FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > South Pole

Coordinates: 90° S 0° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth. It lies on the continent of Antarctica, on the opposite side of the Earth from the North Pole. It is the site of the US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that date. It should not be confused with the South Magnetic Pole. Image File history File links Pole-south. ... Image File history File links Pole-south. ... South Pole may refer to: South Pole (also known as the Geographic South Pole) – the southernmost point on Earth. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... The Earths South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earths surface where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards. ...

Contents

Geography

The Geographic South Pole
The Geographic South Pole
The Ceremonial South Pole.
The Ceremonial South Pole.

The Geographic South Pole is defined for most purposes as one of two points where the earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface (the other being the Geographic North Pole). However, the earth's axis of rotation is actually subject to very small 'wobbles', so this definition is not adequate for very precise work; see Geographic North Pole for further information. The projection of the Geographic South Pole onto the celestial sphere gives the south celestial pole. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x797, 82 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): South Pole ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x797, 82 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): South Pole ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 82 KB)Ceremonial South Pole. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 82 KB)Ceremonial South Pole. ... The axis of rotation of a rotating body is a line such that the distance between any point on the line and any point of the body remains constant under the rotation. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... The celestial sphere is divided by the celestial equator. ... The two celestial poles are the imaginary points where the Earths spin axis intersects the imaginary rotating sphere of gigantic radius, called the celestial sphere. ...


The coordinates of the South Pole are usually given simply as 90°S, since its longitude is geometrically undefined and irrelevant. When a longitude is desired, it may be given as 0°W.


The South Pole is located on the continent of Antarctica (although this has not been the case for all of Earth's history because of continental drift). It sits atop a featureless windswept icy plateau at an altitude of 2,835 meters (9,306 feet), about 800 miles from the nearest sea at McMurdo Sound. The ice is estimated to be about 2,700 meters (9,000 feet) thick at the Pole, so the land surface is actually near sea level.[1] For the history of modern humans, see History of the world. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ...


The polar ice sheet is moving at a rate of roughly 10 meters per year, so the exact position of the Pole, relative to the ice surface and the buildings constructed on it, gradually shifts over time.


The Geographic South Pole is marked by a small sign, and a stake, which are repositioned each year on New Year’s Day to compensate for the movement of the ice. The sign records the respective dates that Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott reached the Pole followed by a short quotation from each man, and gives the elevation as 9,301 ft. Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... “Scott of the Antarctic” redirects here. ...


Ceremonial South Pole

The Ceremonial South Pole is an area set aside for photo opportunities at the South Pole Station. It is located a short distance from the Geographic South Pole, and consists of a metallic sphere on a plinth, surrounded by the flags of the Antarctic Treaty signatories. The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... Plinth of the Sign of the Kiwi, Dyers Pass, Port Hills, Christchurch (NZ) c 1917 - Collection: Christchurch City Libraries Hoysala temple on plinth Look up Plinth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...


The ceremonial marker is not moved each year, so its position relative to the Geographical South Pole slowly changes over time as it drifts with the ice.


Exploration

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The ceremonial pole and flags can be seen in the background, slightly to the left of center, below the tracks behind the buildings. The actual geographic pole is a few more metres to the left. The buildings are raised on stilts to prevent snow buildup.
Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The ceremonial pole and flags can be seen in the background, slightly to the left of center, below the tracks behind the buildings. The actual geographic pole is a few more metres to the left. The buildings are raised on stilts to prevent snow buildup.
See also: History of Antarctica, List of Antarctica expeditions and Polar exploration.

The first humans to reach the Geographic South Pole were Norwegian Roald Amundsen and his party on December 14, 1911. Amundsen named his camp Polheim and the entire plateau surrounding the Pole Haakon VII's Vidde in honour of King Haakon VII of Norway. Amundsen's competitor Robert Falcon Scott, with four other men from the Terra Nova Expedition, reached the Pole a month later. On the return trip Scott and his four companions all died of starvation and extreme cold. In 1914 British explorer Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition set out with the goal of crossing Antarctica via the South Pole, but his ship the Endurance, was frozen in pack-ice and sank 11 months later. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2756x2000, 4089 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2756x2000, 4089 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... Antarctica has no indigenous population, and so the human history of Antarctica does not begin until the 19th century, when the continent was first seen. ... Territorial claims of Antarctica List of Antarctica expeditions is a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica. ... Polar exploration Polar Explorers Roald Amundsen Robert Falcon Scott Robert Peary Fridtjof Nansen Category: ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Polheim, Home of the Pole, was Roald Amundsens name for his camp (the first ever) at the South Pole. ... Haakon VIIs Vidde was the name given to the entire plateau surrounding the South Pole in honour of King Haakon VII of Norway. ... Haakon VII, (Prince Carl of Denmark, born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel) (August 3, 1872 – September 21, 1957), was the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the personal union with Sweden. ... “Scott of the Antarctic” redirects here. ... The Terra Nova Expedition (1910–1913) was a British expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott with the purpose of undertaking scientific research and exploration along the coast and interior of Antarctica. ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Irish explorer who was knighted for the success of the 1907-09 British Antarctic Expedition under his command. ... The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was the fourth British Antarctic exploration of the 20th century, and aimed, but ultimately failed, to be the first to cross the Antarctic continent from one side to the other. ... The Endurance was the three-masted barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic on the 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ...


US Admiral Richard Byrd, with the assistance of his first pilot Bernt Balchen, became the first person to fly over the South Pole on November 29, 1929. However, it was not until 31st October 1956 that men once again set foot at the Pole, when a party led by Admiral George Dufek of the US Navy landed there in a R4D Skytrain (Douglas DC-3) aircraft. The US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station was established by air over 1956–1957 for the International Geophysical Year, and has been continuously staffed since then by research and support personnel. Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an pioneering polar explorer and famous aviator. ... Bernt Balchen (1899-1973) Bernt Balchen, D.F.C., (23 October 1899 – 17 October 1973), was a Norwegian-American polar (and general) aviation pioneer. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. ...


After Amundsen and Scott, the next people to reach the South Pole overland (albeit with some air support) were Edmund Hillary January 4, 1958) and Vivian Fuchs ( January 19, 1958), and their respective parties, during the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition. There have been many subsequent expeditions to arrive at the South Pole by surface transportation, including those by Havola, Crary and Fiennes. Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born 20 July 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs (February 11, 1908 – November 11, 1999) was a British explorer. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1957–58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) was an expedition funded by the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australian and South African governments, as well as private and corporate donations, under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II. Its primary objective was to complete the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via... Albert Paddock Crary (1911 - 1987), was a pioneer polar geophysicist and glaciologist and the first person to set foot on both the North (1952 with Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher) and South Poles. ... Sir Ranulph Twisleton-Wickham-Fiennes, 3rd Baronet, OBE (usually simply Ranulph Fiennes, born March 7, 1944) is a British explorer and holder of several endurance records. ...


On December 30, 1989, Arved Fuchs and Reinhold Messner were the first to reach the South Pole without animal or motorised help, using only skis and the help of wind. is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Arved Fuchs in Brunswick German explorer Arved Fuchs was born in 1953. ... Reinhold Messner (born September 17, 1944) is an Italian mountaineer and explorer, often cited [1] as the greatest mountain climber of all time, noted for making the first solo ascents of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen and for being the first climber to ascend all fourteen eight-thousanders (peaks over...


The fastest unsupported walking journey to the Geographic South Pole from the ocean is 39 days from Hercules Inlet and was set in 2007 by Hannah McKeand.


Territorial claims

See Antarctic territorial claims and Antarctica – Politics.

Territorial claims of Antarctica Antarctica territories Brazils Antarctica Territory Currently there are seven claimant nations who maintain a territorial claim on eight territories in Antarctica. ... For other uses, see Antarctica (disambiguation). ...

Climate

See also Climate of Antarctica.

During the southern winter the South Pole receives no sunlight at all, and in summer the sun, though continuously above the horizon, is always low in the sky. Much of the sunlight that does reach the surface is reflected by the white snow. This lack of warmth from the sun, combined with the high altitude (about 2,800 meters), means that the South Pole has one of the coldest climates on earth. Temperatures at the South Pole are much lower than at the North Pole, primarily because the South Pole is located at altitude in the middle of a continental land mass, while the North Pole is at sea level in the middle of an ocean (which acts as a reservoir of heat). Surface temperature of Antarctica in winter and summer The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on earth, with the lowest temperature ever recorded on earth being -89. ...


In midsummer, as the sun reaches its maximum elevation of about 23.5 degrees, temperatures at the South Pole average around −25°C (−12°F). As the six-month 'day' wears on and the sun gets lower, temperatures drop as well, with temperatures around sunset (late March) and sunrise (late September) being about −45°C (−49°F). In winter, the temperature remains steady at around −65°C (−85°F). The highest temperature ever recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is −13.6°C (7.5°F), and the lowest is −82.8°C (−117.0°F)[2] (however, this is not the lowest recorded anywhere on earth, that being −89.6°C (−129.28°F) at Vostok Station). The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... Ice cores drilled at Vostok, with a portion of the station behind Vostok Station (Russian: ) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) research station located near the South Geomagnetic Pole, at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. ...


The South Pole has a desert climate, almost never receiving any precipitation. Air humidity is near zero. However, high winds can cause the blowing of snowfall, and the accumulation of snow amounts to about 20 cm per year.[3] The dome seen in the pictures is partially buried due to snow storms, and the entrance to the dome has to be regularly bulldozed to uncover it. More recent buildings are raised on stilts so that the snow does not build up against the side of them.



Average monthly temperatures and precipitation (Celsius, millimetres) at the South Pole, Antarctica

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °C −25 −37 −50 −52 −53 −55 −55 −55 −55 −47 −36 −26 −45
Avg low °C −28 −42 −56 −60 −61 −61 −63 −62 −62 −53 −39 −28 −51
Precipitation millimeters 2.5


Average monthly temperatures and precipitation (Fahrenheit, inches) at the South Pole, Antarctica

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °F −14 −35 −58 −63 −64 −65 −68 −68 −67 −54 −33 −15 −50
Avg low °F −20 −44 −70 −76 −78 −79 −82 −81 −81 −64 −39 −20 −61
Precipitation inches 0.1

Source: weatherbase.com


Time

In most places on Earth local time is more-or-less synchronised to the position of the sun in the sky. This fails at the South Pole which has 'days' lasting for a whole year. Another way of looking at it is to note that all time zones converge at the pole. There is no a priori reason for placing the South Pole in any particular time zone, but as a matter of practical convenience the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station keeps New Zealand time. This is because the US flies its resupply missions ("Operation Deep Freeze") out of Christchurch, New Zealand. The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... Operation Deep Freeze I was the codename for a series of scientific expeditions to Antarctica in 1955–56. ...


Flora and fauna

Due to its exceptionally harsh climate, there are no native resident plants or animals at the South Pole. Remarkably, though, off-course skuas are occasionally seen there.[4] For other uses: see Skua (disambiguation). ...


In 2000 it was reported that microbes had been detected living in the South Pole ice, though scientists think it unlikely that they evolved in Antarctica.[5]


See also

Territorial claims of Antarctica List of Antarctica expeditions is a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Region Magellanes of Chile Antártica Chilena Province is a province of Chile in the southernmost region, Magellanes, being one of four provinces in that region. ...

References

  1. ^ Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs
  2. ^ Your stay at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs
  3. ^ Initial environmental evaluation – development of blue-ice and compacted-snow runways, National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, April 9, 1993
  4. ^ Mark Sabbatini, "Non-human life form seen at Pole", The Antarctic Sun, 5 January 2003.
  5. ^ "Snow microbes found at South Pole", BBC News, 10 July, 2000

External links

The goals of the Degree Confluence Project are to visit each of the latitude and longitude integer degree intersections on Earth, and post photographs of each location on the World Wide Web. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Virtual tour of the Pole. (810 words)
Jump ahead to the imagemap of the South Pole Station.
The new station is about 350 meters from the true Geographic South Pole, (learn more about this on the poles page) and is drifting toward the pole at about 10 meters/year.
Temperatures -- The average annual temperature at the South Pole is -50 degrees C and generally ranges between -21 degrees C in the summer and -78 degrees C in the winter.
iceman's South Pole page (190 words)
I'm back at the Pole again :), this is my 7th time and this will be my 6th winter - and my third year for QUaD a Cosmic Microwave Background telescope.
South Pole summer-winter 2002/2003 (my third year down at the Pole)
South Pole summer-winter 1996/1997 (my first year down here)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m