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Encyclopedia > South Slavic languages
South Slavic
Geographic
distribution:
Eastern Europe
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Balto-Slavic
  Slavic
   South Slavic
Subdivisions:
Eastern South Slavic
Central South Slavic
Western South Slavic

     Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The hypothetical Balto-Slavic language group consists of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

South Slavic
languages and dialects
Western South Slavic
Slovene
Central South Slavic diasystem
Bosnian · Bunjevac
Burgenland Croatian · Croatian
Montenegrin · Serbian
Serbo-Croatian · Šokac
Romano-Serbian · Slavoserbian
Differences between Serbian,
Croatian, and Bosnian
Dialects
Chakavian · Molise Croatian
Shtokavian · Užice speech
Eastern South Slavic
Old Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
Bulgarian · Macedonian
Dialects
Banat Bulgarian · Shopski

Slavic dialects of Greece
Dialects of Macedonian Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... The Šokac language (Šokački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... The standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-našo) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Štifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Shtokavian or Štokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Užican speech (Serbian: ужички говор or užički govor), also known as Zlatiborian speech (златиборски говор or zlatiborski govor) is a dialect of the Serbian language. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... This article is about the Slavic language. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... The Shopi (шопи, scientific transliteration šopi; singular шоп, šop, with various regional names also existing) are are an ethnic subgroup of the Bulgarian people that inhabits the region of the Shopluk (Шоплук, Šopluk) in central western Bulgaria, around the towns of Botevgrad, Svoge, Elin Pelin, Kostinbrod, Slivnitsa, Dragoman, Samokov, Ihtiman, Dupnitsa, Kyustendil, Tran... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ...

Transitional dialects
Eastern-Central
Torlak dialects · Našinski
Western-Central
Kajkavian
Alphabets
Modern
Gaj’s Latin alphabet1
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
Macedonian Cyrillic
Bulgarian Cyrillic
Slovene alphabet
Historical

Bohoričica · Dajnčica · Metelčica
Arebica · Bosnian Cyrillic
Glagolitic · Early Cyrillic Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... NaÅ¡inski, Nashinski or Goranian is a Torlakian language (dialect) used by the Gorani in southern Kosovo. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect (proper name: kajkavica) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian. ... The variant of the Latin alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavic orthography), is currently used as the only script of the Bosnian and Croatian standard languages, and as one of the two scripts of the Serbian... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Bohorič alphabet (slovene bohoričica) was slovene writing system used in years 1550-1850. ... Dajnko alphabet or dajnčica was a slovenian writing system invented by Peter Dajnko. ... Metelko alphabet (slovene: metelčica) was a slovenian writing system developed by Franc Serafin Metelko. ... Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The original Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Macedonia and in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. ...

1 Includes Banat Bulgarian alphabet
which is based on it.
v  d  e

South Slavic languages comprise one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). There are around 30 million speakers of these languages, mainly in the Balkans. The South Slavic languages are further subdivided into Eastern and Western groups.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


German, Hungarian and Romanian generally form a belt which geographically separate speakers of South Slavic languages from their counterpart West and East Slavic language users.

Contents

Classification

Slavic languages belong to Balto-Slavic family, which originates from Centum-Satem isogloss of the Indo-European languages family.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Balto-Slavic languages are an Indo-European language family, consisting of the (possibly genetically related) Baltic languages and Slavic languages. ... Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


South Slavic languages form a dialectal continuum stretching from today's southern Austria to southeast Bulgaria. On the level of dialectology or linguistic typology, several major dialects can be distinguished, but their borders are blurred due to strong contact and frequent migrations in the past. On the other hand, cultural establishment and national liberation from occupying Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, followed by formation of nation-states in 19th and 20th century, caused development of standard national languages. These processes have (almost) ended just at the end of 20th century, with the breakup of Yugoslavia (with only the Montenegrin national and linguistic issue left to be resolved). Most of those languages selected one dialect as the basis; as a result, some dialects got deprecated and marginalized, while others flourished. Further, the national and ethnic borders do not coincide with dialectal boundaries in most cases. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Dialectology is the study of dialects of a language, their evolution, differentiation, inter-intelligibity, grammar, phonetics etc. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


Thus, two distinct classifications of South Slavic languages can be drawn; one from a genetic linguistic point of view, and the other from a sociolinguistic or political point of view. The two classifications seldom map 1:1. For example, Croats speak three main and two exclaval dialects in four countries, while their standard language is based on Štokavian Ijekavian. Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used. ...


Note: Due to different political statuses of languages/dialects and different historical contexts, the classifications are necessarily arbitrary to some extent.


Genetic linguistic classification

  • South Slavic languages



    • Eastern






    • Western south Slavic languages :

      • Serbian language
        • Torlakian serbian dialect in Serbia, Bulgaria and Macedonia.
        • Štokavian-ekavian serbian dialect
          • šumadijsko-vojvođanski (ekavian sub-dialect) in Serbia
          • smederevsko-vršački (ekavian sub-dialect) in Serbia
          • kosovsko-resavski (ekavian sub-dialect) in Serbia and Kosovo
          • prizrensko-južnomoravski (ekavian sub-dialect) in Serbia and Kosovo
          • srvljiško-zaplanjski (ekavian sub-dialect) in Serbia
          • timočko-lužnički (ekavian sub-dialect) in Serbia
          • hercegovački in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro

      • Croatian language
        • Štokavian-ijekavijan Croatian dialect
          • Ijekavian sub-dialect in Croatia (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
          • Ikavian sub-dialect in Croatia and (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia)
          • Gradiščan Croatian dialect (in Austria, and Hungary)
          • Molise Croatian dialect (in Italy)
          • Carasova Croatian dialect (in Romania)
          • Bunjevac Croatian dialect (in Serbia)
        • Chakavian Croatian dialect [2]
          • Burgenland Croatian(in Austria, and Hungary)
          • buzetski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • jugozapadni istarski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • sjevernočakavski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • južnočakavski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • lastovski sub-dialect in Croatia
        • Kajkavian Croatian dialect [2]
          • zagorsko-medimurski in Croatia sub-dialect
          • krizevačko-podravski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • turopoljsko-posavski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • prigorski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • donjosutlanski sub-dialect in Croatia
          • goranski sub-dialect in Croatia



Notes
  1. ^ Torlakian can be treated as the part of East South Slavic languages. Speakers can be ethnic Serbs, Bulgarians and Macedonians, mostly depending on their country of origin, although there is a Torlak-speaking Bulgarian minority in Serbia (the Western Outlands) and a corresponding Serbian one in the north of the Republic of Macedonia). Most of Torlakian now belong to Serbian diasystem.
  2. ^ a b c *

Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... This article is about the Slavic language. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Torlakian is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Torlakian is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Territories ceded to Yugoslavia by Bulgaria according to the Treaty of Neuilly, 1920 The Western (Bulgarian) Outlands (Bulgarian: , Zapadni (balgarski) pokraynini) is a term used by Bulgarians to describe several territorially separate regions in southeastern Serbia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Sociolinguistic classification

South Slavic languages




  • Eastern





  • Western




    • Montenegrian language (montenegrian dialect - standard)


      • Bunjevac (dialect-language) = (Bunjevac Croatian dialect of Serbia)

Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... This article is about the Slavic language. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Geographical distribution of Torlakian dialect (exception of Bulgaria) Torlakian is the name used for the dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro), Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ... Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

Eastern group of South Slavic languages

Bulgarian dialects

Main article: Bulgarian language

Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ...

Macedonian dialects

Main article: Macedonian language
see also:Dialects of Macedonian language

This article is about the Slavic language. ...

Transitional South Slavic languages

Torlakian dialect

Main article: Torlakian dialect

There also exists another dialect, called torlački or torlak, which is spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northern Republic of Macedonia and western Bulgaria, and often considered transitional between Central and Eastern group of South Slavic languages. Geographical distribution of Torlakian dialect (exception of Bulgaria) Torlakian is the name used for the dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro), Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


It is even thought to fit into the so-called Balkan sprachbund, an area of linguistic convergence among languages due to long-term contact rather than being related. The Balkan sprachbund or linguistic area is the ensemble of areal features—similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various branches of Indo-European, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; or to a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state. ...


Central or Eastern Western group of South Slavic languages

History

Each of these primary and secondary dialectical units breaks down into subdialects and accents by region. In the past (and now in mountains and islands), it was not uncommon for individual villages to have some of their own words and phrases. However, throughout the twentieth century the various dialects have been strongly influenced by the Štokavian standards through mass media and public education, and much of the "local color" has been lost chiefly in towns.


With the breakup of Yugoslavia, nationalism has also caused many, especially in Bosnia and Hercegovina, to modify their speech, or even attempt to change dialects entirely. The various wars have also caused mass migrations, and changed the ethnic makeup of some areas, especially in Bosnia, but also in central Croatia and in Serbia (especially in Vojvodina). In some areas it is unclear whether location or ethnicity is now the dominant factor in the dialect of the speaker. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


Because of these forces, the speech patterns of some communities and regions are in a state of flux, and it is difficult to determine which dialects will die out entirely. Further research over the next few decades will be necessary to determine the changes made in the dialectical distribution of the language.


Dialect to language name mapping

The table below shows the relationship between the dialects of Central South Slavic diasystem and the names their native speakers might call them.

Dialect Sub-Dialect Serbian Croatian Bosnian Montenegrin
Štokavian Torlakian dialect x
Zeta-South Sandžak x x x
Eastern Herzgovinian x x x x
Šumadija-Vojvodina x
Western Ikavian x x
Kosovo-Resava x
Eastern Bosnian x x x
Slavonian x
Čakavian x
Kajkavian x

Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Geographical distribution of Torlakian dialect (exception of Bulgaria) Torlakian is the name used for the dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro), Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ... Zeta or ZETA can refer to: // Zeta (letter), of the Greek alphabet Zeta functions, in mathematics Riemann zeta function Tropical Storm Zeta (2005), formed in December 2005 and lasted through January 2006 Z-pinch, in fusion power Zeta (Mexico), a magazine from Tijuana, Mexico Zeta River, in Montenegro Zeta plain... Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Å umadija District in Central Serbia proposed Å umadija Region Kalenić village in Å umadija Å umadija is a geographical region in Central Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Resava (Serbian Cyrillic: Ресава) refers to several toponyms and related topics, all of them located around the river Resava in central Serbia: Resava, a river Resava, a region, sourrounding the river Resava, a monastery Resava school, a cultural movement in XIV-XV century Resava Coal Mines, (or REMBAS) coal mines in... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... Chakavian (ÄŒakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect (proper name: kajkavica) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian. ...

Štokavian dialects and languages

Rusian-štokavian, Bulgarian-štokavian, Macedonian-štokavian, Ukrainan-štokavian. Belarus-štokavian, Croatian-štokavian, Bosnian-štokavian, Poland-štokavian, Serb-štokavian, Montenegrian-štokavian.


Shtokavian dialects

Main article: Štokavian dialect

Bosnian language: Shtokavian (Štokavian, štokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. ...

    • Štokavian east Bosnian dialect

Montenegrian language:

    • Štokavian Montenegrian dialect

  • Serbian language:
    • Štokavian-Ekavian
      • Cyrillic: Што јест, јест; тако је увек било, што ће бити, биће, а некако већ ће бити!
      • Latin: Što jest, jest; tako je uvek bilo, što će biti, biće, a nekako već će biti!
    • Štokavian-East-Herzegovina dialect (Istočno hercegovački)
      • Latin: Što jest, jest; tako je uvijek bilo, što će biti, biće, a nekako već će biti!
      • Cyrillic: Што јест, јест; тако је увијек било, што ће бити, биће, а некако већ ће бити!

  • Croatian language:

(Štokavian-Iyekavian dialect, Latin): Što jeste, jeste; tako je uvijek bilo, što će biti, bit će, a bit če več nekako! The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Molise Croatian

The Molise Croatian (or Molise Slavic) dialect is spoken in three villages of the Italian region of Molise, by the descendants of South Slavs who migrated there from the eastern Adriatic coast in the 15th century. Because these people have migrated away from the rest of their kinsmen so long ago, their diaspora language is rather distinct from the standard language, and rather influenced by Italian. Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-našo) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Štifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-našo) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Štifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Molise is a region of central Italy, the second smallest of the regions. ... A diaspora language is an evolution of the language originally used by a diaspora of a group of people or peoples. ...


Dialects and official languages

The Croatian and Serbian standard language: A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...

  • Serbian language is a system of two dialects: Štokavian and Torlakian.
  • Bosnian language is dialects: Štokavian East Bosnian dialects.
  • Montenegrian language is dialects: Štokavian Montenegrian dialects (Zetski).
  • Croatian language is a system of three dialects: Čakavian, Štokavian and Kajkavian.

Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ...

Čakavian dialects and languages

Čakavian dialects

Main article: Chakavian dialect

Chakavian (Čakavian) is spoken in the western, central, and southern parts of Croatia, mainly in Istria, Kvarner Gulf, Dalmatia, and also in Croatian inlands (Gacka, Pokupje etc.). The Čakavian renders yat mostly as i or also as e (rarely as ye), or even mixed Ekavian-Ikavian. Many dialects of Čakavian have a lot of loan words from Venetian, Italian, Greek and other Mediterranean languages. Chakavian (ÄŒakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Example: Ča je, je, tako je vavik bilo, ča će bit, će bit, a nekako će već bit!


Burgenland Croatian

This dialect is spoken primarily in the federal state of Burgenland in Austria, but also in nearby areas in Vienna, Slovakia, and Hungary by descendants of Croats who migrated there in the 16th century. This dialect or possibly family of dialects is quite different from standard Croatian. It has been heavily influenced by German and also Hungarian. In addition, it has some properties from all three of the major dialectical groups in Croatia, as the migrants did not all come from the same areas of Croatia. The "micro-literary" standard is based on a Čakavian dialect, and, like all Čakavian dialects, is characterized by very conservative grammatical structures: it preserves, prominently, case endings lost in the Štokavian base of standard Serbo-Croatian. Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. ...


At most 100,000 people speak Burgenland Croatian and almost all are bilingual in German. Its future is uncertain, but there is some movement to preserve it. It has official status in six districts of Burgenland, and is used in some schools in Burgenland and neighboring western parts of Hungary.


Western group of South Slavic languages

Kaykavian dialects

Main article: Kajkavian dialect

Kaykavian is mostly spoken in northern and northwest Croatia including 1/3 of country near the Hungarian and Slovenian borders: chiefly in and around towns Zagreb, Varaždin, Čakovec, Koprivnica, Petrinja, Delnice, etc. It renders jat mostly as e (rarely as diphthong ie); note that this pronouncing cannot be equated to that of the ekavian-shtokavian dialects, as many kaykavian dialects distinguish a closed e nearly ae (from yat) and an open e (from original e). Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect (proper name: kajkavica) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ...


It almost lacks several palatals (ć, lj, nj, dž) found in Shtokavian dialect, and has some loanwords from the nearby Slovene dialects, as well as from German chiefly in towns.


Example: Kak je, tak je; tak je navek bilo, kak bu tak bu, a bu vre nekak kak bu!


Slovene language

Main article: Slovene language

This article needs cleanup. ...

See also

The official languages in Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro differ in various aspects as outlined below. ...

External links

  • Burgenland Croat Center (in English, German and Croatian)
 Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. ... Pannonian Rusyn or simply Rusyn (Ruthenian) is a Slavic language or dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ... Stefan RamuÅ‚ts Dictionary of the Pomeranian (Kashubian) language, published in Kraków, 1893 Pomeranian language edition of Wikipedia Pomeranian is a group of Lechitic dialects which were spoken in the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania, between the Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Łebsko in Pomerania. ... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbšćina) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андрей Анатольевич Зализняк) to account for the astonishingly distinct linguistic features of the East Slavic birch-bark writings from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Russenorsk or Russonorsk (Norwegian for Russo-Norwegian) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula, and also used in Svalbard. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...

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The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia.
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