Rysins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the Ruthenians that did not become Ukrainians in the 19th century. ... Lemko - one of four major groups of Ruthenian montagnards of the northwest Carpathian mountain chain, having a unique dialect and culture. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hutsuls or Huculs (Ukrainian: Гуцули, singular Гуцул) are a group of Ukrainian highlanders, considered a subgroup of Rusyns by some references. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Rysins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the Ruthenians that did not become Ukrainians in the 19th century. ... Lemko - one of four major groups of Ruthenian montagnards of the northwest Carpathian mountain chain, having a unique dialect and culture. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hutsuls or Huculs (Ukrainian: Гуцули, singular Гуцул) are a group of Ukrainian highlanders, considered a subgroup of Rusyns by some references. ... Poleszuk (Polish), Poliszuk or Polishchuk (local Ukrainian dialect), Palyashchuk (Belarusian), or Poleshchuk (Russian) is the name given to the people who populated the swamps of Polesie. ... The Lechitic languages include three languages spoken in Central Europe, principally in Poland and historically also in eastern part of today Germany. ... Mazurs are Polish ethnic group from Mazovia (Catholics) or East Prussia (Protestant), the latter often called Masurians in English. ... Polans (western) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Vistulans (Polish: WiÅ›lanie) were a Lechitic tribe inhabiting, since at least 7th century, lands known today as Lesser Poland. ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Kashubians (also Kassubians, or Cassubians, in Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Lebsko in Pomerania. ... Polabians are a Slavic people historically dwelling in the basin of the Elbe and on the Baltic coast of Germany. ... Wolin is the name shared by an island located in the Baltic Sea located just off the Polish coast, and a town located on the island. ... Pyrzyce (see also Cities alternative names), is a town in Pomerania, north-western Poland, with some 11,000 inhabitants (1980) Capital of the Pyrzyce County in West Pomeranian Voivodship(since 1999), previously in Szczecin Voivodship (1975-1998). ... The Veleti are a group of the Polabian Slavs. ... The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Moravians are the Slavic inhabitants of modern Moravia, the easternmost part of the Czech Republic. ... Moravians are the Slavic inhabitants of modern Moravia, the easternmost part of the Czech Republic. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Rysins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the Ruthenians that did not become Ukrainians in the 19th century. ... Sorbian national flag National costume of Lusatian Sorbs as worn in the northern part of Lusatia The Sorbs (also Lusatians or Wends) are a relatively small west Slavic people, living as a minority in the region known as Lusatia in the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR... Muslim Bulgarians (also Bulgarian Mohammedans, bul:Българи-мохамедани; local: Pomak, Ahrian, Poganets, Marvak, Poturnak) are descendants of Christian Bulgarians who were forcibly converted to Islam by the Turks, during the 16th and the 18th century. ... The Macedonian Slavs are an ethnic group which forms about a third of the population of the geographical region of Macedonia in southeastern Europe and about two thirds of the population of the Republic of Macedonia¤. They speak the Slavic Macedonian language and are generally associated with the Macedonian¤ Orthodox... The Torbesh are a Muslim Slav Macedonian people. ... Bosniaks (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci) are a Southeast European ethnic group, descended from Slavic converts to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century), living primarily in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Bosniaks (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci) are a Southeast European ethnic group, descended from Slavic converts to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century), living primarily in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe people who spoke Serbo-Croatian language and professed Islam that werent identified as one of the other nations. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... The Bokelj people (pl. ... Bunjevci (singular Bunjevac, pronounced Bunyevtzi and Bunyevatz resp. ... Janjevci are inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered around Letnica near Vitina (Papare, Vrmez, Vrnavo Kolo). ... Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the Molise region of Italy. ... Bunjevci (singular Bunjevac, pronounced Bunyevtzi and Bunyevatz resp. ... The Yugoslavs were a relatively short-lived nationality that was created at the time of Yugoslavia. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Krashovani (Serbian:Крашовани, also Karashevci/Карашевци) are an ethnic-Serb subgroup living in the Romanian Banat around the town of Caraşova (Serbian: Царашево/Caraševo). ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... The Gorani are a Slav ethnic group living in a region called Gora (Slavic for Mountain) just south of Prizren in the Serbian province of Kosovo and Metohija, currently under NATO and United Nations administration. ... The Gorani are a Slav ethnic group living in a region called Gora (Slavic for Mountain) just south of Prizren in the Serbian province of Kosovo and Metohija, currently under NATO and United Nations administration. ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians). ...


The emergence of Proto-Slavic

The Proto-Slavic (or Proto-Balto-Slavic) language branched off at some uncertain time in an unknown location from common Proto-Indo-European, becoming a separate Indo-European language: Proto-Slavic, a hypothetical (reconstructed) language whence Common Slavonic and the later individual Slavic languages emerged. This article or section should include material from Common Slavonic Proto-Slavic is a reconstructed language which is a common ancestor of all Slavic languages. ... The Balto-Slavic language group is a hypothetical language group consisting of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... This article or section should be merged with Proto-Slavic language Common Slavonic is the common language spoken by the Slavs, which eventually broke up into the ancestors of the modern Slavic languages. ...


The Slavic homeland debates

General argument

A common theory is that the Proto-Indo-Europeans, and also the later Proto-Slavs, originated from the steppes of Ukraine and southern Russia (see Kurgan hypothesis). However, other scholars believe that the Proto-Slavs had been in north-east Central Europe since very early times, and were the bearers of the Lusatian culture and later the Przeworsk culture (and were also part of the Chernyakhov culture). However, this latter theory does not contradict the Kurgan hypothesis. This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300-500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland, parts of Czech Republic and Slovakia (in older articles described also as Czechoslovakia) and parts of Ukraine. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... The Chernyakhov culture (3rd century - 5th century) was a material culture, the distribution of which corresponded roughly to the Ukraine and parts of Belarus. ...


There are thus two major historical theories that address the issue of the original homeland of Slavs:

  1. the autochthonic theory assumes that Slavs had lived north of the Carpathian Mountains since the Lusatian culture (before 1000 BC).
  2. the allochthonic theory assumes that the Slavs came there in the 5th or 6th century AD.

Germans and different Slavic nations have employed either of these theories as tools of political propaganda, resulting in general confusion. Some scientists (such as Kazimierz Godlowski or Zdenek Vana) consider both theories absurd: they think that Slavs as such appeared and differentiated themselves from other tribes some time after 1 AD. This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300-500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland, parts of Czech Republic and Slovakia (in older articles described also as Czechoslovakia) and parts of Ukraine. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Events The first full year in the life of Jesus as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his Anno Domini era. ...


Many regions have been proposed as the hypothetical Slavic homeland. Suggestions include today's Poland, the marshes of Polesie, Volhynia, areas around the upper Dniepr river, and even Central Asia. Slavs first appeared in history living in the Pripyat Marshes area (Polesie). Polesie (Polish spelling; Polissya, Полісся in Ukrainian, Polesye, Полесье in Russian, Palyessye or Palesse, Пале́сьсе in Belarusian, formerly also Polesia in Latin) is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South-Western part of the Eastern-European Lowland, within the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Poland. ... The Dnieper River (Belarusian: Дняпро/Dnyapro; Russian: Днепр/Dnepr; Ukrainian: Днiпро/Dnipro; Polish: Dniepr; Latin: Borysthenes, Danaper) is a river (2290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Pinsk Marshes (Пинские болота) or Pripyat Marshes (Pripet Marshes, Припятские болота) is a vast territory of wetlands along the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest, Belarus (West) to Mahileu (Northeast) and Kiev (Southeast). ...


Diverse theories

Around 500 BC, Celtic tribes settled along the upper Oder river (Odra), and Germanic tribes settled on the lower Vistula and the lower Oder rivers. The lands of the Elbe, Oder, and Vistula regions all came to be known as Magna Germania by ca. 100 AD. It has not been verified whether any Slavic tribes were settled in these regions at that time. The word Celtic can refer to: the European Celtic people, ancient or modern the Celtic languages, spoken by these people and their modern descendents the Celtic (Lusitania), Celts from the Alentejo. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... Length 1,047 km Elevation of the source 1,106 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 192,000 km² Origin Barania Góra, Beskidy Mouth GdaÅ„sk Bay, Baltic Sea Basin countries Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Slovakia Vistula (Polish: WisÅ‚a) is the longest river in Poland. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe   listen?, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe, Hungarian Elba) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ...


One theory suggests that two waves of Slavs existed: Proto-Slavs (called by these theorists "Venedes" or "Wenets"), and the Slavs proper; and that these two groups were mixed to become today's Slavs. However, the claim that the Venedes were a Slavic or even a proto-Slavic people is very controversial, and many scholars believe that the Venedes belonged to another Indo-European branch, rather than Slavic. Venedes is the term used in a number of ancient texts, starting with Tacitus, to describe an ethnic group living (presumably) in Central Europe. ... Venedes is the term used in a number of ancient texts, starting with Tacitus, to describe an ethnic group living (presumably) in Central Europe. ... Venedes is the term used in a number of ancient texts, starting with Tacitus, to describe an ethnic group living (presumably) in Central Europe. ...


The Chernoles culture is "sometimes portrayed as either a state in the development of the Slavic languages or at least some form of late Indo-European ancestral to the evolution of the Slavic stock" (James P. Mallory, "Chernoles Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997).


Another recent theory, relying on the multiregional origin hypothesis claims an autochthonous Slavic origin from pre-glacial times. The Slavic homeland would thus have included areas described by Tacitus as Germania. This theory has little support among scientists. This article is in need of attention. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Germania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Still more confusion comes from the fact that some Slavic peoples have originated as a result of complete assimilation of non-Slavic peoples. Myth-weavers often seize upon this phenomenon (which happened in some cases) to create spurious pseudo-histories (see connection between Poles and Vandals). History -- Historical myths -- Myths from Polish history --- History of Poland In the Middle Ages and later there persisted a common belief that the Vandals were ancestors of Poles or Slavic peoples. ...


"Ukrainians as Aryans" theory

Finally, several new theories of the origin of Slavs were published, and found large numbers of followers, in the 1990s and 2000s, fueled by the rise of nationalism in Ukraine. Most of them attempt to establish a direct connection between the Slavs and Aryans. Some even claim that Slavs existed as an entity as early as the 7th to 5th millennium BC and were ancestors of the Sumerians. They say that the fabled Sumerian city of Aratta was located in Ukraine. // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ... Saddam Hussein shortly after his capture Major controversy over U.S. presidential election, 2000 September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on New Yorks World Trade Center and Virginias Pentagon killing almost 3000 people. ... Aryan is an English word derived from the Indian Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Old Persian ariya- is a cognate as well. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events Circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia Circa 6300 BC – The approximate date man reappears in the area New York Circa 6000 BC – Neolithic Age in Korea Circa 6000 BC – First traces of habitation... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Aratta was an ancient state formation in Middle East. ...


There is plenty of archeological evidence for settlements in northern Ukraine and Poland as far back as 3rd millennium BC (Trypillian, Tishinets, Peshevor, Zarubinets cultures). People who lived there supported themselves principally by means of agriculture; some of them had mastered the use of metal by the 8th century BC. The absence of a written language leaves it open for debate whether those people were in any way related to modern Slavs. (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) Events Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari (29th century BC ) Iraq: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest known tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in... Trypillian culture is the culture of the Neolithic people identified on the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania, which existed between 5400 BC and 2700 BC. The name derives from the village of Trypillia (Трипiлля) near Kiev, Ukraine, where it was discovered by archeologists in 1897. ... (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Golden age in Armenia Assyria...


Ethnonyms applied to Slavs

The peoples we now know as Slavs appeared in early histories as "Venedes" or "Wends", but as noted above, their connection to the Venedes mentioned by Tacitus, Ptolemy and Pliny remains uncertain, and the use of the term "Venedes" or "Wends" for Slavs may have come about by way of a later misidentification of the Slavs with the earlier Venedes. Venedes is the term used in a number of ancient texts, starting with Tacitus, to describe an ethnic group living (presumably) in Central Europe. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus, given contemporary German styling, in a 16th century engraved book frontispiece Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος; c. ... Gaius Plinius Secundus, (23–79) better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient author and scientist of some importance who wrote Naturalis Historia. ... Venedes is the term used in a number of ancient texts, starting with Tacitus, to describe an ethnic group living (presumably) in Central Europe. ...


Some later writers recorded the names of Slavic peoples as Sclavens, Sclovene, and Ants. Jordanes mentions that the Venets sub-divided into three groups: the Venets, the Ants and the Sklavens. Traditionally the name "Venets" has become associated with the Western Slavs, "Sklavens" with the Southern Slavs, and the "Ants" (or "Antes") with the Eastern Slavs.


Etymology of 'Slav'

Even the origin of the word "Slav" remains controversial. In the Old Slavonic language that word is "slověne". Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...


There are obvious similarities to the word slovo meaning "word, talk". Thus slověne would mean "people who speak (the same language)", i.e. people who understand each other, as opposed to the Slavic word for Germans, nemtsi, meaning "speechless people" (from Slavic němi - mute, silent, dumb). Compare the Greek coinage of the term "barbarian". Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ...


Another obvious similarity links "Slavs" to the word slava, that is "glory" or "praise". The word came about from the verb "slyti", "to be known about"; it arises from the corresponding causative verb, "slaviti".


Sometimes "slav" is calculated to derive from "slov-" by the distinctly Russian phenomenon of akanie. Almost every Slavic nation which retains its initial name for "Slav" uses the word "slověne" for the meaning. Akanie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Some linguists believe, however, that these obvious connections mislead, because, for example, in Russian the suffix -yane in slavyane occurs only with adjectives formed from place names (e.g. anglichane).


Slavs in the Historical period

Slavs emerged from obscurity when the westward movement of Germans and Celts in the 5th and 6th centuries AD (necessitated by the onslaught of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars) started the great migration of the Slavs, who followed in the Germans' wake: westward into the country between the Odra and the Elbe-Saale line; southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of present day Austria, the Pannonian plain and the Balkans; and northward along the upper Dnieper river. (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, whose branches became Slavicized and Turkic over time. ... Árpád Feszty and assistants vast (over 8000 m2) canvas, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Site in Hungary Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe   listen?, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe, Hungarian Elba) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... Saale is the name of two rivers in Germany: the Saxonian Saale (German: Sächsische Saale) and the Franconian Saale (German: Fränkische Saale). ... Bohemia Historical map showing Bohemia proper in pink, Moravia in yellow, and Silesia in orange Bohemia (Czech: ÄŒechy; German: Böhmen, Russian: Bogemiya) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Moravia (Czech: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is the eastern part of the Czech Republic. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... This article is about the river. ...


When their migratory movements ended, there appeared among the Slavs the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a prince with a treasury and defense force; and the beginnings of class differentiation, with nobles who pledged allegiance to the Frankish and Holy Roman Emperors. A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ...


In the 7th century the Frankish nobleman Samo, who supported the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe. Karantania in today's Austria and Slovenia was one Slavic state; very old also are the Principality of Nitra and the Moravian principality (see under Great Moravia). In this period there existed central Slavic groups and states, such as the Balaton Principality or the Severans, but the subsequent expansion of the Magyars and Romanians, as well as the Germanisation of Austria, separated the northern and southern Slavs. // Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Syria, Iraq, Persia, North Africa and Central Asia convert to Islam. ... King Samo (? – 658) was a merchant born in the Senonian country (Senonago) (probably todays Sens in France). ... The word Avars can mean: The nomadic people that conquered the Hungarian Steppe in the early Middle Ages, the Eurasian Avars. ... Karantania with Carniola around 597 Karantania sometimes Carantania, Carentania, Carinthia (in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was the first stable and independent state of Slovenians and of Slavs. ... Nitra (in German: Neutra, in Hungarian: Nyitra [in the past frequently Nyitria]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra river valley. ... Moravians are the Slavic inhabitants of modern Moravia, the easternmost part of the Czech Republic. ... Great Moravia (Old Church Slavonic approximately Велья Морава, Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The Balaton Principality (also called Pannonian or Transdanubian Principality, in Slovak: Blatensk kniežatstvo, in Bulgarian: Blatensko Knezevstvo) (839/840-876) was a Slavic principality (duchy) located in the western part of the Pannonian plain, between rivers Danube to its east, Drava and Mura to the south, the R ba river... Severans (people of/from the North) were a Slavic tribal union occupying areas from the west Pannonian plain to the Black Sea in the 6th to 9th century. ... Árpád Feszty and assistants vast (over 8000 m2) canvas, painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at Ópusztaszer National Memorial Site in Hungary Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. ...


In the early history of the Slavs, and continuing into the Dark Ages, non-Slavic groups were sometimes assimilated by Slavic-speaking populations: the Bulgars became Slavicized and their Turkic tongue disappeared; in other cases, Slavs themselves were assimilated into other groups such as the Romanians, Magyars, Greeks, etc. The Croats and the Serbs were probably merged Alans and/or Illyrians. Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, whose branches became Slavicized and Turkic over time. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Alans or Alani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ...


Scarcely any unity developed among various Slavic peoples in the early historic period, although faint traces of co-operation sometimes appeared. Because of the vastness and diversity of the territory occupied by Slavic peoples, there were several centers of Slavic consolidation, a process that was never completed for many reasons. In the 19th century, Pan-Slavism developed as a movement among intellectuals, scholars, and poets, but it rarely influenced practical politics.Tsarists Russia used panslavism as ideology justifing its territorial conquests in Central Europe, and as such the ideology became associated with Russian imperialism. The common Slavic experience of communism combined with the repeated usage of the ideology by Soviet propaganda after World War II within the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) was a forced high-level political and economic hegemony of USSR dominated by Russians, and as such despised by rest of conquered nations. A notable political union of the 20th century that covered many South Slavs was Yugoslavia, but it broke apart as well. National flag of all Slavs approved on the Pan-Slav convention in Prague in 1848 The 19th century movement Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... Map of Warsaw Pact member countries. ... Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ...


Nazi Germany, whose proponents claimed a racial superiority for the Germanic people, particularly over Semitic and Slavic peoples, plotted an enslavement of the Slavic peoples, and the reduction of their numbers by killing the majority of the population. As a result, a large number of Slavs were slain during World War II. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Semitic is an adjective referring to the peoples who have traditionally spoken Semitic languages or to things pertaining to them. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. ...


Religion and alphabet

In religion, the Slavs traditionally divided into two main groups:

  1. those associated with the Orthodox Churches - most Russians, most Ukrainians, most Belarusians, some Carpatho-Ruthenians (Rusyns), most Serbs, most Bulgarians and most Macedonians
  2. those associated with the Catholic Church (both Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic) - Poles, some Sorbs, some Czechs, most Slovaks, Croats, Slovenians, some Ukrainians, a few Serbs, a few Macedonians and some Belarusians.

Some Sorbs profess Protestantism, as do certain Slovaks, and a few Czechs and Slovenians. Most Bosniaks, Pomaks, Gorani, and Torbesh are Muslims. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Rysins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the Ruthenians that did not become Ukrainians in the 19th century. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Sorbian national flag National costume of Lusatian Sorbs as worn in the northern part of Lusatia The Sorbs (also Lusatians or Wends) are a relatively small west Slavic people, living as a minority in the region known as Lusatia in the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid to late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Bosniaks (Bosnian: Bošnjaci) are a Southeast European ethnic group, descended from Slavic converts to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century), living primarily in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Pomaks can mean: Muslim Bulgarians, the descendants of Bulgarian Christians who converted to Islam under the Ottomans. ... Gorani could be the name of: Gorani, (a. ... The Torbesh are a Muslim Slav Macedonian people. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


The Orthodox/Catholic religious divisions become further exacerbated by the use of the Cyrillic alphabet by the Orthodox and Uniates (Greek Catholics) and of the Roman alphabet by Roman Catholics. However, Serbian language can be written in both Cyrillic and Roman alphabets. There is also a Latin script to write in Belarusian, called Lacinka alphabet. Bosnian language was written in Arabic alphabet until the 20th century. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Central-South Slavic diasystem, formerly (and still frequently) called Serbo-Croatian. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Bosnian language (Bosanski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Central South Slavic diasystem, formerly known as Serbo-Croatian. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Slavs of America, Origin of Slavs & A little Slavic History (811 words)
"The East Slavs, ancestors of the Russians, the Ukrainians, and the Belarussians.
The West Slavs, ancestors of the Poles, the Czechs, and the Slovaks.
And the South Slavs, ancestors of the Bulgarians, the Serbs, and the Croatians"
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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