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Encyclopedia > Southern American English

Southern American English is a group of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from Southern and Eastern Maryland, West Virginia and Kentucky to the Gulf Coast, and from the Atlantic coast to throughout most of Texas. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


The Southern dialects make up the largest accent group in the United States.[1] Southern American English can be divided into different sub-dialects, with speech differing between regions. African American Vernacular English (AAVE) shares similarities with Southern dialect due to African Americans' strong historical ties to the region. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...

Southern American English as defined by the monophthongization of /aɪ/ to [aː] before obstruents (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006:126).
Southern American English as defined by the monophthongization of /aɪ/ to [aː] before obstruents (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006:126).

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In phonetics, articulation may be divided into two large classes, obstruents and sonorants. ...

Overview of Southern dialects

The range of Southern dialects collectively known as Southern American English stretches across the states which seceded to form the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, and into those bordering them. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


This linguistic region includes Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Arkansas, as well as most of Texas, Virginia, and Kentucky. It also takes in southern and eastern Oklahoma, southern West Virginia, Ozark areas of Missouri, and the Florida Panhandle (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006). This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Ozark redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Florida Panhandle is the region of the state of Florida which includes the westernmost 16 counties in the state. ...


Southern dialects substantially originated from immigrants from the British Isles who moved to the South in the 17th and 18th centuries. The South was predominantly settled by immigrants from the West Country[citation needed] in the southwest of England, the dialects of which have similarities to the Southern US dialects. Settlement also included large numbers of Protestants from Ulster, Ireland, and from Scotland. During the migration south and west, the settlers encountered the French immigrants of New France (from which Kentucky, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi and western Tennessee originated), and the French accent itself fused into the British and Irish accents. The modern Southern dialects were born. This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... This article is about the country. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


Phonology

Few generalizations can be made about Southern pronunciation as a whole, as there is great variation between regions in the South (see the different southern American English dialects section below for more information) and between older and younger people. Upheavals such as the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl and World War II caused mass migrations throughout the United States. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Farmer and two sons during a dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936 The Dust Bowl, or the dirty thirties, was a period of horrible dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Older SAE

The following features are characteristic of older SAE:

  • Like Australian English and English English, the English of the coastal Deep South is historically non-rhotic: it drops the sound of final /r/ before a consonant or a word boundary, so that guard sounds similar to God (but the former has a longer vowel than the latter) and sore like saw. Intrusive /r/, where an /r/ sound is inserted at a word break between two vowel sounds ("lawr and order") is not a feature of coastal SAE, as it is in many other non-rhotic accents. Today only some areas like New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, and Norfolk have non-rhotic speakers (Labov, Ash, and Bomberg 2006: 47-48). Non-rhoticity is rapidly disappearing from almost all Southern accents, to a greater degree than it has been lost in the other traditionally non-rhotic dialects of the East Coast such as New York and Boston. The remaining non-rhotic SAE speakers also use intrusive r, like New England and New York City.
  • The distinction between the vowels sounds of words like caught and cot or talk and tock is mainly preserved. In much of the Deep South, the vowel found in words like talk and caught has developed into a diphthong, so that it sounds like the diphthong used in the word loud in the Northern United States.
  • The distinction between /ɔr/ and /or/, as in horse and hoarse, for and four etc., is preserved.
  • The wine-whine merger has not occurred, and these two words are pronounced with /w/ and /hw/ respectively.
  • Lack of yod-dropping, thus pairs like do/due and loot/lute are distinct. Historically, words like due, lute, and new contained /juː/ (as RP does), but Labov, Ash, and Boberg (2006: 53-54) report that the only Southern speakers today who make a distinction use a diphthong /ɪu/ in such words. They further report that speakers with the distinction are found primarily in North Carolina and northwest South Carolina, and in a corridor extending from Jackson to Tallahassee.
  • The distinction between /ær/, /ɛr/, and /er/ in marry, merry, and Mary may be preserved by older speakers, but fewer young people make a distinction. The r-sound becomes almost a vowel, and may be elided after a long vowel, as it often is in AAVE.

Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The linking R is a phonological phenomenon of most (but not all) non-rhotic dialects of English. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... New York Dialect is the variety of the English language spoken by most European Americans in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including Northern New Jersey, Westchester and Rockland counties, and all of Long Island. ... Phonological characteristics All phonetic transcriptions in X-SAMPA; for example: how are you? howa:j@ Deletion of post-vocalic r` The traditional Boston accent is non-rhotic; in other words, the phoneme r` does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant. ... The linking R, also known as the intrusive R, is a phenomenon found in certain dialects of English, such as Estuary English and Eastern New England English, whereby an R sound is inserted to separate two words which would otherwise run together, rather than make use of a glottal stop. ... // Father-bother merger The father-bother merger is a merger of the Early Modern English vowels and that occurs in almost all varieties of North American English (exceptions are accents in Eastern New England (such as the Boston accent) and New York-New Jersey English. ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ... The hole-whole merger is the replacement of with before the vowels and which occurred in Old English resulting in the following pronunciations: who - whom - whole - whore - hole and whole became homophonous. ... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant reductions that have occurred in the history of English involving consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about Jackson, the city and related subjects within the city. ... Tallahassee redirects here. ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ...

Newer SAE

The following phenomena are relatively wide spread in Newer SAE, though degree of features may differ between different regions and between rural and urban areas. The older the speaker the less likely he or she is to have these features:

  • The merger of [ɛ] and [ɪ] before nasal consonants, so that pen and pin are pronounced the same, but the pin-pen merger is not found in New Orleans, Savannah, or Miami (which does not fall within the Southern dialect region). This sound change has spread beyond the South in recent decades and is now found in parts of the Midwest and West as well.
  • Lax and tense vowels often neutralize before /l/, making pairs like feel/fill and fail/fell homophones for speakers in some areas of the South. Some speakers may distinguish between the two sets of words by reversing the normal vowel sound, e.g., feel in SAE may sound like fill, and vice versa (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006: 69-73).

Phonemic differentiation is the phenomenon of a phoneme in a language splitting into two phonemes over time, a process known as a phonemic split. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... // Weak vowel merger The weak vowel merger (or Lennon-Lenin merger) is a phonemic merger of (schwa) with unstressed (sometimes written as ) in certain dialects of English. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Savannah redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... // Salary-celery merger The salary-celery merger is a conditioned merger of (as in bat) and (as in bet) when they occur before , thus making salary and celery homophones. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ...

Shared features

The following features are also associated with SAE:

  • /z/ becomes [d] before /n/, for example [wʌdn̩t] wasn't, [bɪdnɪs] business, but hasn't is sometimes still pronounced [hæzənt] because there already exists a word hadn't pronounced [hædənt].
  • Many nouns are stressed on the first syllable that would be stressed on the second syllable in other accents. These include police, cement, Detroit, Thanksgiving, insurance, behind, display, recycle, TV, and umbrella.
  • The Southern Drawl, breaking of the short front vowels in the words pat, pet, and pit: these develop a glide up from their original starting position to [j], and then in some cases back down to schwa.
/æ/ → [æjə]
/ɛ/ → [ɛjə]
/ɪ/ → [ɪjə]
  • The Southern (Vowel) Shift, a chain shift of vowels which is described by Labov as:
    • As a result of the "drawl" described above, [ɪ] moves to become a high front vowel, and [ɛ] to become a mid front vowel. In a parallel shift, the nuclei of [i] and [e] relax and become less front.
    • The back vowels /u/ in boon and /o/ in code shift considerably forward.
    • The open back unrounded vowel /ɑr/ card shifts upward towards /ɔ/ board, which in turn moves up towards the old location of in boon. This particular shift probably does not occur for speakers with the cot-caught merger.
    • The diphthong /aɪ/ becomes monophthongized to [aː]. Some speakers exhibit this feature at the ends of words and before voiced consonants but not before voiceless consonants; some others in fact exhibit Canadian-style raising before voiceless consonants, so that ride is [raːd] and wide is [waːd], but right is [rəɪt] and white is [ʍəɪt]; others monophthongize /aɪ/ in all contexts.
  • The distinction between /ɝ/ and /ʌr/ in furry and hurry is preserved.
  • In some regions of the south, there is a merger of [ɔr] and [ɑr], making cord and card, for and far, form and farm etc. homonyms.
  • The distinction between /ɪr/ and /iːr/ in mirror and nearer, Sirius and serious etc. is not preserved.
  • /i/ is replaced with /ɛ/ at the end of a word, so that furry is pronounced as /fɝrɛ/ ("furreh")
  • The distinction between /ʊr/ and /ɔr/ in pour and poor, moor and more is not preserved.
  • The l's in the words walk and talk are occasionally pronounced, causing the words talk and walk to be pronounced /wɑlk/ and /tɑlk/ by some southerners. A sample of that pronunciation can be found at http://www.utexas.edu/courses/linguistics/resources/socioling/talkmap/talk-nc.html.

The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... // Father-bother merger The father-bother merger is a merger of the Early Modern English vowels and that occurs in almost all varieties of North American English (exceptions are accents in Eastern New England (such as the Boston accent) and New York-New Jersey English. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Canadian raising is a phonetic phenomenon that occurs in varieties of the English language, especially Canadian English, in which diphthongs are raised before voiceless consonants (e. ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ...

Grammar

Older SAE

  • Zero plural-second person copula.
You [Ø] taller than Sheila
They [Ø] gonna leave today (Cukor-Avila, 2003).
  • Use of the circumfix a- . . . -in'.
He was ahootin' and ahollerin'.'
The wind was ahowlin'.'
  • The use of like to to mean something like nearly, often used in violent situations.
I like to had a heart attack.

Newer SAE

  • Use of the contraction y'all as the second person plural pronoun.[2] Its uncombined form — you all — is used less frequently.[3]
  • When speaking about a group, y'all is general (I know y'all) —as in that group of people is familiar to you and you know them as a whole, whereas all y'all is much more specific and means you know each and every person in that group, not as a whole, but individually ("I know all y'all.") Y'all can also be used with the standard "-s" possessive.
"I've got y'all's assignments here."
  • Y'all is distinctly separate from the singular you. The statement, "I gave y'all my payment last week," is more precise than "I gave you my payment last week." You (if interpreted as singular) could imply the payment was given directly to the person being spoken to — when that may not be the case.
  • Some people misinterpret the phrase "all y'all" as meaning that Southerners use the word y'all as singular and all y'all as plural. However, all y'all is used to specify that all of the members of the second person plural are included, that is "all y'all" as opposed to "some of y'all"
  • In rural Southern Appalachia yernses may be substituted for the 2nd person plural possessive yours.
"That dog is yernses."
  • Use of dove as past tense for dive, drug as past tense for drag, and drunk as past tense for drink.

In traditional grammar, a contraction is the formation of a new word from two or more individual words. ... Water tower in Florence, Kentucky featuring the word yall. ...

Shared features

These features are characteristic of both older Southern American English and newer Southern American English.

  • Use of (a-)fixin' to as an indicator of immediate future action.
He's fixin' to eat.
We're a-fixin' to go.
  • Use of double modals (might could, might should, might would, used to could, etc.--also called "modal stacking") and sometimes even triple modals that involve oughta or a double modal (like might should oughta, or used to could be able to.)
I might could climb to the top.
  • Replacement of have (to possess) with got.
I got one of them.
  • Using them as a demonstrative adjective replacing those
See them birds?
  • Use of non-standard preterits, Such as drowneded as the past tense of drown, knowed as past tense of know, degradated as the past tense of degrade, and seen replacing saw as past tense of see. This also includes using was for were, or in other words regularizing the past tense of be to was.
You was sittin' on that chair.
  • The inceptive get/got to (indicating that an action is just getting started). Get to is more frequent in older SAE, and got to in newer SAE.
I got to talking to him and we ended up talking all night.
  • Regularization of negative past tense do to don't, or in other words using don't for doesn't. This removed syllable in doesn't can also carry over to other words, turning wasn't into won't or hasn't/haven't into h'aint.
He/she/it/John don't like cake.
He took a bite of my cake when I won't looking.
I h'aint seen him for ages.
  • Existential It, a feature dating from Middle English which can be explained as substituting it for there when there refers to no physical location, but only to the existence of something.
It's one lady that lives in town.
  • Preservation of older English me, him, etc. as reflexive datives.
I'm fixin' to paint me a picture.
He's gonna catch him a big one.
  • Merging of adjective and adverbial forms of related words (quick/quickly), generally in favor of the adjective.
He's movin' real quick.
  • Adverbial use of right to mean quite or fairly.
I'm right tired.

Word use

  • Word use tendencies from the Harvard Dialect Survey:[4]
    • Likely influenced by the dominance of Coca-Cola in the Deep South, a carbonated beverage in general is referred to as coke, or cocola, even if referring to non-colas. Soda is sometimes used, usually in large cities.[5]
    • The shopping-cart at many stores as a buggy (or less often, jitney or trolley).[6]
  • Use of the term "mosquito hawk" or "snake doctor" for a dragonfly or a crane fly (Diptera tipulidae).[7]
  • Use of "over yonder" in place of "over there" or "in or at that indicated place," especially when being used to refer to a particularly different spot, such as in "the house over yonder." Additionally, "yonder" tends to refer to a third, larger degree of distance beyond both "here" and "there," indicating that something is a long way away, and to a lesser extent, in an open expanse, as in the church hymn "When the Roll Is Called Up Yonder."[8]
  • Use of the phrase "chill bumps" instead of "goose bumps"[9]
  • Use of "eye" to refer to a burner on a stove. "Watch out, the eye is still hot." (Referring to the "eyes" or removable burner cover plates on, now mostly obsolete, wood or coal-fired cookstoves.)[citation needed]

The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... This article is about the insect. ... Genera Over 14,000 The crane flies are a family (Tipulidae) of insects resembling giant mosquitoes. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ...

Dialects

In a sense, there is no one dialect called "Southern". Instead, there are a number of regional dialects found across the Southern United States. Although different "Southern" dialects exist, they are all mutually intelligible, as are US and British English more broadly. Historic Southern United States. ...


Atlantic

  • Virginia Piedmont

The Virginia Piedmont dialect is possibly the most famous of Southern dialects because of its strong influence on the South's speech patterns. Because the dialect has long been associated with the upper or aristocratic plantation class in the Old South, many of the most important figures in Southern history spoke with a Virginia Piedmont accent. Virginia Piedmont is non-rhotic, meaning speakers pronounce "R" only if it is followed by a vowel (contrary to New York City English, wherein non-rhotic accent is now mostly used by middle- and lower-class speakers). The dialect also features the Southern drawl (mentioned above). Piedmont, Virginia is a part of the greater Piedmont region which stretches from the falls of the Potomac, Rappahannock, and James Rivers to the Blue Ridge Mountains. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... Geographically, Old South is a subregion of the American South, differentiated from the Deep South as being the Southern States represented in the original thirteen American colonies, as well as a way of describing the former lifestyle in the Southern United States. ... English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and the non-rhotic, depending on when the letter r (equivalent to Greek rho) is pronounced. ...

  • Coastal Southern

Coastal Southern resembles Virginia Piedmont but has preserved more elements from the colonial era dialect than almost any other region of the United States. It can be found along the coasts of the Chesapeake and the Atlantic in Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. It is most prevalent in the Charleston, South Carolina area. In addition, like Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern is non-rhotic.


Midland and Highland

  • South Midland or Highland Southern

This dialect arose in the inland areas of the South. It shares many of the characteristics of dialects of the Appalachians and Ozark Mountains. The area was settled largely by Scots-Irish, Scottish Highlanders, Northern and Western English, Welsh, and Germans. The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... This article is about the Ozark Plateau. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


This dialect follows the Ohio River in a generally southwesterly direction, moves from Kentucky, across Missouri and Oklahoma, and peters out in western Texas. It has assimilated some coastal Southern forms, most noticeably the loss of the diphthong /aj/, which becomes /aː/, and the second person plural pronoun "you-all" or "y'all". Unlike Coastal Southern, however, South Midland is a rhotic dialect, pronouncing /r/ wherever it has historically occurred. View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ...

  • Southern Appalachian

Due to the isolation of the Appalachian regions of the South, the Appalachian accent is one of the hardest for outsiders to understand. This dialect is also rhotic, meaning speakers pronounce "R"s wherever they appear in words, and sometimes when they do not (for example "worsh" for "wash.") The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ...


The Southern Appalachian dialect can be heard, as its name implies, in North Georgia, North Alabama, East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, Western North Carolina, Eastern Kentucky, Southwestern Virginia, Western Maryland, and West Virginia. Southern Appalachian speech patterns, however, are not entirely confined to these mountain regions previously listed. The mountainous northern region of the State of Georgia; inahabited formerly by the Cherokee, the counties that comprise North Georgia have experience fully every episode in the history of the State, northwest Georgia being the site of several major battles in the War Between the States, such as Chickamauga and... North Alabama is a region of the U.S. state of Alabama, generally thought to include these 11 counties: Cherokee, Colbert, DeKalb, Franklin, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, Marshall, Morgan, and Winston. ... East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee. ... Middle Tennessee is a distinct portion of the state of Tennessee, delineated according to law as well as custom. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Southwest Virginia at its greatest geographical definition Southwest Virginia is a mountainous region of Virginia in the westernmost part of the commonwealth. ... Western Maryland is the portion of U.S. state of Maryland that consists of Frederick, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


The common thread in the areas of the South where a rhotic version of the dialect is heard is almost invariably a traceable line of descent from Scots or Scots-Irish ancestors amongst its speakers. The dialect is also not devoid of early influence from Welsh settlers, the dialect retaining the Welsh English tendency to pronounce words beginning with the letter "h" as though the "h" were silent; for instance "humble" often is rendered "umble". Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ...


A popular myth claims that this dialect closely resembles Early Modern or Shakespearean English. [1] Although this dialect retains many words from the Elizabethan era that are no longer in common usage, this myth is apocryphal. [2] Shakespeares writings are universally associated with Early Modern English Early Modern English refers to the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 1400s) to 1650. ... Elizabethan redirects here. ...

  • Ozark

This dialect developed in the heart of the Ozark Mountains in southern Missouri and northwest Arkansas. It is similar to Appalachian dialects but also has some Midwestern influences. This dialect is riddled with colorful expressions, and is frequently lampooned in popular culture, such as the television comedy The Beverly Hillbillies. This article is about the Ozark Plateau. ... For the 1993 film, see The Beverly Hillbillies (film) The Beverly Hillbillies was an American television program about a hillbilly family transplanted in Southern California. ...

  • Florida Cracker

The dialect is derived from the South Midland dialect, and found throughout several regions of Florida and in south Georgia. There are several different variations of the dialect found in Florida. From Pensacola to Tallahassee the dialect is non-rhotic and shares many characteristics with the speech patterns of southern Alabama. Another form of the dialect is spoken in northeast Florida, Central Florida, the Nature Coast and even in rural parts of South Florida. This dialect was made famous by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' book The Yearling. This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1953 Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (August 8, 1896 – December 14, 1953) was an American author who lived in remote rural Florida and wrote novels with rural themes and settings. ... The Yearling is a 1938 novel written by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings. ...


The dialect also has some distinct words to it. Some speakers may call a river turtle a "cooter", a land tortoise a "gopher", a bass a "trout", and a crappie fish a "speck". Species 4 species, see article. ... Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) Bass (IPA /bæs/) is a name shared by many different species of popular game fish. ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ...


Gulf of Mexico

  • Gulf Southern & Mississippi Delta

This area of the South was settled by English speakers moving west from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas, along with French settlers from Louisiana (see the section below). This accent is common in Mississippi, northern Louisiana, southern and eastern Arkansas, western Tennessee, and parts of East Texas. Familiar speakers include Johnny Cash and Elvis Presley. A dialect found in Georgia and Alabama has some characteristics of both the Gulf Southern dialect and the Virginia Piedmont/Coastal Southern dialect. For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... Elvis redirects here. ...

  • Cajun

Louisiana, southeast Texas (Houston to Beaumont), and coastal Mississippi, feature a number of dialects. There is Cajun French, which combines elements of Acadian French with other French and Spanish words. This dialect is spoken by many of the older members of the Cajun ethnic group and is said to be dying out. Many younger Cajuns speak Cajun English, which retains Acadian French influences and words, such as "cher" (dear) or "nonc" (uncle). The French language can also still be heard in Louisiana, along with different mixtures of all of these dialects and languages. This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Houston redirects here. ... Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: , Counties Settled 1835 Incorporation 1838 Gentilic Beaumonter Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Becky Ames  - City Manager Kyle Hayes  - Mayor Pro - Tem Nancy Beaulieu Area  - City 222. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

  • Creole

Louisiana Creole French (Kreyol Lwiziyen) is a French-based creole language spoken in Louisiana. It has many resemblances to other French creoles in the Caribbean. While Cajun French and Louisiana Creole have had a significant influence on each other, they are unrelated. While Cajun is basically a French dialect with grammar similar to standard French, Louisiana Creole applies a French lexicon to a system of grammar and syntax which is quite different from French grammar. Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ...

  • Yat

In and around New Orleans, you can hear an accent similar to that of New York City. It is referred to as Yat, from the phrases such as "Where y'at?" for "How are you?" The New York dialect of the English language is spoken by most European Americans who were raised in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including the lower Hudson Valley, western Long Island, and in northeastern New Jersey. ... Yat refers to a unique collection of dialects of English spoken in New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


African-influenced

The following dialects were influenced by African languages.

  • Gullah
Main article: Gullah language

Sometimes called Geechee, this creole language originated with African American slaves on the coastal areas and coastal islands of Georgia and South Carolina. The dialect was used to communicate with both Europeans and members of African tribes other than their own. Gullah was strongly influenced by West African languages such as Vai, Mende, Twi, Ewe, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, and Kikongo. The name and chorus of the Christian hymn "Kumbaya" is said to be Gullah for come by here. Other English words attributed to Gullah are juke (jukebox), goober (Southern term for peanut) and voodoo. In a 1930s study by Lorenzo Dow Turner, over 4,000 words from many different African languages were discovered in Gullah. Other words, such as yez for ears, are just phonetic spellings of English words as pronounced by the Gullahs, on the basis of influence from Southern & Western English dialects. The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Vai language is a language of Liberia. ... The Mende language () is a major language of Sierra Leone, with some speakers in neighboring Liberia. ... Twi (pronounced chwee) is a language spoken in Ghana by about 6 million people. ... Ewe (native name , the language) is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana and Togo by approximately three million people. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... Yoruba (native name èdè Yorùbá, the Yoruba language) is a dialect continuum of West Africa with over 22 million speakers. ... Igbo is a language spoken in Nigeria by around 18 million people (1999 WA), the Igbo, especially in the southeastern region once identified as Biafra. ... The Kongo Empire was an African kingdom located in southwest Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda, Republic of the Congo, and the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... Kumbaya (also spelled Kum Ba Yah) is a song claimed to have been composed by Reverend Marvin V. Frey (1918–1992) in the 1930s in Portland, Oregon. ... A Zodiac jukebox A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media. ... This article is about the legume. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

  • African American Vernacular English

This type of Southern American English originated in the Southern States where Africans at that time were held as slaves. These slaves originally spoke indigenous African languages but were forced to speak English to communicate with their masters and each other. Since the slave masters spoke Southern American English, the English the slaves learned, which has developed into what is now African American Vernacular English, had many SAE features. While the African slaves and their descendants lost most of their language and culture, various vocabulary and grammatical features from indigenous West African languages remain in AAVE. While AAVE may also be spoken by members of other ethnic groups, it is largely spoken by and associated with blacks in many parts of the U.S. AAVE is considered by a number of English speakers to be a substandard dialect. As a result, AAVE speakers desiring social mobility typically learn to code-switch between AAVE and a more standardized English dialect. Liberian English is said to be at least partially based on AAVE, since that this type of English dialect was modeled after American English and not British English. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to using more than one language or dialect in conversation. ... Liberian English is the form of English spoken in the African country of Liberia. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...


See also

Southern literature (sometimes called the literature of the American South) is defined as American literature about the Southern United States or by writers from this region. ... This article deals with lexical differences within American English; see American English regional differences for differences in phonology and grammar. ...

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Do You Speak American: What Lies Ahead. pbs.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  2. ^ http://cfprod01.imt.uwm.edu/Dept/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_50.html Harvard Dialect Survey - word use: a group of two or more people.
  3. ^ Hazen, Kirk and Fluharty, Ellen. "Linguistic Diversity in the South: changing Codes, Practices and Ideology". Page 59. Georgia University Press; 1st Edition: 2004. ISBN .0-8203-2586-4
  4. ^ Noted in the Harvard Dialect Survey
  5. ^ http://cfprod01.imt.uwm.edu/Dept/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_105.html Harvard Dialect Survey - word use: sweetened carbonated beverage
  6. ^ http://cfprod01.imt.uwm.edu/Dept/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_75.html Harvard Dialect Survey - word use: wheeled contraption at grocery store
  7. ^ Definition from The Free Dictionary
  8. ^ Regional Note from THe Free Dictionary
  9. ^ http://cfprod01.imt.uwm.edu/Dept/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_81.html Harvard Dialect Study - word use: skin bumps when cold

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ...

References

  • Bernstein, Cynthia (2003). "Grammatical features of southern speech", in In Stephen J. Nagel and Sara L. Sanders, eds.,: English in the Southern United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82264-5. 
  • Crystal, David (2000). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82348-X. 
  • Cukor-Avila, Patricia (2003). "The complex grammatical history of African-American and white vernaculars in the South", in In Stephen J. Nagel and Sara L. Sanders, eds.,: English in the Southern United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82264-5. 
  • Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8. 
  • Hazen, Kirk, and Fluharty, Ellen (2004). "Defining Appalacian English", in Bender, Margaret: Linguistic Diversity in the South. Athens: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-2586-4. 
Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... This is a list of varieties of the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... English language skills of European Union citizens The English language in Europe, as a native language, is mainly spoken in the two countries of the British Isles: the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) and the Republic of Ireland. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... East Anglia - the easternmost area of England - was probably home to the first-ever form of language which can be called English. ... Traditionally, East Midlands English was spoken in those parts of Mercia lying East of Watling Street (the A5 London - Shrewsbury Road). ... West Midlands English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... The West Country dialects and West Country accents are generic terms applied to any of several English dialects and accents used by much of the indigenous population of the southwestern part of England, the area popularly known as the West Country. ... Northern English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... Lancashire Dialect and Accent refers to the vernacular speech in the historic county of Lancashire excluding that of Liverpool. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article is about the accent. ... Not to be confused with the Celtic Cumbric language Cumbria, in the extreme North West of England, is by no means unique in having a traditional local dialect, but the isolation of the area and its rich history mean that this is perhaps one of the most interesting rural dialects... Look up Mackem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the people and dialect of Tyneside. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... Glasgow patter or Glaswegian is a dialect shouted in and around Glasgow, Scotland. ... Highland English is the variety of Gaelic influenced Scottish English spoken in the Scottish Highlands. ... Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mid Ulster English (Ulster Anglo-Irish) is the dialect of most people in Ulster, including those in the two main cities. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Appalachian English is a common name for the Southern Midland dialect of American English. ... Baltimorese, sometimes phonetically written Bawlmerese or Ballimerese, is a dialect of American English which originated among the white blue-collar residents of working class South and Southeast Baltimore. ... The Boston accent is found not only in the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself but also much of eastern Massachusetts. ... Buffalo English, sometimes colloquially referred to as Buffalonian, is the unique variety of English used in and around Buffalo, New York. ... California English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the U.S. state of California. ... Chicano English is a dialect of American English used by Chicanos (persons of Mexican descent in America). ... Acadiana, the tradtitional Cajun homeland and the stronghold of both the Cajun French and English dialects. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Vermont English be merged into this article or section. ... For a small state, New Jersey is dialectally quite diverse, with two regions of the state overlapping with other dialect areas, New York and Philadelphia, and several autochthonous dialects. ... The New York dialect of the English language is spoken by most European Americans who were raised in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including the lower Hudson Valley, western Long Island, and in northeastern New Jersey. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Northeast Pennsylvania English is the local dialect of American English spoken in northeastern Pennsylvania, specifically in the Wyoming Valley area, which includes Wilkes-Barre and Scranton. ... The Inland North Dialect of American English was the standard Midwestern speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th Century, though it has been recently modified by the northern cities vowel shift. ... Pacific Northwest English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the Pacific Northwest. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... City Hall The Philadelphia Dialect is the accent of English spoken in Philadelphia and extending into Philadelphias suburbs in the Delaware Valley and southern New Jersey. ... Pittsburgh English, popularly known as Pittsburghese, is the dialect of American English spoken by many residents of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and surrounding Western Pennsylvania. ... Tidewater Accent is a American English accent. ... Utah English, sometimes humorously referred to as Utahnics, is a dialect of the English language spoken in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Yat refers to a unique collection of dialects of English spoken in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dictionary of Newfoundland English Newfoundland English is a name for several dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive dialect of English in Canada. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The West/Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and most homogeneous dialect areas in North America. ... Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana. ... Bahamians speak an English creole or a dialect of English, known in the Bahamas as Bahamian Dialect. ... Trinidadian English or Trinidad and Tobago Standard English is a dialect of English used in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is a term referring to the various varieties of the English language used by Indigenous Australians. ... Torres Strait English is a dialect of the English language spoken by the Torres Strait Islanders of north Queensland, Australia. ... Sri Lankan English (SLE) is the English language as spoken in Sri Lanka. ... South African English is a dialect of English spoken in South Africa and in neighbouring countries with a large number of Anglo-Africans living in them, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. ... Look up Appendix:Basic English word list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ... Globish is a portmanteau neologism of the words Global and English. ... For the region within the United States, see: Mid-Atlantic States Mid-Atlantic English describes a version of the English language which is neither predominantly American or British in usage. ... Plain English focuses on being a flexible and efficient writing style that readers can understand in one reading. ... Disambiguation: see also simple English Simplified English is a controlled language originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. ... Special English is a simplified version of the English language first used on October 19, 1959 and presently employed by the United States broadcasting service Voice of America in daily broadcasts. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... Dr. David Bourland coined the term E-Prime, short for English Prime, in the 1965 work A Linguistic Note: Writing in E-Prime to refer to the English language modified by prohibiting the use of the verb to be. E-Prime arose from Alfred Korzybskis General Semantics and his...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Southern American English - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4402 words)
Southern American English is a group of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from northern Virginia and central Kentucky to the Gulf Coast, and from the Atlantic coast to central Texas.
Southern American English can be divided into different sub-dialects (see American English), with speech differing between, for example, Texas and the coastal area around Charleston, South Carolina.
Southern dialects are also common in areas associated with the oil industry of Alaska.
Southern American English - tScholars.com (3686 words)
Southern American English is a group of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from central Kentucky and northern Virginia to the Gulf Coast and from the Atlantic coast to eastern Texas.
The general southern dialect has its origins in the English immigrants who moved to the South in the 17th and 18th centuries, of whom most were of European Celtic origins (according to an 1860 census, "three-quarters of white Southerners had surnames that were Scottish, Irish or Welsh in origin." [1]).
SAE accent is spoken typically in the mid, and northern parts of the state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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