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Encyclopedia > South Vietnam
Việt Nam Cộng Hòa
Republic of Vietnam

1955 – 1975
Flag
Flag Coat of Arms
Anthem
Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens)
Capital Saigon
Language(s) Vietnamese
Government Republic
Last President¹ Duong Van Minh
Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau
Historical era Cold War
 - Regime change June 14, 1955
 - Dissolution April 30, 1975
Area
 - 1973 173,809 km²
67,108 sq mi
Population
 - 1973 est. 19,370,000 
     Density 111.4 /km²  (288.6 /sq mi)
Currency đồng (gradually phased in to replace the piastre)

South Vietnam is the commonly used name for the former Vietnamese state that existed from 1949 to 1976 in the portion of Vietnam that lies south of the 17th parallel. North Vietnam was situated to the north of the 17th parallel. The division of Vietnam occurred during the Geneva Conference, after the Viet Minh fought to install Communism in Vietnam and to end almost 100 years of colonial rule in French Indochina. Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links FNL_Flag. ... Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... the flag which was designed by Emperor Bao Dai. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... a notation of the National anthem The national anthem of South Vietnam government was originally Thanh Niên Hành Khúc (English:March of the Youths). These anthems were written and composed by Luu Huu Phuoc (Vietnamese:LÆ°u Hữu PhÆ°á»›c, 1921-1989). ... Locator map for South Vietnam. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... // Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... // Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam... Vu Van Mau was the last Prime Minister of South Vietnam and served under President Duong Van Minh. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the act of overthrowing a government. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dissolution or dissolvetiyny can have the following meanings: Dissolve (song), a song on Gusters album Parachute to crumble into a liquid. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... The Đồng of the Republic of Vietnam was a currency independent of the North Vietnamese Đong, issued in 1954 to replace the Indo-chinese Piastre at an exchange of 1:1 and was ended in 1975 to be replaced by the Liberation đồng at 500 SV Đong = 1 Liberation đồng. ... The piastre was the currency of French Indo-China between 1885 and 1952. ... The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency...

Contents

Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ...

Location

South Vietnam, officially the State of Vietnam, (Vietnamese: Quốc gia Việt Nam) from 1954 to 1955, the Republic of Vietnam (RVN), (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Cộng Hòa) from 1955 to 1975, and the Republic of South Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam) from 1975 to 1976, was a country that existed from 1954 to 1975 in the territory of Vietnam that lay south of the 17th parallel. The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. ...


History

Founding: the State of Vietnam

More than 293,000 Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during operation Passage to Freedom (October 1954).
More than 293,000 Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during operation Passage to Freedom (October 1954).

Cochin-China, which formed the heartland of the future South Vietnam, was unlike the other French possessions in Indochina (Annam, Tonkin, Cambodia and Laos), which were nominally protectorates. As a colony it occupied a different legal position from the protectorates of Annam and Tonkin; it had been annexed to France in 1862, and even elected a deputy to the French National Assembly. French colonial interests were thus stronger in Cochin-China than in other parts of French Indochina. As such, during the First Indochina War the French government initially attempted to keep the status of Cochin-China separate from that of the rest of Vietnam, even going so far as constituting it an independent republic within the Indochinese Federation in 1946, but this proved unacceptable to the Viet Minh and in 1949 Cochin-China was eventually reunited with the other parts of Vietnam (Annam and Tonkin). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2411 × 3032 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 477 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2411 × 3032 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina Chu Nom 交趾支那 or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Viet Minh Commanders Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4) Ho Chi Minh Vo Nguyen... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ...


The State of Vietnam was created through co-operation between anti-communist Vietnamese and the French government on June 14, 1949 during the First Indochina War, and the Emperor Bao Dai took up the position of Chief of State (Quoc Truong). This was known as the 'Bao Dai Solution', and was an attempt by the French to grant partial independence to Vietnam, while still retaining substantial control over the country, and keeping it from communist rule. Such a formulation was rejected by the communist Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, who were fighting the French for full independence for Vietnam. Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Viet Minh Commanders Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4) Ho Chi Minh Vo Nguyen... The following list contains, among other information, the era names for all emperors of the Nguyen dynasty. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Hồ Chí Minh   (May 19, 1890 – September 2, 1969) was a Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman, who later became Prime Minister (1946–1955) and President (1946–1969) of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ...


In 1954 it was determined by the Geneva Conference that the State of Vietnam would rule the territory of Vietnam south of the 17th parallel, pending unification on the basis of supervised elections (see Geneva Conference (1954)) in 1956. The elections and unification did not take place as planned (see below). When the territory was divided in this way, approximately 800,000 to 1 million North Vietnamese, mainly but not exclusively Vietnamese Roman Catholics, sailed south (Operation Passage to Freedom) due to the perceived danger of religious persecution in the North, which turned out to be well-founded: In 1956, 50,000 Catholics were executed and another half million were starved to death. The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed in Saigon by Ngô Ðình Diệm on October 22, 1955, after the Emperor Bảo Ðại was deposed. The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Operation Passage to Freedom was the name of the sea lift of anti-communist Vietnamese out of communist-held territory following the Geneva peace agreements in 1954. ... City skyline Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh  ) is the largest city in Vietnam and is located near the Mekong Delta. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following list contains, among other information, the era names for all emperors of the Nguyen dynasty. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ...


1955–1963

Ngo Dinh Diem's South Vietnamese regime in this period was implementing policies designed to consolidate his power after the victory in the election between himself and the exiled Bảo Ðại, in which he won in a landslide (however the election was almost certainly rigged) and on the 26th of October he announced himself as President. Such polices of consolidation include the Communist denunciation campaign (To Cong), also in order to combat the increasing factionalism within south Vietnam he mounted campaigns against the 3 main sects; the Cao Dai, Hoa Hao and the Binh Xuyen whose military strength combined amounted to approximately 35,000 soldiers, and the south Vietnamese military successfully crushed these sects, however they still continued to control large areas of land due to their regional followers. Throughout this period the levels of US aid and support also increased, one example of this US backing was in South Vietnams reluctance to hold the designated July 1956 elections as per the Geneva accords and the Support from the US for this action. Also US aid and support was existent with the Strategic Hamlets program.bitches


1963–1973

See Vietnam War for military history of the Republic of Vietnam in this period. fuck you Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


1973–1975

Scene of Viet Cong terrorist bombing in Saigon, 1965
Scene of Viet Cong terrorist bombing in Saigon, 1965

In accordance with the Paris Peace Accords signed with North Vietnam in 1973 all U.S. military forces withdrew from South Vietnam. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


Under the terms of the Paris Peace Accord North Vietnamese troops were not required to disband or even withdraw from South Vietnamese territory. U.S. President Richard Nixon had been forced to resign as a result of the Watergate scandal and the American public had little appetite for re-engagement in Indochina to forestall the communist offensive with American air power. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Watergate building. ...


For two years the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) successfully defended South Vietnam. Eventually, as materiel dwindled and they were not resupplied by the United States, their success against the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) faltered. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ...


In 1975 the communists of North Vietnam launched an offensive in the South, which became known as the Ho Chi Minh Campaign. The ARVN unsuccessfully attempted a defense and a counterattack. It had few remaining operational tanks and artillery pieces, as well as a shortage of spare parts, and ammunition. The NVA had a vastly greater supply of new equipment and ammunition. As a consequence, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu was forced to withdraw key army units from the Central Highlands, which exacerbated an already-perilous military situation and undercut the confidence of the ARVN soldiers in their leadership. Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army National Liberation Front Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung President Nguyen Van Thieu (Until April 5) Strength 300,000+ (est. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... Municipality of Central Highlands The Municipality of Central Highlands is a local government area of Tasmania. ...


The retreat became a rout. The cities of Hue, Da Nang and Da Lat in central Vietnam quickly fell, and the North Vietnamese advanced southwards. As the military situation deteriorated, ARVN troops started deserting. An image with the hues cyclically shifted The hues in the image of this Painted Bunting are cyclically rotated with time. ... This article is about the city of Da Nang. ... Dalat ((pop. ...


Thieu requested aid from U.S. President Gerald Ford, but the U.S. Senate would not release extra money to provide aid to South Vietnam, and had already passed laws to prevent further involvement in Vietnam. In desperation, Thieu called back Nguyen Cao Ky from retirement as a military commander, but resisted calls to name his old rival Prime Minister. For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... this guy is awsome i played him in a school play he also has some pretty funky history Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Nguyá»…n Cao Kỳ   (born 1930) is a Vietnamese politician, who served as Prime Minister of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1967, and then as Vice President until his retirement from politics in 1971. ...


Fall of Saigon, April 1975

Nguyen Van Thieu resigned on April 21, 1975, and fled to Taiwan. He nominated his Vice President Tran Van Huong as his successor. A last-ditch defense was made at the Battle of Xuan Loc led by Major General Le Minh Dao. After only one week in office, Tran Van Huong handed over the presidency to General Duong Van Minh. Minh was seen as a more conciliatory figure toward the North, and it was hoped he might be able to negotiate a more favorable settlement to end the war. The North was not interested in negotiations, however, and its tanks rolled into Saigon largely unopposed which led to the fall of Saigon. Acting President Minh unconditionally surrendered the capital city of Saigon and the rest of South Vietnam to North Vietnam on April 30, 1975. President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... President Trần Văn Hương Trần Văn Hương (1902–1982) was a South Vietnamese politician. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung General Hieu Strength 40,000 5,000 Casualties 3 Divisions destroyed 30% of total strength The Battle of Xuan Loc was the last major battle of the Vietnam War. ... Major General Le Minh Dao served in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). ... Dương Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... Combatants North Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam South Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Duong Van Minh Strength 100,000+ 30,000+ The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sự kiện 30 tháng 4, or April 30 Incident), was the capture of the... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the hours leading up to the surrender, the United States undertook a massive evacuation of its embassy in Saigon. The evacuees included U.S. government personnel as well as high-ranking members of the ARVN and other South Vietnamese who had aided the U.S.-backed administration and were seen as potential targets for persecution by the Communists. Many of the evacuees were taken directly by helicopter to an aircraft carrier waiting off the coast. An iconic image of the evacuation is the widely-seen footage of empty Huey helicopters being ditched over the side of the carrier, to provide more room on the ship's deck for more evacuees to land. For the twin-engined military models, see UH-1N Twin Huey and UH-1Y Venom. ...


Relationship with the United States

The history of the relationship with the United States is controversial. Some historians say the founding of South Vietnam was based on the United States' desire to create an "anti-communist" base in Southeast Asia. Opponents argue that it was based on popular support of the South Vietnamese people. However, the U.S. and the Diem government agreed that elections mandated by the Geneva Conference (1954) should not occur, claiming that the communists could not be trusted to conduct a fair election in the North. Moreover, most contemporary observers, including U.S. President Eisenhower estimated that were an election held in the 1954–55 period (when South Vietnam was under Bao Dai's rule), around 80% of the Vietnamese population would have voted for Ho Chi Minh.[1] The dominant political rationale for supporting the South Vietnamese government was America's containment policy, which was designed to hold back the spread of communism during the Cold War. A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it was to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than European-American-based capitalism. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The failure to unify the country in 1956, along with Diem's persecution of communists, led in 1959 to the foundation of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (abbrievated NLF but also known as the Viet Cong), which initiated an organised and widespread guerrilla insurgency against the South Vietnamese government. Although initially cautious, Hanoi backed the insurgency, which grew in support and intensity. The United States, under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, initially sent military advisers to train the South Vietnamese army. President John F. Kennedy increased the size of the advisory force fourfold and allowed the advisors to participate in combat operations, and later acquiesced in the removal of President Diem in a military coup. After promising not to do so during the 1964 election campaign, in 1965 President Lyndon Johnson decided to send in much larger numbers of combat troops, and conflict steadily escalated to become what is commonly known as the Vietnam War. In 1968, the NLF ceased to be an effective fighting organization after the Tet Offensive and the war was largely taken over by regular army units of North Vietnam. Following American withdrawal from the war in 1973, the South Vietnamese government continued fighting the North Vietnamese, until, overwhelmed by a conventional invasion by the North, it finally unconditionally surrendered on April 30, 1975, the day of the surrender of Saigon. North Vietnam controlled South Vietnam under military occupation, while the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam, which had been proclaimed in June 1969 by the NLF, established the Republic of South Vietnam but the republic never really had any of the authority of a government. The North Vietnamese quickly moved to marginalise non-communist members of the PRG and integrate South Vietnam into the communist north. The unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam was inaugurated on July 2, 1976. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, Kennedy, John Kennedy, Jack Kennedy, or JFK, was the 35th President of the United States. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States of America, South Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Liberation Front, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 50,000+ (estimate) 85,000+ (estimate) Casualties 2,788 KIA, 8,299 WIA, 587 MIA 1,536 KIA, 7,764 WIA... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants North Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam South Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Duong Van Minh Strength 100,000+ 30,000+ The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sá»± kiện 30 tháng 4, or April 30 Incident), was the capture of the... The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (Vietnamese language|Vietnamese: Chính Phủ Cách Mạng Lâm Thời Cá»™ng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam), often abbreviated to PRG, was a underground government formed on June 8, 1969 in opposition to... Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the 1976 Gregorian calendar. ...


Controversial history

History of Vietnam Map of Vietnam
Hồng Bàng Dynasty (c. 2880–257 BCE)
Thục Dynasty (257–207 BCE)
First Chinese domination (207 BCE–40 CE)
  • Triệu Dynasty (207–111 BCE)
Trưng Sisters (40–43)
Second Chinese domination (43–541)
Anterior Lý Dynasty and Triệu Việt Vương (541–602)
Third Chinese domination (602–905)
  • Mai Hắc Đế
  • Phùng Hưng
Autonomy (905–938)
Ngô Dynasty (938–967)
Đinh Dynasty (968–980)
Prior Lê Dynasty (980–1009)
Lý Dynasty (1009–1225)
Trần Dynasty (1225–1400)
Hồ Dynasty (1400–1407)
Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427)
  • Later Trần Dynasty
  • Lam Sơn Rebellion
Later Lê Dynasty (1428–1788)
  • Early Lê
  • Restored Lê
Mạc Dynasty
Trịnh-Nguyễn War
Tây Sơn Dynasty (1778–1802)
Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945)
North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975)
Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976)
[edit]

There is much controversy about how closely the South Vietnamese government was linked to the United States. While it is clear that Ngo Dinh Diem was initially the favored candidate of the United States to rule South Vietnam, he later displayed a sufficiently independent and nationalistic streak that the American government assented to his removal by a coup. This turned out to be a terrible blunder, as the choice was not between a corrupt Diem and a Vietnamese George Washington; rather it was a choice between a corrupt Diem and chaos. Chaos ensued. Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List of Vietnamese monarchs The History... Blank map of Vietnamese provinces. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List of Vietnamese monarchs The H... The Vietnamese Thục Dynasty has only one ruler, Thục Phán himself, last prince of Shu (state) of China, who proclaimed himself king An DÆ°Æ¡ng VÆ°Æ¡ng. ... Nam Việt or Nanyue (Chinese: 南越; pinyin: ) was an ancient kingdom that consisted much of modern northern Vietnam and the Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nam Việt. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Second Chinese dominiation of Vietnam saw strengthen control on the region. ... Image:Trieuau3. ... Lý Nam Đế (Lý, The Southern Emperor) was originally Lý Bí or Lý Bôn (October 17, 503 - April 13, 548, Traditional Chinese: 李賁, pinyin: Lǐ BÄ“n) is debateably considered the first emperor of Vietnam and the founder of the Early Lý (or Li/Lee) Dynasty (544 - 603) and ruled from... Triệu Việt VÆ°Æ¡ng (548-570) Triệu Quang Phục was recognized by Emperor Lý Nam Đế as the best lieutenant and general in the army. ... Third Chinese domination of Vietnam saw two Chinese imperial dynasty rule over Chinese controlled region of Chiaozhou. ... Phùng HÆ°ng (Hán tá»±: 馮興) was a military leader who briefly reigned Vietnam during the 8th century. ... Khuc family was a session of leaders whom challenge Chinese rule over Vietnam. ... Duong Dinh Nghe (937-938) was the Chinese administrator of Giao Chi in around 930 AD. He was a skillful, talented general under Khuc Hao, descendant of the Khuc family dynasty who wrestled Chinese control for 3 generations barely a dozen of years ago. ... Around the year 930 AD, as Ngô Quyen (吳權) rose to power, northern Vietnam was a province and vassal state of China and was referred to as Giao Chi (交趾). Every year the governor/administrator of Giao Chi had to pay tribute and give offerings to China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... // Đinh Bo Linhs childhood Đinh Bo Linhs father was Đinh Cong Tru, a mandarin under the reigns of Ngô Quyen (939-944) and Ngô Xuong Van (950-954). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Lý Dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Lý, pronounced like Lee), sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Anterior Lê Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen L... The Trần Dynasty (陳朝 Trần Triều; or vernacularly Nhà Trần, meaning the Trần Family) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that time known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. ... The Hồ Dynasty was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400 and his second son, Hồ Hán ThÆ°Æ¡ng, who reigned from 1400 to 1407. ... The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1406 to 1428, upon which, the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty administration. ... The Le Dynasty (also known as the Later Le Dynasty) ruled Vietnam from 1428 until 1527, when the king was assassinated by Mac Dang Dung, founder of the Mac Dynasty. ... The Mạc Dynasty. ... Trịnh-Nguyen War (1627 - 1673) - A long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam. ... The name of Tây SÆ¡n is used in many ways referring back to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the eras of the Lê and Nguyá»…n dynasties in history of Vietnam. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Flag of the Empire of Vietnam The Empire of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Đế quốc Việt Nam, 越南帝國) was a short-lived puppet state of the Empire of Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945. ... The Indochina Wars refers to wars of national liberation that erupted in the wake of World War II, fought in Southeast Asia from 1947 until 1979, between nationalist Vietnamese against French, American, and Chinese forces. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ... Below is a list of Vietnamese monarchs. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


It has been claimed that, in particular, the South Vietnamese government of Nguyen Van Thieu was nothing more than an American puppet, and point to American connivance in Thieu's manipulation of the 1971 South Vietnamese Presidential election as evidence. On the other hand, some point to sharp differences between Thieu and Nixon at the time of the Paris Peace Accord to demonstrate that he was not a puppet. The historical consensus is that there existed a symbiotic relationship between the Thieu government and US military involvement in Indochina: without American support the Thieu government could not survive; while the US needed to maintain the Thieu government to be able to continue its involvement in Indochina. The removal of one of these factors would inevitably bring about the end of the other. President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the United States with the intent to establish peace in Vietnam. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ...


Politics

South Vietnam went through many political changes during its short life.


Initially, the nation was a constitutional monarchy, with Emperor Bao Dai as Head of State. The Vietnamese monarchy was unpopular however, largely because monarchical leaders were considered collaborators during French rule. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The following list contains, among other information, the era names for all emperors of the Nguyen dynasty. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...

In 1955 a republican referendum, which is largely considered to have been rigged due to the active presence of pro-republican military forces at voting booths and the 98% vote in favour of the movement. In Saigon, Diem received 133% of the vote. This abolished the monarchy and made Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem the country's first president. Despite successes in politics, economics, and social change in the first 5 years, Diem quickly became a dictatorial leader. With the acquiescence of the United States government, ARVN officers staged a coup and killed him in 1963. The military held a brief interim government until a civilian administration was installed in 1964. The 1955 South Vietnamese election was a referendum held to determine the future leadership of the nation that was to become Republic of Vietnam. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


In 1965 the feuding civilian government voluntarily resigned and handed power back to the nation's military, in the hope this would bring stability and unity to the nation. A joint assembly with representatives of all the branches of the military decided to switch the nation's system of government to a parliamentary system with a strong Prime Minister and a figurehead President. There was a bicameral National Assembly consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Military rule initially failed to provide much stability however, as internal conflicts and political inexperience caused various factions of the army to launch coups and counter-coups against one another, making leadership very tumultuous. The situation stabilized when the reformist Nguyen Cao Ky became Prime Minister and helped fight corruption and political division through often heavy-handed means. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... In politics, a figurehead, by metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship, is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... Nguyá»…n Cao Kỳ   (born 1930) is a Vietnamese politician, who served as Prime Minister of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1967, and then as Vice President until his retirement from politics in 1971. ...


In 1967 South Vietnam held its first elections under the new system. Following the elections, however, it switched back to a presidential system. The military nominated Nguyen Van Thieu as their candidate, and he was elected with a plurality of the popular vote. Thieu quickly consolidated power much to the dismay of those who hoped for an era of more political openness. He was re-elected unopposed in 1971, receiving a suspiciously high 94% of the vote on an 87% turn-out. Thieu ruled until the final days of the war, resigning in 1975. Duong Van Minh was the nation's last president and unconditionally surrendered to the Communist forces a few days after assuming office. President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... A plurality, relative majority or simple majority is the largest share of something, which may or may not be considered a majority, i. ... Dương Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ...


South Vietnam was formerly a member of ACCT, Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC), IMF, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat), Interpol, IOC, ITU, League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS), UNESCO and Universal Postal Union (UPU). The Agence de coopération culturelle et technique (ACCT, French for Agency of cultural and technical cooperation) is an organisation that is part of La Francophonie. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ... ... The International Development Association (IDA) created on September 24, 1960, is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Intelsat is the worlds largest commercial satellite communications services provider. ... This article is about the International Criminal Police Organization - Interpol. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... This article is about the location. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ...


Leaders of the Republic of Vietnam

// Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... Nguyen Khanh Nguyen Khanh (1927-) was a former Chief of State and Prime minister of South Vietnam. ... Phan Khac Suu was President of South Vietnam from 1964–1965. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... President Trần Văn HÆ°Æ¡ng Trần Văn HÆ°Æ¡ng (1902–1982) was a South Vietnamese politician. ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ...

Republic of South Vietnam

Following the surrender of Saigon to North Vietnamese forces on April 30, 1975, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam established itself in Saigon as the government of the Republic of South Vietnam. However, it lacked real autonomy and was largely under the control of the North Vietnamese. The Republic of South Vietnam was dissolved in July 1976 when it merged with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to become the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (Vietnamese language|Vietnamese: Chính Phủ Cách Mạng Lâm Thời Cá»™ng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam), often abbreviated to PRG, was a underground government formed on June 8, 1969 in opposition to... Map of the Republic of South Vietnam. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ...


Army

On October 26, 1956, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngo Dinh Diem who established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, pronounced "arvin"). Early on, the focus of the army was combatting the guerrilla fighters of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF, also known as the Viet Cong) an insurgent movement formed to oppose the Diem administration. The United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid ARVN in combating the NLF resistance. ARVN and President Diem began to be criticized by the foreign press when the troops were used to crush southern religious groups like the Cao Dai and Hoa Hao as well as to raid Buddhist temples, which Diem claimed were harboring Communist guerrillas. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Guerrilla warfare (also spelled guerilla) is a method of unconventional combat by which small groups of combatants attempt to use mobile and surprise tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to defeat a foe, often a larger, less mobile, army. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, Kennedy, John Kennedy, Jack Kennedy, or JFK, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Tay Ninh Holy See Cao Dai   (Cao Đài) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


In 1963 Ngo Dinh Diem was killed in a coup d'etat carried out by ARVN officers led by Duong Van Minh ('Big Minh'). In the confusion that followed Big Minh took power, but was only the first in a succession of ARVN generals to assume the presidency of South Vietnam in a period of intense political instability. During these years, the United States began taking full control of the war against the NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant. They were also plagued by continuing problems of severe corruption among the officer corps. Although the U.S. was highly critical of them, the ARVN continued to be entirely U.S. armed and funded.   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ...


The value of the ARVN was highly questionable in this period. In 1963 at the Battle of Ap Bac some 1,400 ARVN troops were defeated by only 350 NLF guerrillas. The battle of Dong Xoai in 1965 was another humiliating ARVN defeat. Although they always outnumbered their nationalist enemies, most were inexperienced, poorly trained, and not motivated to fight hard for the generals and politicians behind them. Generals tended to be political appointees and corruption was rampant. Their relations with the civilian population were never good and relations with the U.S. military were often very cold. Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders unknown battalion commander Bui Dinh Dam John Paul Vann Strength 350 1,400 Casualties 18 dead 39 wounded 83 dead 108 wounded The Battle of Ap Bac was a small-scale action early in the Vietnam War that resulted in the first... Dong Xoai is a capital city of Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. ...


Starting in 1969, President Richard M. Nixon started the process of "Vietnamization," pulling out American forces and leaving the ARVN to fight the war against the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN). Slowly, ARVN began to expand from its counter-insurgency role to become the primary ground defense against the NLF and North Vietnamese. From 1969–1971 there were about 22,000 ARVN combat deaths per year. Starting in 1968, South Vietnam began calling up every available man for service in the ARVN, reaching a strength of a million soldiers by 1972. In 1970 they performed well in Cambodia and were executing 3 times as many operations as they had during the American war period. However, the officer corps was still the biggest problem. Leaders were often poorly trained, inept and the equipment continued to sub-standard as the U.S. tried to upgrade ARVN technology. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Peoples Army of Vietnam (PAVN) is the term used by the Vietnamese for their armed forces. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ...


Relations with the public also remained poor as their only counter to NLF organizing was to resurrect the Strategic Hamlet Program, which many peasants resented. Disapproving Americans called this "barbed wire diplomacy." However, forced to carry the burden left by the Americans, the South Vietnamese army actually started to perform rather well, and in 1970 was winning the war against the Communists, though with continued American air support. The exhaustion of the North was becoming evident, and the Paris talks gave some hope of a negotiated peace, if not a victory. The Strategic Hamlet Program was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the nationalist insurgency by means of population transfer. ... The Strategic Hamlet Program was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the nationalist insurgency by means of population transfer. ...


The most crucial moment of truth for the ARVN came with General Vo Nguyen Giap's 1972 "Easter Offensive," the first all-out invasion of South Vietnam by the communist North. It was code-named "Nguyen Hue" after the historic Vietnamese hero who defeated the Chinese in 1778. The assault combined infantry wave assaults, artillery and the first massive use of tanks by the North Vietnamese. ARVN took heavy losses, but to the surprise of many, managed to hold their ground. General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ...


U.S. President Richard Nixon dispatched more bombers to provide air support for ARVN when it seemed that South Vietnam was about to be overrun. In desperation, President Nguyen Van Thieu fired the incompetent General Hoàng Xuân Lãm and replaced him with ARVN's best commander, General Ngo Quang Truong. He gave the order that all deserters would be executed and pulled enough forces together so that the North Vietnamese army (PAVN) failed to take Hue. Finally, largely as a result of U.S. air and naval support, as well as some surprising determination by the ARVN soldiers, the Easter Offensive was halted. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... General Ngô Quang Trưởng General Ngô Quang Trưởng was born in 1933, Vietnam. ... An image with the hues cyclically shifted The hues in the image of this Painted Bunting are cyclically rotated with time. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders John W. Vogt, Jr. ...


After the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in 1973 all U.S. military forces withdrew from South Vietnam and the war officially ended, however clashes between ARVN and NLF forces continued. National Liberation Front (NLF) flag NLF prisoner The National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Giải Phóng Miền Nam Việt Nam), also known as the National Liberation Front (NLF) and as Front National de Libert...


In 1975 the PAVN again invaded the South. Lacking U.S. air support the ARVN could not hold them back. City after city fell to the Communists with ARVN soldiers joining the civilians trying to flee south. The North called this the "Hồ Chí Minh Campaign." All resistance crumbled. Faced with few viable options, the South tried to form a coalition government that would be palatable to the Communists, one that favored negotiated peace and neutrality. The new coalition government was headed by General Duong Van Minh (Big Minh), one of the organizers of the coup in November 1963, with the full support of the CIA and President Kennedy, that killed President Ngo Dinh Diem. General Cao Van Vien, then Colonel and Commander of the Airborne Brigade, had been captured and held by the Big Minh faction and threatened with execution unless he ordered his troops to join the coup. He refused and was held captive until the end of the coup and was released only because of his close friendship with one of the coup leaders.


Because the new coalition government would be headed by Big Minh, General Vien immediately submitted his resignation to then President of South Vietnam Tran Van Huong, who succeeded President Thieu as President. President Huong, knowing the 1963 coup history, granted General Vien's resignation request (Vien had submitted his resignation to President Thieu many times and had always been turned down).General Vien then escaped to the US as a civilian once his resignation was effective and formalized.


The situation in South Vietnam deteriorated.


The ARVN tried to defend Xuan Loc, their last line before Saigon. These men fought very well, but it was not enough. They were greatly outnumbered and overwhelmed by the entire army of North Vietnam. Xuan Loc was taken and on April 30, 1975, initiated the Fall/Liberation of Saigon. The army of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam captured the city, placing the Vietnam National Liberation Front flag over the Independence Palace even though the NLF had accomplished almost nothing during the battles and had almost no authority within the country. General Duong Van Minh, recently appointed president by Tran Van Huong, unconditionally surrendered the city and government bringing the Republic of Vietnam and also the Army of the Republic of Vietnam to a final end. Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Hoang Cam General Hoang The Hiep (Political Commissar) General Le Minh Dao Strength 40,000 5,000 Casualties 30,000+ dead or wounded 1,500 dead or wounded The Battle of Xuan Loc was the last major... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Hoang Cam General Hoang The Hiep (Political Commissar) General Le Minh Dao Strength 40,000 5,000 Casualties 30,000+ dead or wounded 1,500 dead or wounded The Battle of Xuan Loc was the last major... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants North Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam South Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Duong Van Minh Strength 100,000+ 30,000+ The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sự kiện 30 tháng 4, or April 30 Incident), was the capture of the... National Liberation Front (NLF) flag The National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tộc Giải Phóng Miền Nam), also known as the Viet Cong (VC), the National Liberation Front (NLF), and as the Front National de Liberté (FNL... Dương Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... President Trần Văn Hương Trần Văn Hương (1902–1982) was a South Vietnamese politician. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ...


Provinces

Map of South Vietnam
Map of South Vietnam

South Vietnam's capital was Saigon which was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City on May 1, 1975 after unconditionally surrendering to the North. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1025x1393, 520 KB)South Vietnam map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1025x1393, 520 KB)South Vietnam map File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... City skyline Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh  ) is the largest city in Vietnam and is located near the Mekong Delta. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ...


Before surrendering, the South was divided into forty-four provinces (tỉnh, singular and plural).


Geography

The South was divided into coastal lowlands, the mountainous Central highlands (Cao-nguyen Trung-phan), and the Mekong River Delta.


Economy

Vietnam’s economy evolved under the burden of military actions and political issues. In 1954, the nations of North Vietnam and South Vietnam had developed their own economic structure, reflecting different economic systems with different resources and trading partners. South Vietnam maintained a free-market economy with ties to the west. It established the first Airline under Emperor Bao Dai, named Air Vietnam. The economy of South Vietnam was artificially inflated by American aid and the presence of large numbers of Americans in the country between 1961 and 1973. After 1973 the country suffered economic shocks due to the removal of American spending and an increase in the price of oil. The unification of Vietnam in 1976, led to the imposition of North Vietnam's centrally planned economy into the South. The country made no significant economic progress for the next twenty years. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of Soviet aid, the leadership of Vietnam accepted the need for change. Their occupation armies were withdrawn from Laos and Cambodia. Afterward, the country introduced economic reforms that created a market economy in the mid 1990s. The government remains a collective dictatorship under the close control of the communist party. A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Air Vietnam Air Vietnam (Air VN) began in 1951, as Vietnam’s first commercial air carrier, establised under Emperor Bao Dai the Chief of State of South Vietnam. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ...


Demographics

About 80% of population was Kinh, and 20% was Chinese, Montagnard, Khmer, Cham, Malay and others. (1970) Categories: Vietnamese people | Ethnicity stubs ... The Degar (referred to by French colonists as Montagnard) are the indigenous peoples of the central highlands of Vietnam. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... This article is about the Cham people of Asia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Culture

Principal religions were Buddhism, Roman Catholic, Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, animists and others. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Tay Ninh Holy See Cao Dai   (Cao Đài) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Vietnamese culture

Cultural life was strongly influenced by China until French domination in the 19th century. At that time, the traditional culture began to acquire an overlay of western characteristics. Many families have three generations living under one roof.


It is traditional for a married couple to care for the man’s parents. Also, it is very important to have a son. If there is only one son, he and his wife must live with his parents. If there are no sons, one of the daughters may remain unmarried and care for her parents. To make decisions, children must ask their parents.


Vietnamese males and females were not allowed to date. They grew up in their families until age 18 to 20 and marry according to their parents' arrangements. Dating is believed to undermine traditions, encouraging sons and daughters to defy their parents' wishes and bringing shame to their families. Youths who have affections for one another may carry their relationship in secrecy, but eventually yield to their parents' wills. This may mean marrying a complete stranger or someone they do not like. Pleasing their parents was a social priority and doing otherwise would have been a major dishonor. However, the majority of young Vietnamese males and females are free to date and marry as they choose.


See also

The VNN was the naval forces of the former Republic of Vietnam from 1952 to 1975. ... 4400th CCTS T-28 wearing South Vietnamese markings flies over Vietnam. ... The Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps (VNMC) was established by President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam on October 13, 1954. ... Air Vietnam Air Vietnam (Air VN) began in 1951, as Vietnam’s first commercial air carrier, establised under Emperor Bao Dai the Chief of State of South Vietnam. ... Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG, pronounced sid-gee) is one several South Vietnamese irregular military units during the Vietnam War. ... Reunification Palace Reunification Palace (Vietnamese: Dinh Thống Nhất) formerly known as Independence Palace (Dinh Độc Lập) or Norodom Palace, is a historic landmark in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. ... // Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... the flag which was designed by Emperor Bao Dai. ... a notation of the National anthem The national anthem of South Vietnam government was originally Thanh Niên Hành Khúc (English:March of the Youths). These anthems were written and composed by Luu Huu Phuoc (Vietnamese:Lưu Hữu Phước, 1921-1989). ... Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are two general regions within Vietnam. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
South Vietnam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3205 words)
South Vietnam is the commonly used name for the former Vietnamese country that existed from 1954 to 1976 in the portion of Vietnam that lay south of the 17th parallel.
North Vietnam was situated to the north of the 17th parallel.
South Vietnam, officially the State of Vietnam, (Vietnamese: Quốc gia Việt Nam) from 1954 to 1955, and the Republic of Vietnam (RVN), (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Cộng Hòa) from 1955 to 1975, was a country that existed from 1954 to 1975 in the territory of Vietnam that lay south of the 17th parallel.
Vietnam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2512 words)
Feudalism in Vietnam reached its zenith in the Lê Dynasty of the 15th century, especially with Emperor Le Thanh Tong.
Both South and North Vietnam formed strategic partners in the years that followed, the South aligning itself with the United States and the North with China and the Soviet Union.
In 1965 the United States withdrew support for the government of South Vietnam and subsequently committed large numbers of troops in an attempt to defeat the ongoing Communist insurgency in the South, known as the Vietcong.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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