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Encyclopedia > Southern China

Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ...


North China (北方 Hanyu pinyin: Běifāng) and South China (南方 Hanyu pinyin: Nánfāng) are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions has never been precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts. Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Famous Chinese or Chinese_speaking/writing people. ... For the term used in Computing, see Stereotype (computing). ...

Contents


Extent

The boundary between North China and South China is generally defined to be the Qinling Mountains and Huai River (Huai He). In the eastern provinces like Jiangsu and Anhui, however, the Yangtze River is usually perceived as the north-south boundary instead of the Huai River. There is an ambiguous area, the region around Nanyang, Henan, that lies in the gap where the Qinling has ended and the Huai River has not yet begun; in addition, central Anhui and Jiangsu lie south of the Huai River but north of the Yangtze, making their classification somewhat ambiguous as well. As such, the boundary between North and South China does not follow provincial boundaries; it cuts through Shaanxi, Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu, and creates areas such as Hanzhong (Shaanxi), Xinyang (Henan), and Xuzhou (Jiangsu) that lie on an opposite half of China from the rest of their respective provinces. This may have been deliberate; the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and Han Chinese Ming Dynasty established many of these boundaries intentionally to discourage regionalist separatism. The Qinling Mountains are a major mountain range in central China. ... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Yangtze River (Chinese: 扬子江; pinyin: ) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the... Nanyang (Simplified Chinese: 南阳; Traditional Chinese: 南陽; pinyin: ) is a city in the south of Henan province, China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a northwestern province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Hanzhong (漢中, Wade-Giles: Hanchung) is a city in Shaanxi province, in central China. ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a northwestern province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Xuzhou (Chinese: 徐州; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in northern Jiangsu Province of China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Separatism involves setting oneself or others apart. ...


Areas often thought as being outside "China proper", such as Manchuria, Taiwan, and Inner Mongolia, are also conceived as belonging to either North China or South China according to the framework above. Xinjiang and Tibet are, however, not usually conceived of being part of either north or south. The term China proper is usually used to refer to the historical heartlands of China, and to make a contrast between these heartlands and frontier regions of Outer China (Inner Asia). ... Extent according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: ) and Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: ; literally east-north) are names of a vast region in Northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region and former independent country in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ...


History

China in 1142.
China in 1142.

The concepts of North China and South China originate from differences in climate, geography, culture, and physical traits; as well as several periods of actual political division in history. North China is too cold and dry for rice cultivation (though it does happen today with modern technology) and consists largely of flat plains, grasslands, and desert; while South China is warm and rainy enough for rice and consists of lush mountains cut by river valleys. In addition, North Chinese trace some of their ancestry to Altaic peoples such as the Mongols and Manchus; South Chinese trace some of their ancestry to Tai and Austronesian peoples related to modern Thais and Taiwanese aborigines; this results in obvious differences in physical trait. (Internal migration within China, however, has greatly blurred such differences.) There are also major differences in language, cuisine, and popular entertainment forms. Created and copyright (2004) by Yu Ninjie. ... Created and copyright (2004) by Yu Ninjie. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Muin ad-Din Hasan, Indian Muslim saint Farid ad-Din Attar, Sufi mystic poet Deaths April 21 - Pierre Abélard, French scholastic philosopher (b. ... Cultural studies developed in the late 20th century, in part through the re-introduction of Marxist thought into sociology, and in part through the articulation of sociology and other academic disciplines such as literary criticism. ... Species References ITIS 41975 2002-09-22 Rice (genus Oryza) is a plant of the grass family which is a dietary staple of more than half of the worlds human population. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Chinese: 滿族 pinyin: MÇŽnzú; often shortened to 滿, MÇŽn) are an ethnic group who originated in Manchuria. ... The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ... The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... A Rukai village Chief visiting the Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. ... China has one of the richest culinary heritages on Earth. ... 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ...


Episodes of division into North and South include:

The Southern and Northern Dynasties showed such a high level of polarization between North and South that northerners and southerners referred to each other as barbarians; the Mongol Yuan Dynasty also made use of the concept by dividing Han Chinese into two castes: a higher caste of northerners and a lower caste of southerners. (These were the second-lowest and lowest castes of the Yuan Dynasty.) The Three Kingdoms period (Simplified Chinese: 三国; Traditional Chinese: 三國; Pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the history of China. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicated, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... Events Jin Yuan Di succeeds Jin Min Di; end of the western and beginning of the eastern Jin Dynasty King Marian II of Iberia declares Christianity the official state religion Births February _ Constantine II, Roman Emperor Deaths Categories: 317 ... // Events End of the Jin Dynasty in China. ... This article is about China. ... // Events End of the Jin Dynasty in China. ... Events October 17 - The Adige River overflows its banks, flooding the church of St. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Events Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothar II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Events Battle of Yamen. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Events Clairvaux Abbey is founded by St. ... Events Canonization of Saint Dominic Collapse of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) Deaths Emperor Chukyo of Japan Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... A caste system is a rigid system of social stratification, which divides members of a society into different castes. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ...


Today

GDP per capita in 2002. Disparity in terms of wealth runs in the east-west direction rather than north-south direction.
GDP per capita in 2002. Disparity in terms of wealth runs in the east-west direction rather than north-south direction.

In modern times, North and South is merely one of the ways that Chinese people identify themselves, and the divide between North and South China has been overridden both by a unified Chinese nationalism and as well as by local loyalities to province, county and village which prevent a coherent Northern or Southern identity from forming. GDP per capita in China, 2002. ... GDP per capita in China, 2002. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked the beginning of the upsurge of nationalist feeling in China. ...


Few Chinese people (with the notable exception of Taiwanese politician Lee Teng-hui) would consider the difference between North and South sufficient reason for political division. During the Deng Xiaoping reforms of the 1980s, South China initially developed much more quickly than North China leading some scholars to wonder whether the economic fault line would create political tension between north and south. Some of this was based on the idea that there would be conflict between the bureaucratic north and the commercial south. This has not occurred in part because the economic faultlines eventually created a division between coastal China and the interior which runs in a different direction than the north-south division, and in part because neither north or south has any type of obvious advantage within the Chinese central government. In addition there are other cultural divisions that exist within and across the north-south barrier. Famous Chinese or Chinese_speaking/writing people. ... Taiwan is mostly mountainous in the east but gradually transitions to gently sloping plains in the west. ... Lee Teng-hui, former President of the Republic of China Lee Teng-hui (Chinese: 李登輝; Taiwanese Romanization: Lí Teng-hui; pinyin: Lǐ DÄ“nghuÄ«; born January 15, 1923) is a politician in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; pronounced Dung Shyao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 60s and 70s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


Stereotypes

Nevertheless, the concepts of North and South continue to play an important role in regional stereotypes. For the term used in Computing, see Stereotype (computing). ...


The stereotypical northerner:

  • Is taller, plumper, has fairer skin and straighter hair
  • Speaks a northern Mandarin dialect
  • Eats wheat-based food rather than rice-based food
  • Is loud, boisterous, open, and prone to "thunderbolt" displays of emotion, such as anger
  • Might make a good emperor

The stereotypical southerner: Mandarin   listen?(Traditional: 北方話, Simplified: 北方话, Hanyu Pinyin: BÄ›ifānghuà, lit. ... Species T. boeoticum T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... Species References ITIS 41975 2002-09-22 Rice (genus Oryza) is a plant of the grass family which is a dietary staple of more than half of the worlds human population. ...

  • Is shorter, lankier, has darker skin and wavier hair
  • Speaks a southern dialect
  • Eats rice-based food rather than wheat-based food
  • Is clever, calculating, hardworking, and prone to "mincemeat" displays of emotion, such as brooding melancholy
  • Might make a good tycoon

Note that these are very rough stereotypes, and are greatly complicated both by further stereotypes by province (or even county) and by real life. Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Species References ITIS 41975 2002-09-22 Rice (genus Oryza) is a plant of the grass family which is a dietary staple of more than half of the worlds human population. ... Species T. boeoticum T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ...


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