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Encyclopedia > South Slavs
     Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language
     Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language

The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly in former Yugoslavia which actually translates Yugo: South - Slavia: Slavs (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens), which is situated in the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. They speak the South Slavic languages. It should be noted that South Slavs may not necessarily originate from traditionally Slavic lands, for example Bosniaks and Dalmatians in Croatia share the same Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) family (Gene pool) as Norwegians, Swedes and Germans. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Alp redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I (M170, P19, M258) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ...


Numbering close to 35 million, the group includes the Bulgarians and Macedonians in the east, and the Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Slovenes and Montenegrins in the west. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ...

Contents

History

Early Accounts

Main article: Slavic peoples

Little is known about the Slavs before the fifth century. Their history prior to this can only be tentatively hypothesized via archeological and linguistic studies. Much of what we know about their history after the 500s is from the works of Byzantine historians. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


In his work De Bellis, Procopius portrays the Slavs as unusually tall and strong, with a tan complexion and reddish-blonde hair, living a rugged and primitive life. They lived in huts, often distant from one another and often changed their place of abode. They were not ruled by a single leader, but for a long time lived in a "democracy" (ie anarchy). They probably believed in many Gods, but Procopius suggests they believed in one, perhaps supreme god. He has often been identified as Perun, the creator of lightning. The Slavs went into battle on foot, charging straight at their enemy, armed with spears and small shields, but they did not wear armour. In Slavic mythology, Perun (with many spelling and pronunciation variants among modern Slavic languages) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. ...


This information is supplanted by Pseudo-Marice's work Strategion, describing the Slavs as a numerous but disorganised and leaderless people, resistant to hardship and not allowing themselves to be enslaved or conquered. They made their homes in forests, by rivers and wetlands.[1] Jordannes states that the Slavs "have their homelands on the Danube, not far from the northern bank”. Subsequent information about early Slavic states and the Slavs' interaction with the Greeks comes from De Adminitrando Imperio by Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, the compilations of Miracles of St Demetrius, History by Theophylact Simocatta and the Royal Frankish Annals.


Migrations and 'Homeland'

Postulated Slavic migrations into the Balkans
Postulated Slavic migrations into the Balkans

Scholars tend to place the Slavic Urheimat in the Pripet marshes of Ukraine. From the 5th century they spread outward in all directions. The Balkans was one of the regions which lay in the path of the expanding Slavs. Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ...


As far as the Slavs mentioned by the 6th century Byzantine chroniclers are concerned, Florin Curta suggests that their 'homeland' was north of the Danube, not in Ukraine[2]. He clarifies that their itinerant form of agriculture (they lacked the knowledge of crop rotation) "may have encouraged mobility on a microregional scale". Material culture from the Danube suggests that there was an evolution of Slavic society between the early 600s and the 700s. As the Byzantines re-asserted the Danubian defences in the mid 500s, the Slavs yield of pillaged goods dropped. As a reaction to this economic isolation, and external threats (eg from Avars and Byzantines), political and military mobilisation occurred. Archeological sites from the late 600s show that the earlier settlements which were merely a non-specific collection of hamlets began to evolve into larger communities with differentiated areas (eg designated areas for public feasts as well as an 'industrial' area for craftsmanship). As community elites rose to prominence, they came to "embody a collective interest and responsibility" for the group. "If that group identity can be called ethnicity, and if that ethnicity can be called Slavic, then it certainly formed in the shadow of Justinian's forts, not in the Pripet marshes." [3]


The Byzantines broadly grouped the numerous Slav tribes into two groups - the Sclavenoi and Antes [4]. Apparently the Sclavenes group were based along the middle Danube, whereas the Antes were at the lower Danube, in Scythia Minor. Some, such as Bulgarian scholar Zlatarsky, suggest that the Sclavenes group settled the western Balkans, whilst offshoots of the Antes settled eastern regions (roughly speaking)[5]. From the Danube, they commenced raiding the Byzantine Empire from the 520s, on an annual basis. They spread about destruction, taking loot and herds of cattle, seizing prisoners and taking fortresses. Often, the Byzantine Empire was stretched defending its rich Asian provinces from Arabs, Persians and Turks. This meant that even numerically small, disorganised early Slavic raids were capable of causing much disruption, but could not capture the larger, fortified cities on the Aegean coast. By the 580s, as the Slav communitites on the Danube became larger and more organised, and as the Avars exerted their influence, raids became larger and resulted in permanent settlement. In 586 AD, as many as 100, 000 Slav warriars raided Thessaloniki. By 581, many Slavic tribes had settled the land around Thessaloniki, though never taking the city itself, creating a Macedonian Sclavinia [6]. As John of Ephesus tells us in 581: “the accursed people of the Slavs set out and plundered all of Greece, the regions surrounding Thessalonica, and Thrace, taking many towns and castles, laying waste, burning, pillaging, and seizing the whole country.”. By 586, they took the western Peloponnese, Attica, Epirus, leaving only the east part of Peloponnese, which was mountainous and inaccessible. The final attempt to restore the northern border was from 591-605, when the end of conflicts with Persia allowed Emperor Maurice to transfer units to the north. However he was deposed after a military revolt in 602, and the Danubian frontier collapsed one and a half decades later (Main article: Maurice’s Balkan campaigns) Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... In Late Antiquity, Maurice (582-602) was the only Byzantine Emperor except for Anastasius I, who did his best for determined Balkan policies, thus paying adequate attention to the safety of the northern frontier against Barbarian incursions. ...

The Iron Gate on the Serbo-Romanian border
The Iron Gate on the Serbo-Romanian border

The Avars arrived in Europe in 558. Although their identity would not last, the Avars greatly impacted the events of the Balkans. They settled the Carpathian plain, west of the main Slavic settlements. They crushed the Gepid Kingdom and pushed the Lombards into Italy, essentially opening up the western Balkans. They asserted their authority over many Slavs, who were divided into numerous petty tribes. Many Slavs were relocated to the Avar base in the Carpathian basin and were galvinised into an effective infantry force. Other Slavic tribes continued to raid independently, sometime coordinating attacks as allies of the Avars. Others still spilt into Imperial lands as they fled from the Avars. Despite being paid stipends, the Avars continued to raid the entire Balkans. The Avars and their Slavic allies tended to focus on the western Balkans, whilst independent Slavic tribes predominated in the east. Following the unsuccessful siege of Constantinople in 626, the Avars reputation dimished, and the confederacy was troubled by civial wars between the Avars and their Bulgar and Slav clients. Their rule contracted to the region of the carpathian basin. Archeological evidence show that there was intermixing of Slavic, Avar and even Gepid cultures, suggesting that the later Avars were an amalgamation of different peoples. This contributed to the rise of a Slavic noble class. The Khanate collapsed after ongoing defeats at the hands of Franks, Bulgars and Slavs (c. 810), and the Avars name ceased to exist. What remained of the Avars furthermore absorbed by the Slavs and Bulgars. From the Dutch Wikipedia at http://nl. ... From the Dutch Wikipedia at http://nl. ... The Iron Gate (Romanian: Porţile de Fier, Serbian: Гвоздена врата / Gvozdena vrata, Hungarian: Vaskapu, Turkish: Demirkapi, German: Eisernes Tor, Bulgarian: Железни врата) is a gorge on the Danube River. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ...


Serbs and Croats are two tribes mentioned amongst the many Slavic tribes already in the Balkans. We know little about their origins. According to De administrando Imperio, Emperor Heraclius invited them as foederati to defeat the Avars. They migrated from their homeland in southern Poland between 615 and 640 AD. However, apart from this (often disputed) document, we have no evidence of their migration specifically. Some suggest that they arrived to the Balkans with the rest of the Slavic migrations, only to rise to prominence as some sort of a leading clan amongst neighbouring Slavic tribes[7]. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ...


By 700 AD, Slavs inhabited the entire Balkans, from Austria to the Peloponesse, and from the Adriatic to the Black seas.


Interaction with the Balkan population

The Balkans region is, and always has been, home to a diverse range of peoples. Prior to Roman conquest, a number of ‘native’ or ‘autochthonous’ peoples had lived there since ancient times. There were, of course, the Hellenes south of the Jicerek line. To the north, there were "Illyrians" in the western portion -Illyricum-(roughly corresponding to what was Yugoslavia), Thracians in Thrace (modern Bulgaria and eastern Macedonia), and Dacians in Moesia (northern Bulgaria and northeastern Serbia) and Dacia (modern Romania). These people were quite diverse and un-unified. They led tribal lives and generally lacked awareness of any greater ethno-political affiliation. Over the classical ages, they were at times invaded, conquered and influenced by Celts, Macedonians, Greeks and finally, conquered by the Romans. In reality, Roman influence was limited to the cities, which were concentrated along the Dalmatian coast, in Greece, and a few scattered cities inside the Balkan interior- particularly along the river Danube (Sirmium, Belgrade, Nis). Roman citizens from throughout the empire settled these cities and the adjacent countryside. The vast hinterland was still populated by indegenous peoples who likely retained their own tribal character [8] Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ruins of Sirmium Julian solidus, ca. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Nis may refer to NiÅ¡, a city in Serbia and Montenegro miscapitalized NIS This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Following the fall of Rome and numerous barbarian raids, the Balkans' population dropped, as did commerce and general standard of living. Many people were killed, or taken prisoner by invaders. The fall in the population is particularly attributed to a drop in the number of indegenous peasants living in the rural countryside. They were the most vulnerable to raids and were also hardest hit by the financial crises that plagued the falling empire[7]. However, the Balkans were not desolate. Only certain areas tended to be hit by the raids- the lands around major land highways. People sought refuge inside fortified cities, whilst others fled to remote mountains and forests, joining their non-Romanized kin for a transhumant pastoral lifestyle. The larger cities were able to persevere, even flourish, through the hard times. Archeological evidence suggests that the culture in the cities changed- Roman-styled forums and large public buildings were abandoned and cities were modified - built on top of hills or cliff-tops and fortified by walls. The centrepiece of such cities was the church. This transformation from a Roman culture to a Byzantine one was paralleled by a rise of a new ruling class: the old land-owning aristocracy gave way to rule by military elites and the clergy [9].


In addition to the autochthons, there were remnants of previous invaders such as "Huns" and various Germanic peoples when the Slavs arrived. Sarmatian tribes (such as the Iazyges) are recorded to have still lived in the Banat region of the Danube[10]. For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Iazyges (Jazyges is an orthographic variant) were a nomadic tribe. ...


As the Slavs spread south into the Balkans, they interacted with the numerous peoples and cultures. Since their lifestyle revolved around agriculture, they preferentially settled rural lands along the major highway networks which they moved along. Whilst they could not take the larger fortified towns, they looted the countryside, capturing many prisoners. In his Strategion, Pseudo-Maurice noted that it was commonplace for Slavs to accept newly acquired prisoners into their ranks. Despite the Byzantine's accounts of 'pillaging' and 'looting', it is likely that many indegenous peoples volutarily assimilated with the Slavs. The Slavs lacked an organised, centrally ruled organisation which actually hastened the process of wilfull Slavicisation [8]. The strongest evidence for such a co-existence is from archeological remains along the Danube and Dacia- the so-called Ipotesti-Cindesti culture. Here, the villages dating back to the 6th century represent a continuity with the earlier Slavic Pen'kovka culture; modified by admixture with Dato-Getic, Daco-Roman and/or Byzantine elements within the same village[9]. Such a interactions awarded the pre-Slavic populace protection within the ranks of a dominant, new tribe. In turn, they contributed to the genetic and cultural development the South Slavs. There was a flow of loan-words in either direction. For example the Slavic name for Greeks- Grci- is derived from the Latin Graecus- presumably encountered through the local Romanised populace. Conversely we know that the Vlachs borrowed many Slavic words, especially pertaining to agricultural terms. Whether any of the original Thracian or Illyrian culture and language remained by the time Slavs arrived is a matter of debate. It is a difficult issue to analyse because of the overriding Greek and Roman influence in the region.


Overtime, more and more of the Latin speaking natives (generally referred to as Vlachs) were assimilated (such that, in the western Balkans, Vlach came be a socio-occupational term rather than ethnic term[11]). The Romance speakers within the fortified Dalmatian cities managed to retain their culture and language for a longer time, Dalmatian was spoken until the high Middle Ages. However, they too were eventually assimilated into the body of Slavs. In contrast, the Romano-Dacians in Wallachia managed to maintain their Latin-based language, despite much Slavic influence. After centuries of peaceful co-existence, the groups fused to form Romanians.


The mixed ancestry of today's South Slavs is evident, as one can see a plethora of different physical characteristics. Carleton Coon, in his The Races of Europe, remarks that the original Slavs were of Nordic stock (blonde, dolicocephalic), who mixed with shorter-statured, brachycephalic Balkaners. He suggests that such fusion produced the predominant Dinaric form in the western Balkans (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia). Bulgarians, he suggests, are a mixture of Dinaric and Atlanto-Mediterranean subtypes. The Dinaric type predominates in the west (ie Macedonia) where average height is the greatest, whereas a small proportion of Bulgarians in the south and east show Mongoloid features - the result of later invaders (Cumans, Pechenegs, Tartars). The Races of Europe is the title of two books related to the anthropology of Europeans. ... The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. ... The term Dinaric comes from the name of a mountain called Dinara, on the border of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ...


Relationship with Byzantium

Slavic tribes in the Balkans c. 700 AD

By 580s, Slavs occupied all Greek regions. Not content with their rural conquests, the Slavs attempted to conquer the rich Aegean cities. The Miracles of St Demetrius stated that the Draguvits, Belegzites, Sagudates laid siege on Thessaloniki in 614. In 626, a combined Gepid, Avar, Slav and Bulgar army sieged Constantinople. The siege was broken, which would have repercussions upon the power and prestige of the Avar khanate. Slavic sieges on Thessaloniki continued. In 677, a coalition of Rynchites, Sagudates, Draguvites and Strumanoi attacked. This time, the Belgezites did not participate, and in fact supplied the besieged citizens of Thessaloniki with grain.


Essentially the Slavs did as they please in Greece. Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote that “the entire country was Slavonized”. In 723, Willibald a western pilgrim en route to the holy land landed in the Peloponnese. He referred to it as the “land of Sclavinia”[12], whilst The Life of Methodius noted that the inhabitants of Thessaloniki could "speak pure Slavonic". Apart from numerous historical records all attesting to their presence, linguicist Vasmer has listed 429 Slavic toponyms from the Peloponnesus alone.


Although the Slavs occupied every region of Greece, they did not occupy Greece in its entirety, nor did they wipe out the Greek population, which took refuge in large cities like Thessaloniki, Constantinople and Corinth. Relations, for the most part, were probably peaceful apart from the initial settlement and intermittent uprisings. Being agriculturalists, the Slavs probably traded with the Greeks inside the towns[13]. Furthermore, some Greek villages continued to exist in the interior, probably governing themselves, possibly paying tributes to the Slavs. Some villages were probably mixed, and undoubtedly some degree of bi-directional assimilation already began to occur before re-Hellenization was completed by the emperors [14].


When the Byzantines were not fighting in their eastern territories, they were able to slowly regain imperial control. This was achieved through its Theme system – referring to an administrative province on which an army corps was centered, under the control of a Strategos (governor). It aimed to assimilate the Slavs into the Byzantine socio-economic sphere. The first Balkan theme created was that in Thrace, in 680 AD. By 695, a second theme – “Hellas”- was established. Its location was probably in eastern central Greece. Subduing the Slavs in these themes was simply a matter of accommodating the needs of the Slavic elites and providing them with incentives for their inclusion into the imperial administration.


However, Slavs elsewhere were far more difficult to subdue. It was not until 100 years later that a third theme would be established. In 782-84, the eunuch general Staurakios campaigned from Thessaloniki, south to Thessaly and into the Peloponnese. He captured many Slavs, moving them elsewhere- especially Anatolia (these Slavs were dubbed Slavesians[15]). Although he may have made some defeated Slav tribes pay homage, it is unlikely he subdued all of them. The theme of Macedonia was created sometime between 790 and 802. This theme was centered on Adrianople (ie east of the actual geographic entity). In 805, the theme of Peloponnesus was created. However, some local Slavic tribes- Milings and Ezerites continued to revolt – apparently angered by loss of lands and the threat of losing their independence[16]. They were to remain independent until Ottoman times! From the 800s, new themes continued to arise, although many were small and were carved out of original, larger themes. New themes in the 9th century included those of Thessaloniki and Dyrrachium. From these themes, Byzantine laws and culture flowed into the interior. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...

An Orthodox icon depicting Saints Methodius and Cyril, founders of the Glacolitic alphabet and patron saints for all south Slavic peoples
An Orthodox icon depicting Saints Methodius and Cyril, founders of the Glacolitic alphabet and patron saints for all south Slavic peoples

Apart from military expeditions against Slavs, the re-Hellenization process involved (often forcible) transfer of peoples. Many Slavs were moved to other parts of the Empire, such as Anatolia and made to serve in the military. In return, Greek-speakers were brought to the Balkans, to increase the number of defenders at the Emperor's disposal and dilute the concentration of Slavs. Even non-Greeks were transferred to the Balkans, such as Armenians[17]. As more of the peripheral territories of the Byzantine empire were lost, their Greek-speakers made their own way back to Greece, eg from Sicily and Asia. The Hellenization of the Slavs was performed by way of culturo-religious assimilation of the Slavs into the Greek Orthodox world. Only Greek liturgy was allowed, consequently many Slavs were Christianized and Hellenized. The Aegean Greek cities were roots of Byzantine culture, which unlike their Dalmatian counterparts, eventually succeeded in Hellenizing the interior. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (450x621, 226 KB) Eastern Orthodox Icon of SS Cyril and Methodius, please notify Feerique 18:36, 21 December 2006 (UTC) before using I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (450x621, 226 KB) Eastern Orthodox Icon of SS Cyril and Methodius, please notify Feerique 18:36, 21 December 2006 (UTC) before using I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Eventually, the Byzantines recovered the imperial border north all the way to today’s region of Macedonia (which would serve as the northern border of the Byzantine world until 1018), although independent Slavic villages remained. As the Greek Slavs were Hellenized, there was inevitable mixture between Slavs and Greeks. Fine suggests that “probably few pure-blooded Greeks were left”[18]. But, of course, it is culture rather than blood-lines that matters. But perhaps more important than how the Slavs altered the ‘gene pool’ is how they impacted Byzantine affairs. As the Slavs occupied the entire Balkan interior, Constantinople was effectively cut off from the Dalmatian cities under its (nominal) control. Thus Dalmatia came to have closer ties with Italy, because of ability to maintain contact by sea (however, this too, was troubled by Slavic pirates). Additionally, Constantinople was cut off from Rome. This contributed to the growing cultural and political separation between the two centres of European Christendom. Perhaps the greatest effect of the Slavs in Greece was on rural life. As noted earlier, after repeated invasions, there had been a large drop in rural inhabitants. The Slavs increased the number drastically, essentially reviving the rural economy.


Northern Greece/ Macedonia remained overwhelmingly Slavic. Here, control of the Slavic tribes was nominal, as they retained their own culture and language. However, the Slavic tribes of Macedonia never formed their own empire or ‘state’, and the area often switched between Greek, Bulgarian, Serbian and temporarily even Norman control. The Byzantines were not able to Hellenize Macedonia completely because their progress north was blocked by the Bulgarian Empire, and later by the Serbian Kingdom; which were both Slavic states. However, Byzantine culture nonetheless flowed further north, seen to this day as Bulgaria, Macedonia and Serbia are part of the Orthodox world. Even in Dalmatia, where Byzantine influence was supplanted by Venice and Rome, the influence of Byzantine culture persists.


Formations of early Slavic states

States and Tribes c. 840s

By the end of 7th century, the Slavs occupied every region of the Balkans. Despite having taken much land from the Byzantines, and successfully revolted against Avar dominance, they remained split into many different tribes. Other invaders of the Roman Empire, such as the Franks in the west, for example, formed a somewhat unified Kingdom incorporating various ‘Frankish’ and other Germanic tribes. However, as noted earlier, the Slavs tended to dislike centralized rule, and there was no one king or warrior who could forge a unified kingdom or supra-tribal union (which otherwise would have spanned half of Europe). This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


Asparuch’s Bulgars arrived in Dobrudja and Moesia Inferior in the 670s. Either by subjugation or alliance, they gained the service of Slavic tribes living in the area (as the Avars had done earlier). They moved the Severi and ‘The Seven Slavic clans’ to defend strategic areas of their early Khanate. The Byzantines were aware of this new threat, but could not stop the formation of the First Bulgarian ‘Empire’ by 681. As the Bulgars expanded their influence, many Slavic tribes in Macedonia joined the ‘Bulgar League’, which was becoming progressively Slavonicized. Others are noted to have been loyal to the Byzantines. As they spread northwest, they subjugated the Abordrites and Timochans, who rebelled and appealled to the Franks for help. Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ...


In the western Balkans, the tribal configurations of the 600s eventually formed a basis for early statelets, no doubt influenced by Feudalism from the west. During the 700s, the Franks extended into the northwestern Balkans. In 745, they incorporated the Slavs and other inhabitants of Carantania, the area serving as a march. The Slavs in northern Pannonia (north of the Drava) were included in the Balaton Principality, given by the Franks to an exiled Prince from Nitra, whereas those south of the Drava were part of ‘Savia’- a territory we know little about. The Franks and Bulgars fought for control over it initially, later becoming an area of conflict between Hungary and Croatia. Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Map of the main part of the Balaton principality (parts of the Dudleb County, of the Ptuj County, of the whole former Principality of Etgar, as well as territories in the east of the Danube and in the south of the Drava are not shown on this map) The Balaton...

The Balkans c. 900

The Croats were Frankish vassals until they successfully rebelled during the 850s, forming the Duchy of the Croats in northern Dalmatia. In the southern half of the Dalmatian coast, four small Slavic duchies arose- Pagania, Zahumlje, Travunia and Duklja. Inland to these was the land of Serbia. Today there is much debate about ‘historical rights’ to certain areas. However, these early states were composed of ethnically very similar people split into different tribal territories. At times, one would grow powerful enough to exert influence over its neighbours. Centuries later, some tribal or regional designations evolved to identify a people with a common national awareness (ie a nation-state), somewhat distinct from its neighbours. As the tribes and early states were never unified, they experienced different histories and cultural influences which has coloured their identity today. One cannot deny their uniqueness, but should not overlook their common origins either. Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The Croatian people trace their origins to Slavic peoples which moved into the territory of the former Roman provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia between the 7th and 8th centuries, and formed dukedoms. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zahumlje in the 9th century, according to De administrando imperio Zahumlje, also known as the Land of Hum and Chelm, was a medieval South Slavic principality located in todays Herzegovina (modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina), and southern Dalmatia (modern day Republic of Croatia). ... Travunia in the 9th century, according to De administrando imperio Travunia (Travunija, Travunja; Latin: Terbounia) was a medieval Slavic realm centered at Trebinje in todays eastern Herzegovina (modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro), and southern Dalmatia (modern day Republic of Croatia). ... Duklja according to De administrando imperio. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...


Genetics

Although referred to as 'Slavs' and speaking a Slavic language, modern South Slavic peoples 'genetic roots' actually stem from a wide variety of genetic backgrounds, attesting the complexity of the ethnogenetic processes in Eastern Europe, namely the symbiosis of ancient, native Balkan populations with that of the 6th century Slavs. A recent genetic study [19] researched several Slavic populations with the aim of localizing the Proto-Slavic homeland. A significant finding of this study is that two genetically distinct groups of Slavic populations exist. The first group encompassed most Slavic populations except some Southern Slavs. According to the authors, most Slavs share a high frequency of Haplogroup R1a. Its origin is purported to trace to the middle Dnieper basin of Ukraine from Ukrainian LGM refuge 15 kya.[20]. The second group is comprised of southern Slavic populations: Bulgarians, Croatians, Macedonians and Serbs, who have a significantly lower frequency of R1a. According to the authors, this phenomenon is explained by "...contribution to the Y chromosomes of peoples who settled in the Balkan region before the Slavic expansion to the genetic heritage of Southern Slavs..."[21] The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Ukrainian LGM refuge is one of postulated LGM refuge area, located around Black Sea where groups of humans sought shelter from glaciar climate around 13 kya. ... For the R&B singer, see Mya (singer). ... Croatian is: Croatian language adjective for that which belongs to Croatia ethnic Croat (deprecated) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... ...


South Slavic peoples

South Slavs are divided into two groups — eastern and western. Please note that some of the subdivisions of the South Slavic ethnicities remain debatable, particularly for smaller groups and national minorities in former Yugoslavia.


List of the South Slavic peoples and ethnic groups, including population figures: [22]


Eastern group:

Western group: The Pomaks (помаци pomaci) or Muslim Bulgarians (българи мюсюлмани bălgari mjusjulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are an Islamized Slavic speaking people of the Rhodope region. ... Muslim Bulgarians (also Bulgarian Mohammedans, bul:Българи-мохамедани; local: Pomak, Ahrian, Poganets, Marvak, Poturnak) are descendants of Christian Bulgarians who converted to Islam during the 16th and the 18th century. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... The Macedonian Muslims (Macedonian: Македонци Муслимани or Makedonski Muslimani), also known as Muslim Macedonians[3] or Torbesh (the later name is somewhat pejorative and means the bag carriers), are a minority religious group within the community of ethnic Macedonians who are Sunni Muslims, although not all espouse a Macedonian national identity. ...

Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Burgenland Croats (Gradišćanski Hrvati) are ethnic Croats in the Austrian province of Burgenland. ... Janjevci are the inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina (Papare, Vrmez, Vrnavo Kolo). ... The Krashovani (Croatian and Serbian: Krašovani, Крашовани, Karašovani or Krašovanje, Karaševci and Koroševci; Romanian: Caraşoveni, Cârşoveni, Cotcoreţi or Cocoşi; also known as Krashovans) are a South Slavic people indigenous to Caraşova and other nearby locations in Caraş-Severin County within... Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the Molise region of Italy. ... The Catholic Church in the Bunjevac village of Stari Žednik Bunjevci (Bunjevac, Serbian and Croatian: Bunjevci/Буњевци, singular Bunjevac/Буњевац, pronounced as Bunyevtzi and Bunyevatz, also in Hungarian: bunyevácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group originally from the Dinaric Alps region, now mostly living in the Bačka region... Catholic Church in the Šokac village of Sonta, Serbia Šokci (Croatian & Serbian Latin: Šokci, singular Šokac, Serbian Cyrillic: Шокци, singular Шокац, pronounced as Shoktzi and Shokatz, also in Hungarian: Sokácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group living in various settlements along the Danube and Sava rivers in the historic regions of... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Šar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os...

Regional groups

Besides ethnic groups, South Slavs often identify themselves with the geographical region in which they live. Some of the major regional South Slavic groups include: Zagorci, Istrani, Dalmatinci, Slavonci, Bosanci, Hercegovci, Krajišnici, Semberci, Srbijanci, Šumadinci, Moravci, Vojvođani, Sremci, Bačvani, Banaćani, Sandžaklije, Kosovci, Crnogorci, Bokelji, Torlaks, Shopi, Pelagonci, Tikvešjani, Trakiytsi, Dobrudzhantsi, Balkandzhii, Miziytsi, Pirintsi, Rodoptsi, Bessarabian Bulgarians, etc. Categories: Geography stubs | Counties of Croatia ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... This is page about Bosnians (as citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina). ... The Herzegovinians (Hercegovci; sing. ... Bosanska Krajina Region Bosanska Krajina (lit Bosnian Frontier) is a geographical region of Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas. ... Semberija (Cyrillic: Семберија) is a geographical region in north-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Å umadija District in Central Serbia proposed Å umadija Region Kalenić village in Å umadija Å umadija is a geographical region in Central Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Pomoravlje District within Central Serbia Pomoravlje District (Pomoravski okrug) The Pomoravlje District expands in the central part of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... A Bokelj in traditional Bokelj clothes The Bokelj people (pl. ... Area where Torlakian dialect is spoken Torlaks (Torlaci, Торлаци) is a name for inhabitants of south-eastern Serbia who speak the Torlakian dialect of the Serbian language. ... The Shopi (шопи, scientific transliteration Å¡opi; singular шоп, Å¡op, with various regional names also existing) are are an ethnic subgroup of the Bulgarian people that inhabits the region of the Shopluk (Шоплук, Å opluk) in central western Bulgaria, around the towns of Botevgrad, Svoge, Elin Pelin, Kostinbrod, Slivnitsa, Dragoman, Samokov, Ihtiman, Dupnitsa, Kyustendil, Tran... Pelagonia (Greek Alphabet: Πελαγονíα; Macedonian spelling:Пелагонија or Pelagonija) was an ancient region of Europe later incorporated into Macedon. ... TikveÅ¡ (Macedonian: Тиквеш) is a plain situated in central Macedonia; known for an artificial lake and home to the town of Kavadarci, famous for its wine. ... View of the city of Sliven and the eastern Upper Thracian Lowlands from southern Stara Planina The Upper Thracian Lowlands (Bulgarian: , Gornotrakiyska nizina) constitute the northern part of the historical region of Thrace. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа, Yuzhna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Blagoevgrad Province (Bulgarian: област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Bulgarian: Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria. ... The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ...


Countries

There are seven countries in which South Slavs form the majority of population: [1]

  • Slovenia (83% Slovenes, 1% Bosnians/not recognized as a minority in Slovenia so they shouldnt be accounted here)
  • Croatia (90% Croats, Serbs 4.5%, Bosniaks (incl. Muslims by nationality) 1%, Slovenes 0.3%)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (45% Bosniaks, 37% Serbs, 14% Croats, 3% Bosnians)
  • Serbia (66% Serbs when including Kosovo, 82% excluding)
  • Montenegro (43% Montenegrins, 32% Serbs)
  • Republic of Macedonia (64% ethnic Macedonians)
  • Bulgaria (84% Bulgarians)

In addition, there are traditional sizable South Slavic minorities in non-Slavic neighbouring countries such as Italy (Slovenes, Molise Croats), Austria (Slovenes, Burgenland Croats), Hungary (Serbs, Croats, Bunjevci, Šokci, Slovenes), Romania (Krashovani, Banat Bulgarians, Serbs), Moldova (Bessarabian Bulgarians), Greece (Bulgarians, Macedonians), Turkey (Pomaks, Bosniaks) and Albania (ethnic Macedonians, Serbs, Montenegrins, Gorani), as well as emigrant communities in various countries around the world. Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the Molise region of Italy. ... Burgenland Croats (Gradišćanski Hrvati) are ethnic Croats in the Austrian province of Burgenland. ... Main Square in Szentendre The Serbs are an ethnic minority in Hungary. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The Catholic Church in the Bunjevac village of Stari Žednik Bunjevci (Bunjevac, Serbian and Croatian: Bunjevci/Буњевци, singular Bunjevac/Буњевац, pronounced as Bunyevtzi and Bunyevatz, also in Hungarian: bunyevácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group originally from the Dinaric Alps region, now mostly living in the Bačka region... Catholic Church in the Å okac village of Sonta, Serbia Å okci (Croatian & Serbian Latin: Å okci, singular Å okac, Serbian Cyrillic: Шокци, singular Шокац, pronounced as Shoktzi and Shokatz, also in Hungarian: Sokácok) are a South Slavic ethnic group living in various settlements along the Danube and Sava rivers in the historic regions of... The Krashovani (Croatian and Serbian: KraÅ¡ovani, Крашовани, KaraÅ¡ovani or KraÅ¡ovanje, KaraÅ¡evci and KoroÅ¡evci; Romanian: CaraÅŸoveni, CârÅŸoveni, CotcoreÅ£i or CocoÅŸi; also known as Krashovans) are a South Slavic people indigenous to CaraÅŸova and other nearby locations in CaraÅŸ-Severin County within... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... The Serbs are an ethnic minority in Romania. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... Macedonian is a name generally used to define the inhabitants of the wider region of Macedonia throughout time. ... The Pomaks (помаци pomaci) or Muslim Bulgarians (българи мюсюлмани bălgari mjusjulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are an Islamized Slavic speaking people of the Rhodope region. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... This article is about the Slavic ethnic group; for the unrelated people of ancient and modern Greece, see Ancient Macedonians and Macedonians (Greek) respectively. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os...


Cities

Largest cities with South Slavic majority:

This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 343,662. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... For other uses, see Novi Sad (disambiguation). ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Nis redirects here. ... Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Location of Kragujevac within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District Å umadija Municipalities 5 Founded 1476 Government  - Mayor Veroljub Stevanović (SDPO)  - Ruling parties SDPO Area  - City 835 km²  (322. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... A ruse is an action or plan which is intended to deceive someone. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... Subotica city hall Subotica (Serbian: Суботица or Subotica, Hungarian: Szabadka, Croatian: Subotica, German: Maria-Theresiopel or Theresiopel, Slovak: Subotica, Rusin: Суботица, Romanian: Subotica or Subotita) is a city and municipality in northern Serbia and Montenegro, in the North Bačka District of Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Coat of arms [[Image:{{{image_coat_of_arms}}}|100px|Coat of arms]] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina [[Image:{{{image_map}}}|150px|center|Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina highlighting the town or municipality location]] General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area 499,7 km² Population 170,000 (estimate) Population density 293/km... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117. ... Church of Assumption in Pančevo Pančevo Banatsko Novo Selo Kačarevo Jabuka Glogonj Dolovo Starčevo Omoljica Ivanovo Banatski Brestovac Municipality of Pančevo ● Pančevo (Панчево) is a city and municipality located in Serbia at 44. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Nickname: Motto: Bitolia, babam Bitolia Location of the city of Bitola (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Vladimir Taleski Area  - City 422. ... Area: 147. ... Dobrich (Bulgarian: Добрич) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Dobrich Province. ... Osijek (pronounced: []) is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114,616 in 2001. ... Overview of the city Pernik (Bulgarian: ) is a city in western Bulgaria with a population of 91,883 as of 2006. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Location of the city of Kumanovo (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Zoran Damjanovski Elevation +340 m (1,115 ft) Population (2002)  - Total 105 484 Time zone CET (UTC+1) Postal codes Area code(s) 389 031 Patron saints St. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ...

Religion

The religious and cultural diversity of the region the South Slavs inhabit has had a considerable influence on their religion. Originally a polytheistic pagan people, the South Slavs have also preserved many of their ancient rituals and traditional folklore, often intermixing and combining it with the religion they later converted to.


Today, the large majority of South Slavs are Christian. Most Bulgarians, ethnic Macedonians, Serbs and Montenegrins are Eastern Orthodox Christians; whilst most Slovenes and Croats are Roman Catholics. Bosniaks and other small sub-groups of Slavs (eg Gorani, Torbesh, and Pomaks) are Muslims. This article is about the Slavic ethnic group; for the unrelated people of ancient and modern Greece, see Ancient Macedonians and Macedonians (Greek) respectively. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os... The Torbesh are a Muslim Slav Macedonian peoples. ... The Pomaks (помаци pomaci) or Muslim Bulgarians (българи мюсюлмани bălgari mjusjulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are an Islamized Slavic speaking people of the Rhodope region. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Language

South Slavic standard languages are:

In addition, there are also two more South Slavic languages, Montenegrin and Bunjevac, that do not have official status, but that are widely used by their speakers. Formerly, the Šokac language was also listed in the censuses conducted during Austro-Hungarian administration. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


However, this language division is more political than linguistic. Naming local dialects is made difficult by the fact that Slovenes from Austria and Italy are linked with their most remote South Slavic peoples - the Pomaks and Bulgarians of European Turkey - by a dialect continuum (ie. Bulgarian and Slovenian are mutually unintelligible, but are linked via a chain of intermediate dialects, all intelligible to adjactent regions; these include the standard languages, whose impact is anyhow softened by chains of intermediate non-standard dialects). A non-political classification of the South Slavic dialects is as follows: European Turkey was the term used for the European territories of the Ottoman Empire, from the Bosphorus to the eastern borders of Austria. ...

  • Slovene - the standard language of Slovenia, with its dialects continuing into areas over the Austrian and Italian borders which ethnic Slovenes inhabit. Many regional dialects exist.
  • Kajkavian - based on "Kaj", the local word for "what", this is the dialect spoken in Croatia which is closest to Slovene (also a "kaj" language).
  • Chakavian - based on "cha" (ča), the local word for "what", contained entirely within Croatia's borders, unique in that it is suspected to be native only to local ethnic Croatians.
  • Shtokavian - the largest dialect chain also based on "shto" - the local word for what - itself varies with increased distance. It is used as the base for standard Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian, as well as non-standard Montenegrin and Bunjevac.
  • Torlakian - a non-standard dialect chain separating western south Slavic and eastern South Slavic standard language groups with radical differences, spoken in southern Serbia (including Kosovo), northern Macedonia and north-western Bulgaria, and by all Slavic ethnic groups local to the region, its features include a mixture of the western and eastern linguistic trends. It is also spoken by the Krashovan community in Romania, reflecting their previous geographical settlement.
  • Macedonian - based on the dialects central to the Republic of Macedonia. Several regional dialects exist.
  • Shop dialect - an intermediate dialect bordering with Torlakian areas to its north, with standard Macedonian to its west and standard Bulgarian to its east.
  • Bulgarian - the standard language of Bulgarian based on its central regions. Several regional dialects exist.
  • Greek Slavic - spoken by the Slavic population of Greece, most notably by the Pomaks of Thrace. Often disputed as to whether belonging to Macedonian or Bulgarian, this non-standard language has its dialects sparse but varied according to geographical distribution; with the dialects of Thrace (Trakiya) being closer to Bulgarian, and the dialects of Florina (Lerin) and Edessa (Voden) being closer to Macedonian.

Within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia (the regions home to the former Serbo-Croat language), a secondary yat-orientated accent system is known. These are an extra feature, one of which applies to every dialect spoken in all of the republics. Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... The Krashovani (Serbian:Крашовани, also Karashevci/Карашевци) are an ethnic-Serb subgroup living in the Romanian Banat around the town of Caraşova (Serbian: Царашево/Caraševo). ... The Shopi (шопи, scientific transliteration Å¡opi; singular шоп, Å¡op, with various regional names also existing) are are an ethnic subgroup of the Bulgarian people that inhabits the region of the Shopluk (Шоплук, Å opluk) in central western Bulgaria, around the towns of Botevgrad, Svoge, Elin Pelin, Kostinbrod, Slivnitsa, Dragoman, Samokov, Ihtiman, Dupnitsa, Kyustendil, Tran... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... For other uses, see Florina (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ...

    • Ekavian - used for standard Serbian. Otherwise, it is used by non-Serb Slavs largely throughout Serbia; although it is not the accent of some parts of Serbia in its extreme south-west (eg. Sjenica). Also used by all south Slavs living in Hungary (never having lived in a unified country), as well as parts of Croatia close to Hungary (eg. Beli Manastir). Outside of the old Serbo-Croat zone, this accent system applies to Slovenian (eg. lepo, nice) and Macedonian (eg. lek, medicine).
    • Ijekavian - used in standard Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian (esp. of Bosnia and Montenegro), as well as non-standard Montenegrin.
    • Ikavian - largely confined to parts of Croatia and Bosnia, and notable as system for non-standard Bunjevac.

Kajkavian, Chakavian, and Torlakian were all at various times classified as a forth dialect of Serbo-Croatian language. On principle, Serbo-Croat Shtokavian forms along with Kajkavian and Chakavian are themselves closer to standrad Slovenian than to Torlakian (standard Serbian included), which is arguably an eastern south Slavic dialect, closer to Bulgarian and Macedonian. See main article. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Sjenica (Сјеница) is a town and municipality in Zlatibor District of Central Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Beli Manastir is a town and municipality in eastern Croatia, the principal town of the Croatian part of Baranja, in the Osijek-Baranja county. ... Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the Caraş-Severin County in Romania. ...


References

  1. Trajan Stojanović, Balkanska civilizacija, Beograd, 1995.
  2. Nikola Jeremić, Srpska Zemlja Bojka, Zemun, 1993.
  3. Aleksandar M. Petrović, Kratka arheografija Srba, Novi Sad, 1994.
  4. Sava S. Vujić - Bogdan M. Basarić, Severni Srbi (ne)zaboravljeni narod, Beograd, 1998.
  5. Jovan Dragašević, Makedonski Sloveni, Novi Sad, 1995.
  6. Kosta V. Kostić, Prilog etnoistoriji Torlaka, 2. izdanje, Novi Sad, 1995.

Notes

  1. ^ Fouracre, Paul. The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume I.
  2. ^ Southestern Europe in the Middle Ages. Florin Curtin. 2006. ISBN 100-521081539-8
  3. ^ Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages
  4. ^ The Balkans. D P Hupchik
  5. ^ Dennis Hupchik. The Balkans : From COnstnatinople to Communism
  6. ^ Cambridge Medieval Encyclopedia, Vol II
  7. ^ The early Medieval Balkans. John Fine Jr
  8. ^ Early medieval Balkans. John Fine Jr
  9. ^ Southeastern Europe in the middle ages, 500-1250. Florin Curta
  10. ^ Fine
  11. ^ The Serbs. Sima Cirkovic
  12. ^ Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages 500-1250. Florin Curta
  13. ^ The early Medieval Balkans. John Fine Jr
  14. ^ THe Bakans. From Constnatinople to Communism. Dennis Hupchik
  15. ^ Curta
  16. ^ Curta
  17. ^ Curta
  18. ^ Fine
  19. ^ Rebala K et al. (2007), Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin, Journal of Human Genetics, 52:406-14
  20. ^ ibid., p. 408
  21. ^ ibid., p. 410
  22. ^ Mile Nedeljković, Leksikon naroda Sveta, Beograd, 2001.

Images

See also

Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ...

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