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Encyclopedia > South Africa
Flag Coat of arms
Motto!ke e: ǀxarra ǁke  (ǀXam)
"Unity In Diversity"
AnthemNational anthem of South Africa
Capital Pretoria (executive)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)
Largest city Johannesburg (2006) [2]
Official language(s)
Ethnic groups  79.3% Black
9.1% White
9.0% Coloured
2.6% Asian[4]
Demonym South African
Government Constitutional democracy
 -  President Jacob Zuma
 -  Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe
 -  NCOP Chairman M. J. Mahlangu
 -  National Assembly Speaker Max Sisulu
 -  Chief Justice Sandile Ngcobo
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Union 31 May 1910 
 -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 
 -  Republic 31 May 1961 
Area
 -  Total 1 221 037 km2 (25th)
471 443 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) Negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 49,320,000[4] (25th)
 -  2001 census 44 819 778[5] 
 -  Density 41/km2 (170th)
106.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $493.490 billion[6] (25th)
 -  Per capita $10,136[6] (79th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $276.764 billion[6] (32nd)
 -  Per capita $5,684[6] (76th)
Gini (2000) 57.8 (high
HDI (2009) 0.683  (medium) (129th)
Currency Rand (ZAR)
Time zone SAST (UTC+2)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .za
Calling code +27

Coordinates: 29°02′46″S 25°03′47″E / 29.046°S 25.063°E / -29.046; 25.063 The Republic of South Africa is a country located at the southern tip of Africa, with a 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) coastline[7][8] on the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.[9] To the north lie Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an independent country wholly surrounded by South African territory.[10] Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... The Southern Ndebele language (isiNdebele or Nrebele in Southern Ndebele) is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the amaNdebele (the Ndebele people of South Africa). ... For the Xhosa people, see Xhosa. ... Zulu (called isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... Swati (also known as siSwati and Swazi) is a Bantu language spoken in Swaziland and South Africa. ... Northern Sotho, Sepedi, or Sesotho sa Leboa, is one of the official languages of South Africa, and is spoken by 4,208,980 people (2001 Census Data), mostly in the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga. ... Sesotho is a language spoken in southern Africa. ... Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan. ... Venda, also known as Tshivenda, or Luvenda, is a Bantu language. ... The current flag of the Republic of South Africa was adopted on April 27, 1994, during the first free elections and the end of apartheid. ... The South African coat of arms was designed and first unveiled in 2000 and replaced an earlier design that had served the country since 1910. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... , or Ç€Xam Kakǃʼe, is an extinct Khoisan language of South Africa, part of the ǃKwi language group. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Since 1997, The South African national anthem has been a hybrid song combining new English lyrics with extracts of the hymn Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika and the old South African anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika/The Call of South Africa. It is the only neo-modal national anthem in the... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Map showing principal South African languages by municipality. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Southern Ndebele language (isiNdebele or Nrebele in Southern Ndebele) is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the amaNdebele (the Ndebele people of South Africa). ... Northern Sotho, Sepedi, or Sesotho sa Leboa, is one of the official languages of South Africa, and is spoken by 4,208,980 people (2001 Census Data), mostly in the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga. ... Sesotho (Sotho, Southern Sotho or Southern Sesotho[1]) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language. ... The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan. ... Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... Venda, also known as Tshivenda, or Luvenda, is a Bantu language. ... For the Xhosa people, see Xhosa. ... Zulu (called isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... // In ancient times, India, Greece, and Rome had governments similar to constitutional democracies. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born April 12, 1942 at Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) is the president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... The Speaker of the National Assembly presides over the South African National Assembly. ... The Chief Justice of South Africa is the top judge in South Africa, who exercises final authority over the functioning and management of all the courts. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... On October 5, 1960, South Africas white minority government held a referendum on whether or not the then Union should sever links with the British monarchy and become a republic. ... Countries by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Countries by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2007 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, April 2008). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code ZAR User(s) Common Monetary Area: Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland Inflation 5. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving South African Standard Time, or SAST, is a time zone used by all of South Africa, in addition to Lesotho and Swaziland. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .za is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for South Africa. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... South Africa has switched to a closed numbering system. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ...


Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for more than 100,000 years. At the time of European contact, the dominant indigenous peoples were tribes who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before. From the 4th-5th century CE, Bantu-speaking tribes had steadily moved south, where they displaced, conquered and assimilated original Khoikhoi and San peoples of southern Africa. At the time of European contact, the two major groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples. Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Klasies River Caves are a series of caves located to the east of the Klasies River mouth on the Tsitsikamma coast in the Humansdorp district of Eastern Cape Province at the southernmost tip of South Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... BCE redirects here. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ...


In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape Sea Route, the Dutch East India Company founded a refreshment station at what would become Cape Town.[11] Cape Town became a British colony in 1806. European settlement expanded during the 1820s as the Boers (original Dutch, Flemish, German and French settlers) and the British 1820 Settlers claimed land in the north and east of the country. Conflicts arose among the Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaner groups who competed for territory. This article is about the trading company. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Flemings and Flem redirect here. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... The 1820 Settlers were several groups or parties of white, British colonists settled by the British government and the Cape authorities in the South African Eastern Cape in 1820. ... This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ...


The discovery of diamonds and later gold triggered the 19th-century conflict known as the Anglo-Boer War, as the Boers and the British fought for the control of the South African mineral wealth. Although the British defeated the Boers, they gave limited independence to South Africa in 1910 as a British dominion. Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence. During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation were enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws.[12][13][14] Power was held by the European colonists. This article is about the gemstone. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and limit severely the movements of the non-white populace. ...


In the Boer republics,[15] from as early as the Pretoria Convention (chapter XXVI),[16] and subsequent South African governments, the system became legally institutionalised segregation, later known as apartheid. The government established three classes of racial stratification: white, coloured, and black, with rights and restrictions for each. The peace treaty that ended the First Boer War (December 16, 1880 until March 23, 1881) between the Transvaal Boers and the United Kingdom, which was signed by the South African Republic forces and the British forces. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Whites redirects here. ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ...


South Africa achieved the status of a republic in 1961. Despite opposition both in and outside of the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid. As the 20th century went on, some Western nations and institutions began to boycott doing business with the country because of its racial policies and oppression of civil rights. After years of internal protests, activism and insurgency by black South Africans and their allies, finally in 1990, the South African government began negotiations that led to dismantling of discriminative laws, and democratic elections in 1994. The country then rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... Mural of the election in Cape Town. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


South Africa is known for a diversity in cultures, languages, and religious beliefs. Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution.[9] English, despite having a large role in public and commercial life, is only the fifth most-spoken home language.[9] South Africa is ethnically diverse, with the largest European, Indian, and racially mixed communities in Africa. Although 79.5% of the South African population is black,[4] the people are from a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, nine of which have official status.[9] About a quarter of the population is unemployed[17] and lives on less than US $1.25 a day.[18] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... People of European descent in South Africa not only include the majority Afrikaner, but also a sizeable population of various British or continental European ancestries who identify more with English than other South African languages and more with the Anglophone World and Anglophone Diaspora than with the creole Boer culture... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ...


South Africa is one of the founding members of the African Union, and has the largest economy of all the members. It is also a founding member of the United Nations and NEPAD. South Africa is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Antarctic Treaty System, Group of 77, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20 and G8+5. Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... UN redirects here. ... New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) is an economic development programme of the African Union. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only continent without a native population. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... States of SACU // Origins The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) came into existence on December 11, 1969 with the signature of the Customs Union Agreement between South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. ... -1... IMF redirects here. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ...

Contents

History

The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, the first European to settle in South Africa, with Devil's Peak in the background

South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological sites in the world.[19][20][21] Extensive fossil remains at the Sterkfontein, Kromdraai and Makapansgat caves suggest that various australopithecines existed in South Africa from about three million years ago.[22] These were succeeded by various species of Homo, including Homo habilis, Homo erectus and modern humans, Homo sapiens. Arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Cape Town painted by Charles Davidson Bell Johan Anthoniszoon Jan van Riebeeck (21 April 1619–18 January 1677), was a Dutch colonial administrator and founder of Cape Town. ... Devils Peak and Table Mountain from roughly the north. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Archaeologists in a structure above the entrance to Sterkfontein. ... Kromdraai is a protected conservancy in western Gauteng, South Africa not far from Krugersdorp. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... For the song by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ... For the 2007 comedy film, see Homo Erectus (film). ... Homo sapiens redirects here. ...


Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River by the fourth or fifth century CE. (see Bantu expansion). They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers. The Bantu slowly moved south. The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people. The Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples, who often had hunter-gatherer societies.[citation needed] Fe redirects here. ... Agriculture (a term which encompasses farming) is the art, science or practice of producing food, feed, fiber and many other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ... Course and Watershed of the Limpopo River The Limpopo River rises in the interior of Africa, and flows generally eastwards towards the Indian Ocean. ... BCE redirects here. ... The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa, united by a common language family, the Bantu languages, and in many cases common customs. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... Ironworks at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, England An ironworks or iron works is a building or site where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and/or steel products are made. ... KwaZulu-Natal, often referred to as KZN, is a province of South Africa. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... The Great Fish River is a river running through the South African province of Cape Midlands. ... The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland In archaeology, the Iron Age is the stage in the development of any people where the use of iron implements as tools and weapons is preeminent. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...

Historical states
in present-day
South Africa
South Africa topo continent.png
more

In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to reach the southernmost point of Africa. Initially named the Cape of Storms, The King of Portugal, John II, renamed it the Cabo da Boa Esperança or Cape of Good Hope, as it led to the riches of India. Dias' great feat of navigation was later immortalised in Camões' epic Portuguese poem, The Lusiads (1572). In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck established a refreshment station at the Cape of Good Hope on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch transported slaves from Indonesia, Madagascar, and India as labour for the colonists in Cape Town. As they expanded east, the Dutch settlers met the south-westerly expanding Xhosa people in the region of the Fish River. A series of wars, called the Cape Frontier Wars, ensued, mainly caused by conflicting land and livestock interests. This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Mapungubwe was a city in what is now northern South Africa. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Swellendam Municipality is a municipality located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. ... Griquatown is a cattle farming town situated in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. ... Philippolis is a small town in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Winburg is a small mixed farming town in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Potchefstroom is a large academic town with the North-West University, situated on the banks of the Mooi River (literally pretty river), 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg in the North West Province of South Africa. ... Flag The Natalia Republic was located in the southern half of this region Capital Pietermaritzburg Language(s) Dutch, Zulu, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic Prime Minister Andries Pretorius Historical era The Great Trek  - Established October 12, 1839  - Battle of Blood River December 16, 1838  - Alliance with Zulu January... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Utrecht is a small town in the foothills of the Balele Mountains in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Lydenburg is a town in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... The Griqua are a subgroup of South Africas Coloured population, descended from an admixture of European settlers and the Khoisan peoples they encountered on their initial arrival at the Cape. ... The Griqua are a subgroup of South Africas Coloured population, descended from an admixture of European settlers and the Khoisan peoples they encountered on their initial arrival at the Cape. ... Map of Stellaland and surrounding regions Stellaland was a short-lived Boer republic established in 1882 by David Massouw and 400 followers, who invaded a Bechuana area west of the Transvaal. ... Goshen (named after the biblical Land of Goshen) was a short-lived Boer republic from 24 October 1882 until 7 August 1883; it was located in an area of Bechuanaland, west of the then South African Republic. ... ghghghgh Vryheid is a coal mining and cattle ranching town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Flag of Klein Vrystaat, almost identical to that of Transvaal Klein Vrystaat (Afrikaans:Little Free State) was a short-lived Boer republic in what is now South Africa. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... Bophuthatswana as of 1977 Flag of Bophuthatswana bantustan Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the north of South Africa. ... Flag Anthem Pfano na vhuthihi Location of Venda within South Africa Capital Thohoyandou Language(s) vha-Venda Political structure Bantustan History  - Self-government February 1, 1973  - Re-integrated into South Africa April 27, 1994 Currency South African Rand Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo... Ciskei Flag of Ciskei Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. ... Statue of Dias in Cape Town, South Africa Bartolomeu Dias, sometimes Bartolomeu Dias de Novais (pron. ... John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... Luís de Camões Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens) (1524 – June 10, 1580) is generally considered Portugals greatest poet. ... Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) is considered one of the finest and most important works in Portuguese literature. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Xhosa wars, also know as the Kaffir wars or Cape Frontier Wars, were a series of nine wars between the Xhosa people and European settlers from 1779 and 1879 in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa. ...


Great Britain took over the Cape of Good Hope area in 1795, ostensibly to stop it from falling under Revolutionary French control. Given its standing interests in Australia and India, Great Britain wanted to use Cape Town as an interim port for its merchants' long voyages. The British returned Cape Town to the Dutch in 1803, but soon afterwards the Dutch East India Company declared bankruptcy.


The British annexed the Cape Colony in 1806. The British continued the frontier wars against the Xhosa, pushing the eastern frontier eastward through a line of forts established along the Fish River. They consolidated the territory by encouraging British settlement. Due to pressure of abolitionist societies in Britain, the British parliament first stopped its global slave trade with the passage of the Slave Trade Act 1807, then abolished slavery in all its colonies with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. This article is about slavery. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout human history. ... A replica of the slave ship the Zong, moored by Tower Bridge to mark 200 years since the Slave Trade Act 1807 (April 2007). ... The Slavery Abolition Act (citation ) was an 1833 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. ...

Boers in combat (1881)

In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka.[23] Shaka’s depredations led indirectly to the Mfecane (“Crushing”) that devastated the inland plateau in the early 1820s.[24] An offshoot of the Zulu, the Matabele, created an even larger empire under their king Mzilikazi, including large parts of the highveld. This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... For other uses, see Shaka (disambiguation). ... Mfecane (Zulu), also known as the Difaqane or Lifaqane (Sesotho), is an African expression which means something like the crushing or scattering. It describes a period of widespread chaos and disturbance in southern Africa during the period between 1815 and about 1840. ... Mzilikazi (meaning the path of blood) (ca. ... The Highveld is a high plateau area of South Africa which includes the largest metropolitan area in the country, Johannesburg. ...


During the 1830s, approximately 12,000 Boers (later known as Voortrekkers), departed from the Cape Colony, where they had been subjected to British control. They migrated to the future Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal regions. The Boers founded the Boer Republics: the South African Republic (now Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and North West provinces) and the Orange Free State (Free State). The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ...


The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1884 in the interior encouraged economic growth and immigration. This intensified the European-South African subjugation of the indigenous people. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor between Europeans and the indigenous population, and also between the Boers and the British.[25]


The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions. However, the British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and more suitable tactics in the Second Boer War (1899–1902), which was won by the British. Combatants United Kingdom Transvaal Commanders Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley Commandant-General Piet Joubert Strength 1,200 3,000 Casualties 408 killed, 315 wounded 41 killed, 47 wounded The First Boer War (Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally First Freedom War) also known as the First Anglo-Boer... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...

20th century

After four years of negotiating, the Union of South Africa was created from the Cape and Natal colonies, as well as the republics of Orange Free State and Transvaal, on 31 May 1910, exactly eight years after the end of the Second Boer War. The newly created Union of South Africa was a dominion of Great Britain. The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by 'blacks'; at that stage they had control of a mere 7% of the country. The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased.[26] The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Natives Land Act of 1913 was an Act by the South African legislature aimed at regulating the acquisition of land by natives. The Act formed an important part of the system of Apartheid and is of importance for both legal and historic reasons. ...


In 1931 the union was effectively granted independence from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster. In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking "Whites". In 1939 the party split over the entry of the Union into World War II as an ally of the United Kingdom, a move which the National Party followers strongly opposed. ... The South African Party was a political party that existed in the Union of South Africa from 1911 to 1934. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The United Party was South Africas ruling political party between 1934 and 1948. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

"For use by white persons" – sign from the apartheid era

In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. It intensified the implementation of racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule, and subsequent South African governments since the Union was formed. The Nationalist Government systematised existing segregationist laws, classifying all peoples into three races, developing rights and limitations for each, such as pass laws and residential restrictions. The white minority controlled the vastly larger black majority. The system of segregation became known collectively as apartheid.


While the White minority enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, often comparable to First World western nations, the Black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy. On 31 May 1961, following a whites-only referendum, the country became a republic and left the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be head of state, and the last Governor-General became State President. The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Flag of the Governor-General, Union of South Africa, 1910 The Governor-General of the Union of South Africa was the representative of the British Crown in South Africa between May 31, 1910 and May 31, 1961. ... From 1961 to 1994, South Africas head of state was called the State President or Staatspresident in Afrikaans. ...


Apartheid became increasingly controversial, leading to widespread international sanctions, divestment and growing unrest and oppression within South Africa. A long period of harsh suppression by the government, and at times violent resistance, strikes, marches, protests, and sabotage by bombing and other means, by various anti-apartheid movements, most notably the African National Congress (ANC), followed. International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ... The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


In the late 1970s, South Africa began a programme of nuclear weapons development. In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith, signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz in 1974, enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa, which would ultimately end with the negotiations between F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela in 1993. Chief Mangosuthu (Gatsha)Ashpenaz Nathan Buthelezi (born August 27, 1928) is a South African Zulu leader, and leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) which he formed in 1975. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ...


In 1990 the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the African National Congress and other political organisations. It released Nelson Mandela from prison after twenty-seven years' incarceration on a sabotage sentence. A negotiation process known as the Convention for a Democratic South Africa was started. The government repealed apartheid legislation. South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa held its first multi-racial elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. It has been in power ever since. For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) was the forum for the negotiations for the end of the apartheid system in South Africa. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment has been extremely high. While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of blacks worsened between 1994 and 2003.[27] Poverty among whites, previously rare, increased.[28] While some have attributed this partly to the legacy of the apartheid system, increasingly many attribute it to the failure of the current government's policies. In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth. Since the ANC-led government took power, the United Nations Human Development Index of South Africa has fallen, while it was steadily rising until the mid-1990s.[29] Some of this could possibly be attributed to the AIDS pandemic and the failure of the government to take steps to address it.[30] UN redirects here. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ...

Government and politics

The Union Buildings in Pretoria are the home of the South African executive

South Africa has three capital cities: Cape Town, the largest of the three, is the legislative capital; Pretoria is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein is the judicial capital. South Africa has a bicameral parliament: the National Council of Provinces (the upper house) has 90 members, while the National Assembly (the lower house) has 400 members. The Republic of South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating under a Westminster-styled parliamentary system. ... // Constitution Following the 1994 elections, South Africa was governed under an interim constitution. ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... South Africa has a number of sources of legislation and law. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... The Union Buildings are situated on Meintjies Kop, Pretoria, and form the official seat of the South African government. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... This article is about the legislative institution. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ...


Members of the lower house are elected on a population basis by proportional representation: half of the members are elected from national lists and the other half are elected from provincial lists. Ten members are elected to represent each province in the National Council of Provinces, regardless of the population of the province. Elections for both chambers are held every five years. The government is formed in the lower house, and the leader of the majority party in the National Assembly is the President. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...

The National Assembly building, located in Cape Town.

The primary sources of South Africa law are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law, as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism.[31] The first European based law in South Africa was brought by the Dutch East India Company and is called Roman-Dutch law. It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code and is comparable in many ways to Scots law. This was followed in the 19th century by English law, both common and statutory. Starting in 1910 with unification, South Africa had its own parliament which passed laws specific for South Africa, building on those previously passed for the individual member colonies. During the years of apartheid, the country's political scene was dominated by figures like B. J. Vorster and P. W. Botha, as well as opposition figures such as Harry Schwarz, Joe Slovo and Helen Suzman. The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... The common-law legal system forms a major part of the law of many countries, especially those with a history as British territories or colonies. ... Roman Dutch law is a legal system based on Roman law as applied in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th century. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... P.W. Botha Pieter Willem Botha, (born January 12, 1916) commonly known as P.W. and as die groot krokodil (the great crocodile) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and State President of South Africa from 1984 to 1989. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Joe Slovo Joe Slovo (May 23, 1926 – January 6, 1995) was a South African Communist politician and long time leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP) and leading member of the African National Congress. ...

Durban City Hall

Since the end of apartheid in 1994, South African politics have been dominated by the African National Congress (ANC), which has been the dominant party with 60–70% of the vote. The main challenger to the rule of the ANC is the Democratic Alliance party, which received 16.7% of the vote in the 2009 election and 14.8% in the 2006 election. The Democratic Alliance (DA) is a liberal South African political party, and the official opposition to the ruling African National Congress. ...


The formerly dominant New National Party, which introduced apartheid through its predecessor, the National Party, chose to merge with the ANC on 9 April 2005. Other major political parties represented in Parliament are the Congress of the People, which split from the ANC and won 7.4% of the vote in 2009, and the Inkatha Freedom Party, which mainly represents Zulu voters and took 4.6% of the vote in the 2009 election. The New National Party (NNP) was a South African conservative political party formed when the National Party pulled out of the Government of National Unity with the African National Congress and decided to change its name in the process. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ...


Since 2004, the country has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world".[32] Many of these protests have been organised from the growing shanty towns that surround South African cities. Joe Slovo shanty town in Langa on the Cape Flats simmers after a fire (Cape Town, South Africa) Shanty town near Tijuana, Mexico. ...

In 2008, South Africa placed 5th out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency & Corruption and Participation & Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety & Security. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.[33] Cape Town City Hall (Afrikaans Kaapstad Stadsaal) is a large Edwardian building in Cape Town city centre. ...


After the end of apartheid in 1994, the "independent" and "semi-independent" Bantustans were integrated into the political structure of South Africa by the abolition of the four former provinces (Cape Province, Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal) and the creation of nine fully integrated new provinces. The generally smaller size of the new provinces theoretically means that local governments have more resources to distribute over smaller areas. The provinces are subdivided into 52 districts: 6 metropolitan and 46 district municipalities. The district municipalities are further subdivided into 231 local municipalities. The metropolitan municipalities perform the functions of both district and local municipalities. The new provinces are: A map of the 52 districts of South Africa South Africa is divided into 52 districts (Metropolitan and District municipalities). ... In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or Category A municipality is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a city or conurbation. ... In South Africa, a district municipality or Category C municipality is a municipality which executes some the functions of local government for a district. ... Municipalities in South Africa are a division of local government that lie one level down from provincial government, and form the lowest level of democratically elected government structures in the country. ...

Province[34] Capital[35] Area (km²)[35] Population (2007)[36]
Eastern Cape Bhisho 169,580 6,527,747
Free State Bloemfontein 129,480 2,773,059
Gauteng Johannesburg 17,010 10,451,713
KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg 92,100 10,259,230
Limpopo Polokwane 123,900 5,238,286
Mpumalanga Nelspruit 79,490 3,643,435
Northern Cape Kimberley 361,830 1,058,060
North West Mafikeng 116,320 3,271,948
Western Cape Cape Town 129,370 5,278,585
Total 1,219,080 48,502,063
South African provinces

Foreign relations and military

Since the end of apartheid, the South African foreign policy has focused on its African partners particularly in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the African Union. South Africa has played a key role as a mediator in African conflicts over the last decade, such as in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Comoros, and Zimbabwe. After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... Bhisho, formerly known as Bisho, is the capital of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. ... For the term free state as it arises in United States history, see: Free state. ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Pietermaritzburg is the capital and second largest city of the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. ... Northern Transvaal redirects here, see Blue Bulls for the rugby union team. ... Polokwane (formally Pietersburg) is a city, municipality and the capital of the Limpopo province in South Africa. ... Mpumalanga, (name changed from Eastern Transvaal on 24 August 1995), is a province in South Africa. ... Panoramic view from the hilltops Nelspruit is a city of 221,474 people (2000) situated in northeastern South Africa. ... Capital Kimberley Largest city Kimberley Premier Elizabeth Dipuo Peters (ANC) Area - Total Ranked 1st 361,830 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 9th 822,726 2/km² Languages Afrikaans (70%) Tswana (20%) Xhosa (6. ... Kimberley is a town in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. ... North West is a province of South Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is the name of the armed forces of South Africa. ... Foreign Relations of South Africa South African forces fought on the Allied side in both World War I and World War II, and it participated in the postwar United Nations force in the Korean War. ... South Africa developed six or seven gun-type fission nuclear weapons in the 1980s. ... SADC-only (yellow) and SADC+SACU members Headquarters Gaborone, Botswana Working languages Membership 15 African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Establishment  -  as the SADCC April 1, 1980   -  as the SADC August 17, 1992  Website http://www. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... The Democratic Republic of the Congo, called Zaïre between 1971 and 1997, is a nation in central Africa. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


As the Union of South Africa, South Africa was a founding member of the United Nations. The then Prime Minister Jan Smuts wrote the preamble to the United Nations Charter.[37][38] South Africa was a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council between 2007 and 2008, and has attracted controversy by voting against a resolution criticising the Burmese government in 2006 and against the implementation of sanctions against Zimbabwe in 2008. South Africa is a member of the Group of 77 and chaired the organisation in 2006. South Africa is a member of the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20 and G8+5. UN redirects here. ... Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... The Preamble to the United Nations Charter is the opening of the United Nations Charter. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... States of SACU // Origins The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) came into existence on December 11, 1969 with the signature of the Customs Union Agreement between South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. ... -1... IMF redirects here. ... This article is about the G-20 of industrial nations. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ...

South African Denel AH-2 Rooivalk attack helicopter

The South African National Defence Force was created in 1994,[39][40] as an all volunteer force composed of as the former South African Defence Force, the forces of the African nationalist groups (Umkhonto we Sizwe and Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the former Bantustan defence forces.[39] The SANDF is subdivided into four branches, the South African Army, the South African Air Force, the South African Navy, and the South African Medical Service.[41] The Denel Aviation AH-2 Rooivalk is a modern attack helicopter manufactured by Denel Aerospace Systems of South Africa. ... The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is the name of the armed forces of South Africa. ... The South African Defence Force (SADF) were the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... The Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA) was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress in South Africa. ... The South African Army is the army of South Africa. ... The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ... South African Navy Ensign The South African Navy (SAN), is the navy of South Africa. ... The South African Medical Service (SAMS) was established as a full service branch of the South African Defence Force (SADF) in 1979 in order to consolidate the medical services of the South African Army, Navy and Air Force. ...


In recent years, the SANDF has become a major peacekeeping force in Africa,[42] and has been involved in operations in Lesotho, the Democratic Republic of the Congo,[42] and Burundi,[42] amongst others. It has also participated as a part of multi-national UN peacekeeping forces. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970s[43] and may have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979.[44] It is the only African country to have successfully developed nuclear weapons. It has become the first country (followed by Ukraine) with nuclear capability to voluntarily renounce and dismantle its programme and in the process signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991.[43] Orthographic projection centered on the Prince Edward Islands, the location of the Vela incident The Vela Incident (sometimes known as the South Atlantic Flash) was an as-yet unidentified flash of light detected by a United States Vela satellite on September 22, 1979. ... South Africa developed six or seven gun-type fission nuclear weapons in the 1980s. ...

Geography

Satellite picture of South Africa

South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian). At 1,219,912 km2 (471,011 sq mi),[45] South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world and is comparable in size to Colombia. Njesuthi in the Drakensberg at 3,408 m (11,181 ft) is the highest peak in South Africa. South Africa occupies the southern tip of Africa, its long coastline stretching more than 2,500 kilometres (1,553 miles) from the desert border with Namibia on the Atlantic coast southwards around the tip of Africa and then north to the border with subtropical Mozambique on the Indian Ocean. ... Njesuthi is the highest mountain in South Africa. ... The Drakensberg Drakensberg Range from space, April 1993 Maluti mountains in Lesotho The Drakensberg (Afrikaans for Dragons Mountain) mountains are the highest in Southern Africa, rising up at Thabana Ntlenyana to 3,482 m (11,422 ft) in height. ...


South Africa has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder southern hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland. Due to this varied topography and oceanic influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


The climatic zones vary, from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the Mozambique border and the Indian ocean. From the east, the land quickly rises over a mountainous escarpment towards the interior plateau known as the Highveld. Even though South Africa is classified as semi-arid, there is considerable variation in climate as well as topography. Dune 7, one of the highest sand dunes in the world (ca. ... The Highveld is a high plateau area of South Africa which includes the largest metropolitan area in the country, Johannesburg. ...

The Drakensberg mountains, the highest mountain range in South Africa

The interior of South Africa is a vast, flat, and sparsely populated scrubland, the Karoo, which is drier towards the northwest along the Namib desert. In contrast, the eastern coastline is lush and well-watered, which produces a climate similar to the tropics. The Karoo is a semi-desert region of South Africa. ...


The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous Fynbos Biome of grassland and thicket. This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa. This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors, causing many shipwrecks. Further east on the south coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape. This area is popularly known as the Garden Route. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Fynbos is the natural shrubland vegetation occurring in a small belt of the Western Cape of South Africa, mainly in winter rainfall coastal and mountainous areas with a Mediterranean climate. ... A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... The Albany thickets are an ecoregion of dense woodland near the southern point of South Africa, mostly in the Eastern Cape. ... The Garden Route is a popular and scenic stretch of the southern coast of South Africa. ...


The Free State is particularly flat due to the fact that it lies centrally on the high plateau. North of the Vaal River, the Highveld becomes better watered and does not experience subtropical extremes of heat. Johannesburg, in the centre of the Highveld, is at 1,740 m (5,709 ft) and receives an annual rainfall of 760 mm (29.9 in). Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare. The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa. ...


To the north of Johannesburg, the altitude drops beyond the escarpment of the Highveld, and turns into the lower lying Bushveld, an area of mixed dry forest and an abundance of wildlife. East of the Highveld, beyond the eastern escarpment, the Lowveld stretches towards the Indian Ocean. It has particularly high temperatures, and is also the location of extended subtropical agriculture.


The high Drakensberg mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter. The coldest place in South Africa is Sutherland in the western Roggeveld Mountains, where midwinter temperatures can reach as low as −15 °C (5.0 °F). The deep interior has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of 51.7 °C (125.06 °F) was recorded in 1948 in the Northern Cape Kalahari near Upington.[46] Sutherland is a town in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. ... The Roggeveld Mountains (Roggeveldberge), are a mountain range in South Africa. ... Upington from the Air Upington is a town founded in 1871 and located in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, on the banks of the Orange River. ...


South Africa also has one possession, the small sub-Antarctic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands, consisting of Marion Island (290 km2/110 sq mi) and Prince Edward Island (45 km2/17 sq mi) (not to be confused with the Canadian province of the same name).
This article is about two South African sub-antarctic islands. ... This article is about a small sub-antarctic island. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Climate data for Cape Town, South Africa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27
(81)
28
(82)
26
(79)
24
(75)
20
(68)
18
(64)
17
(63)
18
(64)
19
(66)
22
(72)
24
(75)
26
(79)
28
(82)
Average low °C (°F) 16
(61)
16
(61)
15
(59)
13
(55)
10
(50)
8
(46)
8
(46)
8
(46)
9
(48)
11
(52)
14
(57)
15
(59)
8
(46)
Precipitation mm (inches) 16.5
(0.65)
13
(0.51)
20
(0.79)
54
(2.13)
92
(3.62)
111
(4.37)
96
(3.78)
87
(3.43)
56
(2.2)
40
(1.57)
24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
627
(24.69)
Source: EuroWEATHER[47] 2008-02-22

Flora and fauna

Fynbos, a floral kingdom unique to South Africa, is found near Cape Town
Swartberg mountains near the town of Oudtshoorn
A field of flowers in the West Coast National Park

South Africa is ranked sixth out of the world’s seventeen megadiverse countries,[48] with more than 20,000 different plants, or about 10% of all the known species of plants on Earth, making it particularly rich in plant biodiversity. The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn and whitethorn. Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. There are several species of water-storing succulents like aloes and euphorbias in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park.[49] A floristic province is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Oudtshoorn is the largest town in in the Little Karoo region of South Africa. ... The Megadiverse countries are a group of countries in which less than the 10% of the global surface has more than the 70% of the biodiversity. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Species ~1,300; See List of Acacia species Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees of Gondwanian origin belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the Pea Family Fabaceae, first described from Africa by Linnaeus in 1773. ... This article is about the meteorological term. ... Species See Species For other uses, see Aloe (disambiguation). ... Namaqualand (Afrikaans: Namakwaland) is an arid region of South Africa, extending along the west coast over 600 miles and covering a total area of 170,000 square miles/440,000 km². It is divided by the lower course of the Orange River into two portions - Little Namaqualand to the south... Species See text The baobab (Adansonia), or monkey bread tree are a genus of eight species of trees, native to Madagascar (the centre of diversity, with six species), and mainland Africa and Australia (one species in each). ... Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ...


The Fynbos Biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region, one of the six floral kingdoms, is located in a small region of the Western Cape and contains more than 9,000 of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of floral biodiversity. The majority of the plants are evergreen hard-leaf plants with fine, needle-like leaves, such as the sclerophyllous plants. Another uniquely South African plant is the protea genus of flowering plants. There are around 130 different species of protea in South Africa. Fynbos in the Western Cape. ... Arid, largely treeless areas aside, most Australian bushland is sclerophyll forest. ... Species See text Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes. ...


While South Africa has a great wealth of flowering plants, only 1% of South Africa is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal, where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths. There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests. Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine. South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the nineteenth century. South Africa is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many (e.g. Black Wattle, Port Jackson, Hakea, Lantana and Jacaranda) posing a significant threat to the native biodiversity and the already scarce water resources. The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained. Currently, South African hardwood trees like Real Yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African Black Ironwood (Olea laurifolia) are under government protection. The Kwazulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of South Africa. ... The Knysna-Amatole montane forests is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of South Africa. ... [[Link title]] This article is about the plant genus. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Binomial name Acacia mearnsii De Wild. ... Binomial name (Labill. ... Species See text Hakea (Hakea) is a genus of about 110 species of shrubs and small trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia, with the highest species diversity in Western Australia. ... For other uses, see Lantana (disambiguation). ... Species See text Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Binomial name Podocarpus latifolius The Real Yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius) is a large evergreen tree up to 35 m high and 3 m trunk diameter, in the conifer family Podocarpaceae. ... Binomial name Ocotea bullata (Burch. ... Binomial name Olea laurifolia Lam. ...


Numerous mammals are found in the bushveld including lions, leopards, white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamus and giraffes. A significant extent of the bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park and the Mala Mala Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere. For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the big cat. ... Binomial name Ceratotherium simum Burchell, 1817 The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exists and is one of the few megaherbivore species left. ... Binomial name (Burchell, 1823) The Blue Wildebeest is a large ungulate mammal of the genus Connochaetes which grows to 1. ... Male Greater Kudu Female Greater Kudu The Kudu are two species of antelope: Lesser Kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros Kudu: has a symbolic role in Hindu and Buddhist architecture. ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... This article is about the species of animal. ... This page is about the species Hippopotamus amphibius. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... Mala Mala is a game reserve located near Sabi Sand Reserve, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. ... River gorge in the Lapalala Wilderness, Waterberg, South Africa, showing horizontal sandstone layering. ...


Climate change is expected to bring considerable warming and drying to much of this already semi-arid region, with greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding and drought. According to computer generated climate modelling produced by the South African National Biodiversity Institute[50] parts of southern Africa will see an increase in temperature by about one degree Celsius along the coast to more than four degrees Celsius in the already hot hinterland such as the Northern Cape in late spring and summertime by 2050.


The Cape Floral Kingdom has been identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots since it will be hit very hard by climate change and has such a great diversity of life. Drought, increased intensity and frequency of fire and climbing temperatures are expected to push many of these rare species towards extinction. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


South Africa houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered Riverine Rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo. Binomial name Bunolagus monticularis (Thomas, 1903) The Riverine Rabbit (Bunolagus monticularis), also known as the Bushman Rabbit or Bushman Hare is a species of rabbit and one of the rarest mammals in the world. ...

Economy

Table Mountain. Cape Town has become an important retail and tourism centre for the country, and attracts the largest number of foreign visitors in South Africa

By UN classification South Africa is a middle-income country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that ranks among the top twenty in the world, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centres throughout the entire region. South Africa is ranked 25th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2008. South Africa has a two-tiered economy; one rivaling other developed countries and the other with only the most basic infrastructure. ... This article is about Table Mountain in South Africa. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... The Johannesburg Stock Exchange or the JSE Securities Exchange is largest stock exchange in Africa and one of the ten largest in the world. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...


Advanced development is significantly localised around four areas: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Pretoria/Johannesburg. Beyond these four economic centres, development is marginal and poverty is still prevalent despite government efforts. Consequently the vast majority of South Africans are poor. However, key marginal areas have experienced rapid growth recently. Such areas include Mossel Bay to Plettenberg Bay; Rustenburg area; Nelspruit area; Bloemfontein; Cape West Coast; and the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast.


Unemployment is extremely high and income inequality is approximately equal to Brazil. During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened.[27] The average South African household income decreased considerably between 1995 and 2000. As for racial inequality, Statistics South Africa reported that in 1995 the average white household earned four times as much as the average black household. In 2000 the average white household was earning six times more than the average black household.[51] The affirmative action policies have seen a rise in black economic wealth and an emerging black middle class.[52][53] Other problems are crime, corruption, and HIV/AIDS. South Africa suffers from relatively heavy overall regulation burden compared to developed countries. State ownership and interference impose high barriers to entry in many areas.[54] Restrictive labour regulations have contributed to the unemployment malaise.[27] Statistics South Africa is the national statistics board of South Africa. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ...

The Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg. Gauteng produces 33% of South Africa's GDP and 10% of the African continent's GDP

The 1994 government inherited an economy wracked by long years of internal conflict and external sanctions. Governments refrained from resorting to economic populism. Inflation was brought down, public finances were stabilised, and some foreign capital was attracted.[55] However, growth was still subpar.[55] At the start of 2000, then President Thabo Mbeki vowed to promote economic growth and foreign investment by relaxing restrictive labour laws, stepping up the pace of privatisation, and cutting unneeded governmental spending. His policies face strong opposition from organised labour. From 2004 onward economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased.[55] This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ...


South Africa is the largest energy producer and consumer on the continent. South Africa is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism.[56] Among the main attractions are the diverse and picturesque culture, the game reserves and the highly regarded local wines.


The South African rand (ZAR), is the most actively traded emerging market currency in the world. It has joined an elite club of fifteen currencies, the Continuous linked settlement (CLS), where forex transactions are settled immediately, lowering the risks of transacting across time zones. The rand was the best-performing currency against the United States dollar (USD) between 2002 and 2005, according to the Bloomberg Currency Scorecard. ISO 4217 Code ZAR User(s) Common Monetary Area: Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland Inflation 5. ... Market currency is what trades use to buy goods from other countries and it is acceptable for value in contries around the globe. ... Continuous Linked Settlement (CLS) is a financial clearing system used mainly by banks to settle foreign exchange flows. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... USD redirects here. ... Bloomberg L.P. is the largest financial news and data company in the world, controlling 33% of market share. ...

JSE is the largest stock exchange on the African continent

The volatility of the rand has affected economic activity, falling sharply during 2001 and hitting a historic low of 13.85 ZAR to the USD, raising fears of inflation, and causing the Reserve Bank to increase interest rates. The rand has since recovered, trading at 7.77 ZAR to the dollar as of February 2010. However, as exporters are put under considerable pressure from a stronger domestic currency, many call for government intervention to help soften the rand. The JSE Securities Exchange, previously known as the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, is South Africas only stock exchange. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ...


Refugees from poorer neighbouring countries include many immigrants from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Malawi and others, representing a large portion of the informal sector. With high unemployment levels amongst poorer South Africans, xenophobia is prevalent and many people born in South Africa feel resentful of immigrants who are seen to be depriving the native population of jobs, a feeling which has been given credibility by the fact that many South African employers have employed migrants from other countries for lower pay than South African citizens, especially in the construction, tourism, agriculture and domestic service industries. Illegal immigrants are also heavily involved in informal trading.[57] However, many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the South African immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since 1994.[58] Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Domestic service also called simply service is the employment of people for wages in their employers residence. ...


Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain.[59] Chief exports include corn, diamonds, fruits, gold, metals and minerals, sugar, and wool. Machinery and transportation equipment make up more than one-third of the value of the country’s imports. Other imports include chemicals, manufactured goods, and petroleum. This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Petro redirects here. ...

Electricity crisis

Arnot power station

After unsuccessful attempts by the government to encourage private construction of electricity generation capacity, in 2007 the state-owned electricity supplier (Eskom) started experiencing a lack of capacity in the electrical generating and reticulation infrastructure. This led to an inability to meet the routine demands of industry and consumers, resulting in countrywide rolling blackouts. Initially the lack of capacity was triggered by a failure at Koeberg nuclear power station, but since then a general lack of capacity due to increased demand became evident. The supplier has been widely criticised for failing to adequately plan for and construct sufficient electrical generating capacity,[60] although ultimately the government has admitted that it is at fault for refusing to approve funding for investment in infrastructure.[61] Eskom is a South African electricity public utility company. ... Rolling blackout refers to an intentionally-engineered electrical power outage, caused by insufficient available resources to meet prevailing demand for electricity. ... Koeberg nuclear power station gets its name from the small mountain Koeberg (pronounced: Kooburg) and is located 30 km north of Cape Town and the suburb of Melkbosstrand on the West coast of South Africa. ...


The crisis was resolved within a few months, but the margin between national demand and available capacity is still low (particularly in peak hours) and power stations are under strain, meaning another phase of rolling blackouts is probable if parts of the supply are halted for whatever reason. Government and Eskom are currently planning new power stations. The power utility plans to have 20 000MW of nuclear power in its grid by 2025.[62][63]

Agriculture

Workers planting on a farm in the central area of Mpumalanga
Farm workers

South Africa has a large agricultural sector and is a net exporter of farming products. There are almost a thousand agricultural cooperatives and agribusinesses throughout the country, and agricultural exports have constituted 8% of South African total exports for the past five years. The agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual labourers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation.[64] However, due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5% can be used for crop production, and only 3% is considered high potential land.[65] For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... GDP redirects here. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ...


Although the commercial farming sector is relatively well developed, people in some rural areas still survive on subsistence agriculture. It is the eighth largest wine producer in the world, and the eleventh largest producer of sunflower seed. South Africa is a net exporter of agricultural products and foodstuffs, the largest number of exported items being sugar, grapes, citrus, nectarines, wine and deciduous fruit. The largest locally produced crop is maize (corn), and it has been estimated that 9 million tons are produced every year, with 7.4 million tons being consumed. Livestock are also popular on South African farms, with the country producing 85% of all meat consumed. The dairy industry consists of around 4,300 milk producers providing employment for 60,000 farm workers and contributing to the livelihoods of around 40,000 others.[66] Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Nectarine is a cultivar group of peach that has a smooth, fuzzless skin. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


In recent years, the agricultural sector has introduced several reforms, some of which are controversial, such as land reform and the deregulation of the market for agricultural products. The South African government has set a target of transferring 30% of productive farmland from whites to previously disadvantaged blacks by 2014.[67] Land reform has been criticised both by farmers' groups and by landless workers, the latter alleging that the pace of change has not been fast enough, and the former alleging racist treatment and expressing concerns that a similar situation to Zimbabwe's land reform policy may develop,[68] a fear exacerbated by comments made by former deputy president Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka.[69][70] The sector continues to face problems, with increased foreign competition and crime being two of the major challenges for the industry. The government has been accused of either putting in too much effort,[71] or not enough effort,[72] to tackle the problem of farm attacks as opposed to other forms of violent crime.-1... Land apportionment in Rhodesia in 1965. ... Mrs Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka (born November 3, 1955) is the current Deputy President of South Africa. ... Iron Crosses Day at Polokwane (Pietersburg) in memory of the farmers killed in South Africa. The South African farming community has suffered from attacks for many years. ...


Another issue which affects South African agriculture is environmental damage caused by misuse of the land and global climate change. South Africa is unusually vulnerable to climate change and resultant diminution of surface waters. Some predictions show surface water supply could decrease by 60% by the year 2070 in parts of the Western Cape.[73] To reverse the damage caused by land mismanagement, the government has supported a scheme which promotes sustainable development and the use of natural resources.[74] Maize production, which contributes to a 36% majority of the gross value of South Africa’s field crops, has also experienced negative effects due to climate change. The estimated value of loss, which takes into consideration scenarios with and without the carbon dioxide fertilisation effect,[75] ranges between 10’s to 100’s of millions of Rands.[76] Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ...

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1900 5,014,000
1910 5,842,000 16.5%
1920 6,953,000 19.0%
1930 8,580,000 23.4%
1940 10,341,000 20.5%
1950 13,310,000 28.7%
1960 16,385,000 23.1%
1970 21,794,000 33.0%
1980 24,261,000 11.3%
1990 37,944,000 56.4%
2000 43,686,000 15.1%
2009 (est.) 49,320,000 12.9%
Map of population density in South Africa.
     <1 /km²      1–3 /km²      3–10 /km²      10–30 /km²      30–100 /km²      100–300 /km²      300–1000 /km²      1000–3000 /km²      >3000 /km²
The many migrations that formed the modern Rainbow Nation

South Africa is a nation of about 50 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2001 and the next will be in 2011. Statistics South Africa provided five racial categories by which people could classify themselves, the last of which, "unspecified/other" drew negligible responses, and these results were omitted.[77] The 2009 midyear estimated figures for the other categories were Black African at 79.3%, White at 9.1%, Coloured at 9.0%, and Indian or Asian at 2.6%.[78] Until 1991, South African law divided the population into four major racial categories: blacks, whites, coloureds, and Asians. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... South African National Census of 2001 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Statistics South Africa is the national statistics board of South Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ...


Even though the population of South Africa has increased in the past decade[77][79] (primarily due to immigration), the country had an annual population growth rate of −0.501% in 2008 (CIA est.), including immigration.[80] The CIA estimates that in 2009 South Africa's population started to grow again, at a rate of 0,281%.[1] South Africa is home to an estimated 5 million illegal immigrants, including some 3 million Zimbabweans.[81][82][83] A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008.[84][85] Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ... Prior to 1994 immigrants from elsewhere in Africa faced discrimination and even violence in South Africa, though much of that risk stemmed from the institutionalised racism of the time rather than xenophobia. ...


By far the major part of the population classified itself as African or black, but it is not culturally or linguistically homogeneous. Major ethnic groups include the Zulu, Xhosa, Basotho (South Sotho), Bapedi (North Sotho), Venda, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi and Ndebele, all of which speak Bantu languages. Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Northern Sotho, Sepedi, or Sesotho sa Leboa, is one of the official languages of South Africa, and is spoken by 4,208,980 people (2001 Census Data), mostly in the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga. ... Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province. ... Tswana (Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people. ... The Shangaan (Vatsonga or Vitsonga) are a large group of people living mainly in southern Mozambique in Maputo and in Gaza Province; there is also a large Shangaan grouping in Limpopo Province in South Africa. ... The Ndebele people are three tribes or nations of people living in South Africa and Zimbabwe; there are three main groups of Ndebele: The Southern Transvaal Ndebele, who live around Bronkhorstspruit The Northern Transvaal Ndebele, who live in Limpopo Province (formerly Northern Transvaal or Northern Province) around the towns of... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ...


Some, such as the Zulu, Xhosa, Bapedi and Venda groups, are unique to South Africa. Other groups are distributed across the borders with neighbours of South Africa: The Basotho group is also the major ethnic group in Lesotho. The Tswana ethnic group constitute the majority of the population of Botswana. The Swazi ethnic group is the major ethnic group in Swaziland. The Ndebele ethnic group is also found in Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, where they are known as the Matabele. These Ndebele people are the descendants of a Zulu faction under the warrior Mzilikazi that escaped persecution from Shaka by migrating to their current territory. The Tsonga ethnic group is also found in southern Mozambique, where they are known as the Shangaan. Map of Zimbabwe showing Matabeleland Map of Zimbabwe: Matabeleland is on the west Modern day Matabeleland is currently divided into two provinces: Matabeleland North and Matabeleland South. ... This article relates to the Ndebele people of Zimbabwe. ... Mzilikazi (meaning the path of blood) (ca. ... For other uses, see Shaka (disambiguation). ...


The white population is not ethnically homogeneous and descends from many ethnic groups: Dutch, Flemish, Portuguese, Norwegian, German, Greek, French Huguenot, English, Polish, Irish, Italian, Scottish and Welsh. There is also a substantial (though decreased) Jewish population, the majority of whom came from Lithuania at the turn of the 20th century; though others came then and later from Great Britain, the former Soviet Union and Israel. Culturally and linguistically, they are divided into the Afrikaners, who speak Afrikaans, and English-speaking groups, many of whom are descended from British and Irish immigrants (see Anglo-African). Many small communities that have immigrated over the last century retain the use of other languages. The white population is on the decrease due to a low birth rate and emigration; as a factor in their decision to emigrate, many cite the high crime rate and the affirmative action policies of the government. Since 1994, approximately 1,000,000 white South Africans have permanently emigrated.[86][87][88][89] Language(s) Norwegian Related languages include Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Swedish, and to a lesser extent, all Germanic languages Religion(s) 83% of the population of Norway are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway [9]. Norway is highly secularized, and only about 10% of the population attend religious services... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the country. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Language(s) South African English Religion(s) Protestant (Mostly Anglican), Roman Catholic other Related ethnic groups English, Afrikaners, French, Scottish, Irish, Welsh; Walloons, Anglo-Africans are primarily associated with Southern Africa and British ancestry. ... Whites redirects here. ...


Despite high emigration levels, a high level of non-South African white immigrants have settled in the country, in particular from countries such as Britain and Zimbabwe. For example, by 2005, an estimated 212 000 British citizens were residing in South Africa. Since 2003, the numbers of British migrants coming to South Africa has risen by 50%. An estimated 20 000 British migrants moved to South Africa in 2007. There have also been a significant number of white Zimbabwean arrivals, fleeing their home country in light of the economic and political problems currently facing the country. As well as recent arrivals, a significant number of white Zimbabweans emigrated to South Africa in the wake of independence in Zimbabwe in 1980. Some of the more nostalgic members of the community are known in popular culture as "Whenwes", because of their nostalgia for their lives in Rhodesia "when we were in Rhodesia".[90] People of European ethnic origin (Whites) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabwe during the late nineteenth century. ... A person who talks constantly about where they used to live so much that it drives others crazy. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ...


There were other white immigrations to South Africa in past decades. In the 1970s, many Portuguese residents of African colonies such as Angola and Mozambique, came to live in South Africa after the independence of those nations. Also, the apartheid government encouraged Eastern European immigration in the 1980s and early 1990s, particularly from Poland and Hungary.


The term "coloured" is still used for the people of mixed race descended from slaves brought in from East and Central Africa, the indigenous Khoisan who lived in the Cape at the time, Bantus, Whites (mostly the Dutch/Afrikaner and British settlers) as well as an admixture of Javanese, Malay, Indian, Malagasy and Asian blood (such as Burmese). The majority speak Afrikaans. Khoisan is a term used to describe two separate groups, physically similar: light-skinned and small in stature. The Khoikhoi, who were called Hottentots by the Europeans, were pastoralists and were annihilated; the San, called Bushmen by the Europeans, were hunter-gatherers. Within the Coloured community, more recent immigrants will also be found: Coloureds from the former Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe); Namibia and immigrants of mixed descent from India and Burma (Anglo-Indians/Anglo-Burmese) who were welcomed to the Cape when India and Burma received their Independence. In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... For other uses, see Javanese. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... Anglo-Burmese redirects here. ...


The major part of the South African Asian population is Indian in origin (see Indian South Africans); many of them descended from indentured workers brought in the nineteenth century to work on the sugar plantations of the eastern coastal area then known as Natal. Serious riots in Durban between Indians and Zulus erupted in 1949.[91] There is also a significant group of Chinese South Africans (approximately 100,000 individuals) and Vietnamese South Africans (approximately 50,000 individuals). In 2008, the Pretoria High Court has ruled that Chinese South Africans who arrived before 1994 are to be reclassified as Coloureds. As a result of this ruling, about 12,000–15,000 [92] ethnically Chinese citizens who arrived before 1994, numbering 3%–5% of the total Chinese population in the country, will be able to benefit from government BEE policies.[93] Indian South African is a compromise term for non-Europeans who arrived in South Africa from colonial India. ... In the South African context, the term Coloured refers to various people of mixed Bantu, Khoisan, and European descent (with some Malay or Indian ancestry, especially in the Western Cape) together with some racially pure Khoisans. ... Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is a program launched by the South African government to redress the inequalities of Apartheid by giving previously disadvantaged groups (black Africans, Coloureds and Indians) economic opportunuties previously not available to them. ...


South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[94] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), The Democratic Republic of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).[94] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[94]

Largest Metropolitan areas in South Africa This article is about the city in South Africa. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, Xhosa: Imonti) is a city in southeast South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province at 32. ...

Code Rank City Population Province Annual Growth Rate
JHB 1 Johannesburg 8,837,000 Gauteng 2.47%
CPT 2 Cape Town 3,653,000 Western Cape 1.43%
ETH 3 Durban 3,192,000 Kwazulu-Natal 1.36%
EKU 4 Germiston 2,724,229 Gauteng 1.36%
TSH 5 Pretoria 2,450,000 Gauteng 1.41%
NMA 6 Port Elizabeth 1,572,000 Eastern Cape 0.41%
JHB 7 Vereeniging 1,074,000 Gauteng 0.41%
EC125 8 East London 958,000 Eastern Cape 0.32%
FS172 9 Bloemfontein 752,906 Free State 0.21%
GT421 10 Vanderbijlpark 650,867 Gauteng 0.13%

Health

The AIDS red ribbon

The spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) is an alarming problem in South Africa with up to 31% of pregnant women found to be HIV infected in 2005 and the infection rate among adults estimated at 20%.[95] The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by prior president Thabo Mbeki and then health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV.[96] This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Elevation Highest point: Seweweekspoort Peak at 2325 meters (7628 feet) Lowest point: sea level Languages Afrikaans (55. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Germiston in the East Rand of Gauteng is South Africas sixth largest city with 70% of the western worlds gold passing through its gold refinery. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... Port Elizabeth is a city in South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province, at 33°58′ S 25°36′ E. The city is located on Algoa Bay, and is one of the major seaports in South Africa. ... Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... Vereeniging is a city in Gauteng province, South Africa, with a population of more than 350,000. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, Xhosa: Imonti) is a city in southeast South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province at 32. ... Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... For the term free state as it arises in United States history, see: Free state. ... Vanderbijlpark is an industrial city next to the Vaal River in southern Gauteng, South Africa. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... HIV and AIDS in South Africa are a major health concern, and around 5. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Dr. Manto Tshabalala-Msimang (born 9 October 1940) is the controversial Health Minister of South Africa under the government of Thabo Mbeki (as of 2007). ...


In 2007, in response to international pressure, the government made efforts to fight AIDS.[97] In September 2008 Thabo Mbeki was ousted by the ANC and Kgalema Motlanthe was appointed for the interim. One of Mr. Motlanthe's first actions was to replace Mrs. Tshabalala-Msimang with Barbara Hogan who immediately started working to improve the Government's approach to AIDS. After the 2009 General Elections, President Jacob Zuma appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi as the new minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of AIDS treatment.[98] Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born April 12, 1942 at Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) is the president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Aaron Motsoaledi is the minister of health of South Africa. ...


AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active and is far more prevalent in the black population. Most deaths are people who are also economically active, resulting in many families losing their primary wage earners. This has resulted in many 'AIDS orphans' who in many cases depend on the state for care and financial support.[99] It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa.[99] Many elderly people also lose the support from lost younger members of their family. Roughly 5 million people are infected with the disease.[97]

Science and technology

Mark Shuttleworth, the first African in space

Several important scientific and technological developments have originated in South Africa. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967. Max Theiler developed a vaccine against Yellow Fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered x-ray Computed tomography, and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. These advancements were all recognised with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology. Christiaan Neethling Barnard (November 8, 1922 – September 2, 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon, famous for performing the worlds first successful human-to-human heart transplant. ... Groote Schuur Hospital (also known as GSH or, colloquially, Grotties) is a large, government-funded, teaching hospital situated on the slopes of Devils Peak in the city of Cape Town, South Africa. ... Max Theiler (January 30, 1899 – August 11, 1972) was a South African virologist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1951 for developing a vaccine for yellow fever. ... Allan M. Cormack at Tufts University Allan MacLeod Cormack (February 23, 1924 – May 7, 1998) was a South African-born American physicist who shared a part of the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan. ... A Multislice CT Scanner: Philips Brilliance 64-channel thin-slice Computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging method employing tomography. ... Sir Aaron Klug, OM, FRS (born 11 August 1926 in Zelvas, Lithuania) is a Lithuanian-born British chemist and biophysicist, and winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


Mark Shuttleworth founded an early Internet security company Thawte, that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign. Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology, IT and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa. However, it is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South African cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity. Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist and first African in space. ... Thawte Consulting is a certificate authority (CA) for X.509 certificates. ... VeriSign, Inc. ...


South Africa has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. It hosts the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere. South Africa is currently building the Karoo Array Telescope as a pathfinder for the $20 billion Square Kilometer Array project. South Africa is a finalist, with Australia, to be the host of the SKA. The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a 10 metre (~32. ... The Square Kilometre Array, once complete will be a radio telescope with a planned collecting area of a square kilometre. ...

Society and culture

Decorated houses, Drakensberg Mountains
Traditional South African cuisine

It may be argued that there is no "single" culture in South Africa because of its ethnic diversity. Today, the diversity in foods from many cultures is enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety of South African cuisine. In addition to food, music and dance feature prominently. There is no single Culture of South Africa. ...


South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as a braai, or barbecue. South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschoek, Paarl and Barrydale.[100] South African cuisine varies widely, representing the food of indigenous people and of all those who have immigrated since. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A common vineyard. ... Stellenbosch from Botmaskop mountain looking towards Cape Town Stellenbosch (IPA: ) is the second oldest European settlement in the Western Cape Province, South Africa after Cape Town, and is situated about 50 kilometers (30 mi) away along the banks of the Eerste River. ... Franschoek is a small town in the Western Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. ... Paarl Rock Paarl (meaning Pearl in Dutch and Perel in Afrikaans) is the third oldest European settlement in the Republic of South Africa (after Cape Town and Stellenbosch) and forms part of the Western Cape Province. ... Barrydale is a quaint little village located on the border of the Overberg and Klein Karoo regions of the Western Cape Province in South Africa. ...


The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives. It is among these people, however, that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined. Urban blacks usually speak English or Afrikaans in addition to their native tongue. There are smaller but still significant groups of speakers of Khoisan languages who are not included in the eleven official languages, but are one of the eight other officially recognised languages. There are small groups of speakers of endangered languages, most of which are from the Khoi-San family, that receive no official status; however, some groups within South Africa are attempting to promote their use and revival. Urbanization is the degree of or increase in urban character or nature. ... Occident redirects here. ... The Khoisan languages (also Khoesaan languages) are the indigenous languages of southern and eastern Africa; in southern Africa their speakers are the Khoi and Bushmen (Saan), in east Africa the Sandawe and Hadza. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ...


The middle class lifestyle, predominantly of the white minority but with growing numbers of Black, Coloured and Indian people,[101] is similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. Members of the middle class often study and work abroad for greater exposure to the markets of the world. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Asians, predominantly of Indian origin, preserve their own cultural heritage, languages and religious beliefs, being either Christian, Hindu or Sunni Muslim and speaking English, with Indian languages like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil or Gujarati being spoken less frequently, but the majority of Indians being able to understand their mother tongue. The first Indians arrived on the famous Truro ship as indentured labourers in Natal to work the Sugar Cane Fields. There is a much smaller Chinese community in South Africa, although its numbers have increased due to immigration from Republic of China (Taiwan). For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Truro was the ship (from Madras) containing the first batch of 342 indentured Indian labourers to arrive in Durban on 16 November 1860. ... An indentured servant is a laborer under contract of an employer for some period of time, usually three to seven years, in exchange for their transportation, food, drink, clothing, lodging and other necessities. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


South Africa has also had a large influence in the Scouting movement, with many Scouting traditions and ceremonies coming from the experiences of Robert Baden-Powell (the founder of Scouting) during his time in South Africa as a military officer in the 1890s. The South African Scout Association was one of the first youth organisations to open its doors to youth and adults of all races in South Africa. This happened on 2 July 1977 at a conference known as Quo Vadis.[102] This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ... Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B-P, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, and founder of the Scout Movement. ... The South African Scout Association is the World Organization of the Scout Movement recognized Scouting association in South Africa. ...

Music

There is great diversity in music from South Africa. Many black musicians who sang in Afrikaans or English during apartheid have since begun to sing in traditional African languages, and have developed a unique style called Kwaito. Of note is Brenda Fassie, who launched to fame with her song "Weekend Special", which was sung in English. More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo, while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour. White and Coloured South African singers are historically influenced by European musical styles. South Africa has produced world-famous jazz musicians, notably Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Abdullah Ibrahim, Miriam Makeba, Jonathan Butler, Chris McGregor, and Sathima Bea Benjamin. Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr and the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar. Crossover artists such as Verity (internationally recognized for innovation in the music industry) and Johnny Clegg and his bands Juluka and Savuka have enjoyed various success underground, publicly, and abroad. The South African music scene includes both popular (jive) and folk forms. ... Kwaito is a music genre that emerged in Johannesburg, South Africa in the early 1990s. ... Brenda Fassie (November 3, 1964 – May 9, 2004[1]), was a legendary South African pop singer widely considered the voice for disenfranchised blacks during apartheid. ... Ladysmith Black Mambazo is a Grammy Award-winning male group from South Africa that sings in the vocal style of isicathamiya and mbube. ... The Soweto String Quartet is a string quartet from Soweto in South Africa comprising of Reuben Khemese, Makhosini Mnguni, Sandile Khemese and Thami Khemese. ... Hugh Masekela (born Johannesburg, April 4, 1939) is a South African flugelhorn and cornet player. ... Jonas Mosa Gwangwa has been an important figure in South African jazz for over 40 years. ... Abdullah Ibrahim, born Adolph Johannes Brand, formally known as Dollar Brand (from a popular brand of matches), is a South African pianist and composer who was born in Cape Town in 1934. ... Miriam Makeba performing at the Cape Town Jazz Festival in 2006. ... Christopher McGregor (24 December 1936 – 26 May 1990), was a South African jazz pianist, bandleader and composer born in Somerset West, South Africa. ... Sathima Bea Benjamin (Born 1936, Johannesburg, South Africa), is a South African vocalist and composer in Johannesburg and raised in Cape Town. ... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... Steve Hofmeyr (born 29 August 1964) is a South African singer, songwriter and actor. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Fokofpolisiekar is an Afrikaans punk rock band from Bellville, near Cape Town, South Africa. ... Johnny Clegg can refer to two different people: Johnny Clegg the actor Johnny Clegg the musician from South Africa Categories: Disambiguation ... Savuka was a band formed by English-born South African Johnny Clegg after the disbanding of his first band: Juluka. ...


The South African music scene includes Kwaito, a new music genre that had developed in the mid 80s and has since developed to become the most popular social economical form of representation among the populous. Though some may argue that the political aspects of Kwaito has since diminished after Apartheid, and the relative interest in politics has become a minor aspect of daily life. Some argue that in a sense, Kwaito is in fact a political force that shows activism in its apolitical actions. Today, major corporations like Sony, BMG, and EMI have appeared on the South African scene to produce and distribute Kwaito music. Due to its overwhelming popularity, as well as the general influence of DJs, who are among the top 5 most influential types of people within the country[citation needed], Kwaito has taken over radio, television, and magazines.[103] Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... BMG (Bertelsmann Music Group) is one of the six divisions of Bertelsmann. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ...

Religion

Church in Graaff Reinet

According to the latest 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Zion Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal (Charismatic) 8.2%, Roman Catholic 7.1%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%, and other Christian 36%. Islam accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hinduism about 1.3%, and Judaism 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 2.3% were other and 1.4% were unspecified.[59][104][105] The Dutch Reformed Church (Grotekerk) in Graaff-Reinet. ... The Star of David, symbol of the Zion Christian Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... The charismatic movement begins with the adoption of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians — specifically what are known as the biblical charisms or spiritual gifts: glossolalia (speaking in tongues), prophesying, supernatural healing — by those within mainstream Protestant and Roman Catholic churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church in South Africa is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Methodist Church of Southern Africa is a member church of the World Methodist Council. ... The Nederduits Gereformeerde Church is a Dutch Reformed Church from the Netherlands which took root in South Africa, where it is the oldest and largest of several Dutch Reformed Churches. ... The Anglican Church of Southern Africa (formerly the Church of the Province of Southern Africa) is the Anglican province in the southern part of Africa, including dioceses in Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Saint Helena, South Africa and Swaziland. ... Islam in South Africa probably predates the colonial period, and consisted of isolated contact with Arab and East African traders. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


African Indigenous Churches were the largest of the Christian groups. It was believed that many of these persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions. Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[106] African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... For the linguistic term, see syncretism (linguistics). ...


There is no evidence that Islam was known to the Zulu, Swazi, or Xhosa of the east coast prior to the colonial era. Many South African Muslims are described as Coloureds, notably in the Western Cape, especially those whose ancestors came as slaves from the Indonesian archipelago (the Cape Malays). Others are described as Indians, notably in KwaZulu-Natal, including those whose ancestors came as traders from South Asia; they have been joined by others from other parts of Africa as well as white or black South African converts. It is estimated that Islam is the fastest growing religion of conversion in the country,[107] with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12,000 in 1991 to 74,700 in 2004.[108] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Cape Malay community is an ethnic group or community in South Africa, taking its name from what is now known as the Western Cape of South Africa and the people originally from the Malay archipelago who started this community in South Africa. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Hinduism dates back to British Colonial period primarily but later waves of continuous immigrants from India have contributed to a sizeable Hindu population. Most Hindus are ethnically South Asian but there are many who come from mixed racial stock and many are converts with the efforts of Hindu missionaries such as ISKCON. Other religions in smaller numbers are Sikhism, Jainism and Bahá'í Faith.[104] Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...

Languages

Map showing dominant South African languages.
     Afrikaans      English      Ndebele      Xhosa      Zulu      Northern Sotho      Sotho      Tswana      Swazi      Venda      Tsonga      None dominant

South Africa has eleven official languages:[109] Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2001 National Census, the three most spoken first home languages are Zulu (23.8%), Xhosa (17.6%) and Afrikaans (13.3%).[77] Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it was spoken by only 8.2% of South Africans at home in 2001, an even lower percentage than in 1996 (8.6%).[77] Map showing principal South African languages by municipality. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... South African English is a dialect of English spoken in South Africa and in neighbouring countries with a large number of Anglo-Africans living in them, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. ... The Southern Ndebele language (isiNdebele or Nrebele in Southern Ndebele) is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the amaNdebele (the Ndebele people of South Africa). ... Northern Sotho, or Sesotho sa Leboa, is one of the official languages of South Africa, and is spoken by 4,208,980 people (2001 Census Data), mostly in the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga. ... Sesotho (Sotho, Southern Sotho or Southern Sesotho[1]) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language. ... Swati (also known as siSwati and Swazi) is a Bantu language spoken in Swaziland and South Africa. ... Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan. ... Venda, also known as Tshivenda, or Luvenda, is a Bantu language. ... For the Xhosa people, see Xhosa. ... Zulu (called isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... The Constitution of India envisages Hindi as the primary official language advocated by the Union government, with English as the subsidiary official language. ...


The country also recognises eight unofficial languages: Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, San and South African Sign Language.[citation needed] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Nevertheless, their populations are not such that they require nationwide recognition. Fanagalo is a language developed in South African mines. ... Kxoe is a Khoisan language of Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and Zambia. ... Lobedu (also Lovedu or Selobedu) is a Bantu language regarded as a dialect of Northern Sotho (Sepedi). ... Nàmá, previously called Hottentot, is the most populous and widespread of the Khoisan languages. ... The Northern Ndebele language, or isiNdebele, or Sindebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the Ndebele or Matabele people of Zimbabwe. ... Phuthi, also siPhuti is a Bantu Nguni language variety with Sotho influence spoken in scattered communities in the Eastern Cape / Lesotho borderland. ... The San were a small bushman tribe that had evolved their own click language. ... hi This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...


Many of the "unofficial languages" of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and many of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct. An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ...


Many white South Africans also speak other European languages, such as Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Asians and Indians in South Africa speak South Asian languages, such as Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu. French is still widely spoken by French South Africans especially in places like Franschhoek, where many South Africans are of French origin. South African French is spoken by less than 10,000 individuals. Congolese French is also spoken in South Africa by migrants. The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Franschoek is a small town in the Western Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. ...

Sports

The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup

South Africa's most popular sports are soccer, rugby union and cricket. Other sports with significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis and netball. Although soccer commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular. Many sports have a passionate following in South Africa, although they remains largely divided on ethnic lines and are still largely seen (in the words of a former member of Women and Sport South Africa) as the domain of men. In 1997, one writer described massive gender inequalities in the... The Springboks or Bokke are the South African national rugby team. ... The 2007 Rugby World Cup is the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union world championship inaugurated in 1987. ... Soccer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ...


Famous boxing personalities include Baby Jake Jacob Matlala, Vuyani Bungu, Welcome Ncita, Dingaan Thobela, Gerrie Coetzee and Brian Mitchell. Football players who have played for major foreign clubs include Lucas Radebe and Philemon Masinga (both formerly of Leeds United), Quinton Fortune (Atletico Madrid and Manchester United), Benni McCarthy (Ajax Amsterdam, F.C. Porto and Blackburn Rovers), Aaron Mokoena (Ajax Amsterdam, Blackburn Rovers and Portsmouth), Delron Buckley (Borussia Dortmund) and Steven Pienaar (Ajax Amsterdam and Everton). South Africa produced Formula One motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter. Famous current cricket players include Herschelle Gibbs, Graeme Smith, Jacques Kallis, JP Duminy etc. Most of them also participate in the Indian Premier League. Jacob Baby Jake Matlala (born August 1, 1962 in Meadowlands, Johannesburg) was a South African boxer and junior flyweight champion. ... Vuyani Bungu (born February 26, 1967 in Mdantsane, South Africa) was a professional boxer. ... Dingaan Bongane Thobela (born March 15, 1972 in Soweto, South Africa), is a professional boxer in the Super Middleweight (168lb) division. ... Gerhardus Christian Coetzee (born August 4, 1955 in Boksburg), better known as Gerrie Coetzee, is a South African former boxer. ... Brian Mitchell, (born on August 30, 1961 in Johannesburg, South Africa), was a professional boxer. ... Lucas Valeriu Radebe (born April 12, 1969) is a former Leeds United and South African football player. ... Philemon (Phil) Masinga (born 28 June 1969, Klerksdorp ) is a South African international footballer. ... Leeds United Association Football Club are an English professional football club based in Leeds, West Yorkshire. ... Quinton Fortune (born May 21, 1977 in Cape Town) is a South African football player. ... Club Atl tico de Madrid is a Spanish football team from Madrid. ... MUFC redirects here. ... Benedict Saul Benni McCarthy (born November 12, 1977 in Cape Town, South Africa) is a professional footballer, currently playing for English side Blackburn Rovers and South Africa. ... Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax (Euronext: AJAX) also referred to as Ajax Amsterdam, AFC Ajax, or simply Ajax (pronounced /ˈʌɪjaks/), is a professional football club from Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... Futebol Clube do Porto (pron. ... Blackburn Rovers Football Club is an English Premier League football club based in the town of Blackburn, Lancashire. ... Aaron Mokoena (born November 25, 1980 in Johannesburg, South Africa) is a South African football player who currently plays for Blackburn Rovers F.C. as a defender. ... Portsmouth Football Club is an English football club based in the south coast city of Portsmouth. ... Delron Buckley (born December 7, 1977 in Durban) is a South African soccer player. ... BV Borussia Dortmund is a German football club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the most successful clubs in German football. ... Steven Jerome Pienaar (born 17 March 1982 in Johannesburg, South Africa) is a South African football midfielder currently on Borussia Dortmunds books, but signed on a season-long loan for Everton with the view to making the deal permanent at the end of the twelve month term. ... Everton Football Club is an English football club located in the city of Liverpool. ... F1 redirects here. ... Jody David Scheckter (born January 29, 1950) is a former auto racing driver, the 1979 Formula One World Drivers Champion. ... Graeme Craig Smith (born 1 February 1981 in Johannesburg) is a cricketer who became the youngest ever player to captain the South African cricket team at the age of 22 years when he was selected to take over from Shaun Pollock after the 2003 Cricket World Cup. ... Jacques Henry Kallis (born 16 October 1975 in Cape Town) is a South African cricketer. ...

South Africa has also produced numerous world class rugby players, including Francois Pienaar, Joost van der Westhuizen, Danie Craven, Frik du Preez, Naas Botha and Bryan Habana. South Africa hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup at their first attempt and won the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France. South Africa was only allowed to participate from 1995 since the end of Apartheid. It followed the 1995 Rugby World Cup by hosting the 1996 African Cup of Nations, with the national team, 'Bafana Bafana,' going on to win the tournament. It also hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship which were a great success. South Africa will be the host nation for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, which will be the first time the tournament is held on the African continent. Graeme Craig Smith (born 1 February 1981 in Johannesburg) is a cricketer who became the youngest ever player to captain the South African cricket team at the age of 22 years when he was selected to take over from Shaun Pollock after the 2003 Cricket World Cup. ... The South African cricket team, also known as The Proteas are a national cricket team representing South Africa. ... Jacobus Francois Pienaar (born 2 January 1967 in Vereeniging, South Africa) captained and played flanker for the South African national rugby union team, the Springboks from 26 June 1993 until 10 August 1996. ... Joost van der Westhuizen (born 20 February 1971) is a former South African rugby union player who was the Springboks first choice scrum half in the late 1990s. ... Danie Craven (Daniël Hartman Craven) (11 October 1910 - 4 January 1994) is a former Western Province, Eastern Province, Northern Transvaal and Springbok Rugby Union player as well as arguably South Africas best and most well-known rugby administrator ever. ... Frik du Preez (born Frederick Christoffel Hendrik du Preez on 28 November 1935) is a former Northern Transvaal and Springboks Rugby Union player. ... Naas Botha (Hendrik Egnatius Botha) (born 27 February 1958) is a former Northern Transvaal and Springbok Rugby Union player. ... Bryan Gary Habana (born June 12, 1983)[1] in Benoni, Transvaal) is a South African rugby union player who plays as a wing for the Blue Bulls in the Currie Cup, the Bulls in Super 14, and the 2007 Rugby World Cup champion Springboks. ... The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. ... The 1996 African Cup of Nations was the 20th edition of the African Cup of Nations, the soccer championship of Africa (CAF). ... First international Netherlands 2 - 1 South Africa (Amsterdam, Netherlands; 2 November 1924) Biggest win Australia 0 - 8 South Africa (Adelaide, Australia; 17 September 1955) Biggest defeat Australia 5 - 1 South Africa (Newcastle, Australia; 7 June 1947) Mexico 4 - 0 South Africa (Los Angeles, USA; 6 October 1993) USA 4 - 0... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The ICC World Twenty20 is the international championship of Twenty20 cricket. ... The 2010 FIFA World Cup will be the 19th FIFA World Cup, an international tournament for football, that is scheduled to take place between 11 June and 11 July 2010 in South Africa. ...


In 2004, the swimming team of Roland Schoeman, Lyndon Ferns, Darian Townsend and Ryk Neethling won the gold medal at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, simultaneously breaking the world record in the 4x100 freestyle relay. Penny Heyns won Olympic Gold in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Roland Mark Schoeman (born 3 July 1980) is a South African swimmer and a member of the 2004 Olympic Games swimming team for South Africa. ... Lyndon Ferns (b. ... Darian Townsend (born August 28, 1984 in Pinetown) is a South African swimmer. ... Ryk Neethling (born November 17, 1977) is a South African swimmer and the winner of an Olympic gold medal. ... Penelope Heyns (better known as Penny Heyns) (born 8 November 1974) is a South African swimmer. ... The 1996 Summer Olympics, formally known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and informally known as the Centennial Olympics, were held in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ...


In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam, one of five golfers to have done so. Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen and Trevor Immelman. Gary Player (born November 1, 1935) is a South African professional golfer generally regarded as one of the greatest players in the games history. ... The Grand Slam in mens golf is an unofficial concept, having changed over time. ... Bobby Locke (b 20 November 1917 Germiston, South Africa, d March 9, 1987) was one of the first internationally successful South African golfers. ... Theodore Ernest Ernie Els (born October 17, 1969) is a South African golfer who has been one of the top professional players in the world since the mid-1990s. ... Personal Information Birth February 3, 1969 ) Pietersburg, South Africa Height 5 ft 11 in (1. ... Personal Information Birth December 16, 1979 ) Cape Town, South Africa Height 5 ft 9 in (1. ...

Education

Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling. In the age of Apartheid, schools for blacks were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and so forth. South Africa has numerous universities. Instruction can take place in Afrikaans as well. Public expenditure on education was at 5.4 % of the 2002-05 GDP.[110] South African primary school children South African high school students, 2005. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Social issues

Prison buildings on Robben Island

According to a survey for the period 1998–2000 compiled by the United Nations, South Africa was ranked second for murder and first for assaults and rapes per capita.[111] Official statistics show that 52 people are murdered every day in South Africa.[112] The reported number of rapes per year is 55,000,[113] and it is estimated that 500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa.[114] Total crime per capita is 10th out of the 60 countries in the data set. Crime in South Africa has been a major problem in South Africa. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ...


Rape is a common problem in South Africa. One in three of the 4,000 women questioned by the Community of Information, Empowerment and Transparency said they had been raped in the past year.[115] South Africa has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world.[116] In a related survey conducted among 1,500 schoolchildren in the Soweto township, a quarter of all the boys interviewed said that 'jackrolling', a term for gang rape, was fun.[115] Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... For the township in Namibia, see Soweto (Namibia). ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... For the domesticated crop plant called rape, see rapeseed. ...


Middle-class South Africans seek security in gated communities. Many emigrants from South Africa also state that crime was a big motivator for them to leave. Crime against the farming community has continued to be a major problem.[117] Entrance to a guard-gated community (Paradise Village Grand Marina Villas, Nuevo Vallarta, Mexico). ... Iron Crosses Day at Polokwane in memory of the farmers killed in South Africa. Since the end of apartheid in South Africa in 1994, many farmers have been killed throughout the country. ...


Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a "brain drain" in the past 20 years. This is believed to be potentially damaging for the regional economy,[118] and is almost certainly detrimental for the well-being of the majority of people reliant on the healthcare infrastructure, given the HIV/AIDS epidemic.[119] The skills drain in South Africa tends to demonstrate racial contours (naturally given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa) and has thus resulted in large white South African communities abroad.[120] This article is about the emigration term. ...


In May 2008 long standing state hostility[citation needed] to African migrants exploded in a series of pogroms that left up to 100 people dead and 100,000 displaced.[121] Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ...

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Constitution". Constitutional Court of South Africa. http://www.constitutionalcourt.org.za/site/theconstitution/thetext.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  2. ^ Principal Agglomerations of the World at www.citypopulation.de
  3. ^ The Khoi, Nama and San languages; sign language; German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu; and Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit and "other languages used for religious purposes in South Africa" have a special status. See Chapter 1, Article 6, of the Constitution.
  4. ^ a b c Statistics South Africa (2009) (.html). Mid-year population estimates. 2009. Stats SA. http://www.statssa.gov.za/PublicationsHTML/P03022009/html/P03022009.html. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  5. ^ "Census 2001 at a glance". Statistics South Africa. http://www.statssa.gov.za/census01/html/default.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  6. ^ a b c d "South Africa". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=199&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=49&pr.y=6. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  7. ^ "South African Maritime Safety Authority". South African Maritime Safety Authority. http://www.samsa.org.za/. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  8. ^ "Coastline". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2060.html. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  9. ^ a b c d "South Africa Fast Facts". SouthAfrica.info. April 2007. http://www.southafrica.info/about/facts.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  10. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica Online". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9113829/LESOTHO. 
  11. ^ "African History Timeline". West Chester University of Pennsylvania. http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/timeline/t-19saf.htm. 
  12. ^ Bond, Patrick (1999). Cities of gold, townships of coal: essays on South Africa's new urban crisis. Africa World Press. pp. 140. ISBN 9780865436114. 
  13. ^ Cape of Good Hope (South Africa). Parliament. House. (1906). Report of the Select Committee on Location Act. Cape Times Limited. http://www.archive.org/details/reportoftheselec00capeiala. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  14. ^ Report of the Inter-departmental committee on the native pass laws. Cape Times Limited, government printers. 1920. pp. 2. 
  15. ^ Great Britain. Colonial Office; Transvaal (Colony). Governor (1901-1905: Milner) (January 1902). Papers relating to legislation affecting natives in the Transvaal. His Majesty's Stationery Office. http://www.archive.org/details/transvaalpapersr00grea. 
  16. ^ De Villiers, John Abraham Jacob (1896). The Transvaal. London: Chatto & Windus. pp. 30 (n46). http://www.archive.org/details/transvaal00devi. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  17. ^ South Africa’s Unemployment Rate Increases to 23.5%
  18. ^ "HDI". UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf. 
  19. ^ Wymer, John; Singer, R (1982). The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226761037. 
  20. ^ Deacon, HJ (2001). "Guide to Klasies River". Stellenbosch University. p. 11. http://academic.sun.ac.za/archaeology/KRguide2001.PDF. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  21. ^ "Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs". http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/915. 
  22. ^ Stephen P. Broker. "Hominid Evolution". Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1979/6/79.06.02.x.html. Retrieved 2008-06-19. 
  23. ^ "Shaka: Zulu Chieftain". HistoryNet.
  24. ^ Shaka (Zulu chief). Encyclopædia Britannica.
  25. ^ Williams, Garner F (1905). The Diamond Mines of South Africa, Vol II. New York, New York: B. F Buck & Co.. pp. Chapter XX. http://www.farlang.com/diamonds/williams_diamond_mines_2/page_285. 
  26. ^ "Native Land Act". South African Institute of Race Relations. 1913-06-19. http://0-www.sahistory.org.za.innopac.up.ac.za:80/pages/chronology/thisday/1913-06-19.htm. 
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Further reading

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC NEWS | World | Africa | Country profiles | Country profile: South Africa (1127 words)
Until 1994 South Africa was ruled by a white minority government which was so determined to hang onto power that it took activists most of the last century before they succeeded in their fight to get rid of apartheid and extend democracy to the rest of the population.
South African presidents are chosen by the 400 members of the directly-elected National Assembly, one of the two houses of parliament.
South Africa is the continent's major media player, and its many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population.
South Africa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6534 words)
South Africa is often referred to as The Rainbow Nation - a term coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu and later elaborated upon by then-President Nelson Mandela as a metaphor to describe the country's newly-developing multicultural diversity in the wake of segregationist apartheid ideology.
South Africa's most prevalent biome is grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn and whitethorn.
South Africa has a large, free, and active press that regularly challenges the government, a habit formed during the apartheid era when the press was the medium least controlled by the government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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