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Encyclopedia > Southern Manifesto

The Southern Manifesto was a document written in 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. It was signed by 96 politicians from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This Article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


The document was largely drawn up to counter the landmark Supreme Court 1954 ruling Brown v. Board of Education, which integrated public schools. It was signed by 19 Senators and 77 members of the House of Representatives, including the entire congressional delegations of the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Virginia. All of the signatories were Southern Democrats but two: Republicans Joel Broyhill and Richard Poff of Virginia. School segregation laws were some of the most enduring and best-known of the Jim Crow laws that characterized the American South and several northern states at the time. Holding Racial segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


Signatories

United States Senate Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ...

Non-Signatories: credited to the United States Senate Historical Office John Jackson Sparkman (December 20, 1899 – November 16, 1985) was a United States politician from Alabama. ... Lister Hill was born in Montgomery, Alabama on December 29, 1896, the son of one of the Souths most distinguished surgeons, Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill. ... James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a well-known member of the United States Senate representing Arkansas. ... John Little McClellan (25 February 1896 – 28 November 1977) was a member of the US Senate|United States Senate and United States House of Representatives from Arkansas. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years. ... Spessard Lindsey Holland (July 10, 1892–November 6, 1971) was an American politician. ... Walter Franklin George (January 29, 1878 – August 24, 1957) was an American politician from the state of Georgia. ... Richard Russell, Jr. ... Allen Joseph Ellender (September 24, 1890 - July 27, 1972) was a U.S. political figure from Houma, Louisiana who served as a Democratic United States Senator from Louisiana from 1937 until his death in 1972. ... Russell Billiu Long (November 3, 1918 – May 9, 2003) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate as a Democrat from Louisiana from 1948 until 1987. ... James Oliver Eastland (November 28, 1904–February 19, 1986) was an American politician from Mississippi who served in the U.S. Senate briefly in 1941 and again from 1943 to 1978. ... John Cornelius Stennis (August 3, 1901 - April 23, 1995) was a Senator from the state of Mississippi. ... Samuel James Ervin Jr. ... William Kerr Scott (born 17 April 1896 Haw River, North Carolina - died 16 April 1958 Burlington, North Carolina) was the Democratic Governor of North Carolina from 1949 to 1953. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... Olin DeWitt Talmadge Johnston (November 18, 1896 - April 18, 1965) was a Politician from the U.S. State of South Carolina. ... Texas politician Price Daniel Marion Price Daniel, Sr. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... Absalom Willis Robertson (May 27, 1887 - November 1, 1971) was a politician from the state of Virginia. ...

United States House of Representatives Albert Gore Sr. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...


Alabama: Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ...

Arkansas: George E. Andrews is a Professor of Mathematics at Pennsylvania State University. ... Carl Atwood Elliott (1913-1999) was a U.S. Congressman from the state of Alabama. ... Robert Jones was mayor of Danville, Illinois for 16 years, until 2003. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ...

Florida: Brooks Lawrence Hays (9 August 1898_11 October 1981) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from the State of Arkansas. ... Wilbur Daigh Mills (1909-1992), was a powerful Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from the State of Arkansas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Charles E. Bennett (D)
  • James A. Haley (D)
  • Albert Herlong, Jr. (D)
  • Donald Matthews (D)
  • Paul G. Rogers (D)
  • Robert Sikes (D)

Non-Signatories: Charles Edward Bennett (December 2, 1910 September 6, 2003) was a member of the United States House of Representatives representing a district in Florida from 1949 to 1993. ...

Georgia: Dante Bruno Fascell (March 9, 1917 – November 28, 1998) was a politician from the state of Florida. ...

Louisiana: Paul Eugene Brown (September 7, 1908 - August 5, 1991) was an athletics coach of American football and a major figure in the development of the National Football League. ... John James Flynt, Jr. ... Henderson Lovelace Lanham (September 14, 1888 - November 10, 1957) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Prince Hulon Preston, Jr. ... Carl Vinson (November 18, 1883_June 1, 1981) was a Democratic United States Congressman from Georgia who served for over fifty years in the U.S. House. ... This Article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Mississippi: Thomas Hale Boggs Sr. ... Thomas Overton Brooks (December 21, 1897 - September 16, 1961) was a Democratic representative from Louisiana 1937-1961, chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Science and Astronautics. ... Felix Edward Hébert (October 12, 1901 - December 29, 1979) was a Louisiana politician. ... George Shannon Doc Long (September 11, 1883--March 22, 1958) was a member of the powerful Long political dynasty in Louisiana and a Democratic U.S. representative from the defunct Eighth Congressional District from 1953-1958. ... Edwin Edward Willis (October 2, 1904-- October 24, 1972) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

North Carolina: William Meyers Colmer (February 11, 1890 - September 9, 1980) was a Mississippi politician. ... Jamie Lloyd Whitten (April 18, 1910 – September 9, 1995) was a United States Representative from Mississippi. ... John Bell Williams (December 4, 1918–March 25, 1983) was an American politician who was governor of Mississippi from 1968 to 1972. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ...

Non-Signatories: Hugh Quincy Alexander (7 August 1911 - 17 September 1989) was a Democratic U.S. Representative from North Carolina between 1953 and 1963. ... Graham Arthur Barden (25 September 1896 - 29 January 1967) was a Democratic U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1935 and 1961. ... Herbert Covington Bonner (16 May 1891 - 7 November 1965) was a Democratic U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1940 and 1823. ...

  • Richard Chatham (D)
  • Harold Cooley (D)
  • Charles Deane (D)
  • Charles Jonas (R)

South Carolina: Richard Thurmond Chatham (1896-1957), who usually went by Thurmond Chatham, was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, representing North Carolina from 1949 to 1957. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35...

Tennessee: William Jennings Bryan Dorn (1916-August 13, 2005) was a United States politician from South Carolina who represented the state in the United States House of Representatives from 1947 to 1949 and from 1951 to 1975. ... John Lanneau McMillan (April 12, 1898 - September 3, 1979) was a United States Representative from South Carolina. ... Lucius Mendel Rivers (28 September 1905 – 28 December 1970), was a United States Representative from South Carolina for five days less than thirty years. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ...

Non-Signatories: Jere Cooper (July 20, 1893–December 18, 1957) was a Democratic United States Representative from Tennessee. ... Clifford Davis (November 18, 1897 – June 8, 1970) was a Democratic U.S. Representative from Tennessee from 1940 to 1965. ...

Texas: Howard Henry Baker, Sr. ... Ross Bass (March 17, 1918–January 1, 1993) was a United States Senator from Tennessee from 1964 to 1967. ... Joseph Landon Evins (October 24, 1910–March 31, 1984) was a Democratic U.S. Representative from Tennessee from 1947 to 1977. ... Jospeh Percy Priest (April 1, 1900–October 12, 1956) was a U.S. political figure. ... Brazilla Carroll Reece (December 22, 1889–March 19, 1961) was a U.S. Representative from Tennessee. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...

Non-Signatories: John William Wright Patman (August 6, 1893-March 7, 1976) was a U.S. Congressman from Texas and chair of the House Banking Committee. ... John Vernard Dowdy (February 11, 1912 – April 12, 1995) was an American politician. ... Walter Rogers was a Democratic Congressman from Texas. ... Ovie Clark Fisher (November 22, 1903–December 9, 1994) was a U.S. politician and writer of books about the history of Texas. ...

Virginia: Jack Bascom Brooks (born December 22, 1922) is a Texas politician. ... Portrait of Sam Rayburn Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn (January 6, 1882 – November 16, 1961) was a United States politician from Texas. ... Bruce Reynolds Alger was the second Republican congressman from Texas since Reconstruction, serving from 1955 until 1965. ... Olin E. Teague (7 August 1971) Olin Earl Teague (b. ... Clark Wallace Thompson (1896 – 1981) was born in La Crosse, Wisconsin on August 6, 1896 and moved to Oregon in 1901 with his parents, who settled in Cascade Locks. ... William Homer Thornberry (January 9, 1909 - December 12, 1995) was a United States Representative from the 10th congressional district of Texas from 1948 to 1963. ... William Robert Poage (December 28, 1899 – January 3, 1987) was a Texas politician. ... James Claude Wright, Jr. ... J.T. Rutherford was a Representative from Texas; born in Hot Springs, Arkansas, May 30, 1921; moved to Odessa, Texas, in 1934 and attended the public schools; served as an enlisted man in the United States Marine Corps 1942-1946 with twenty-eight months overseas; awarded the Purple Heart Medal... Martin Dies, Jr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...

William M. Tuck (1896-1983) served as Governor of Virginia from 1946 to 1950 as a Democrat. ... RICHARD HARDING POFF was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1956, representing Virginias Sixth District. ... Howard W. Smith (February 2, 1883—October 3, 1976), U.S. Congressman from Virginia, was a leader of the Conservative coalition. ... Joel Thomas Broyhill (November 4, 1919, Hopewell, Virginia-September 24, 2006, Arlington, Virginia) was a politician and a Congressman from Virginia for 11 terms, from 1953 to 1974. ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Southern Manifesto

The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

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