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Encyclopedia > South Ossetia
Хуссар Ирыстон
სამხრეთ ოსეთი
South Ossetia
Location of South Ossetia
Area
 -  Total 3,900 km² 
1,506 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2000 estimate 70,000 
 -  Density 18 /km² 
 /sq mi
Time zone (UTC+3)
Government of the Republic of South Ossetia
Flag of South Ossetia Coat of arms of South Ossetia
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
unknown
Capital Tskhinvali
42°14′N, 43°58′E
Official languages Ossetian1
Government
 -  President Eduard Kokoity
 -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov
De facto independence from Georgia
 -  Declared November 28, 1991 
 -  Recognition none 
Currency Russian ruble (RUB)
1 Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions.
Provisional Administration of South Ossetia
Coat of arms of South Ossetia
Flag Coat of arms
Official languages Ossetian, Georgian
Government
 -  Head of the Administration Dmitri Sanakoyev [1]
 -  Interior Minister Jemal Karkusov
Currency Georgian lari (GEL)


South Ossetia (Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон, Khussar Iryston; Georgian: სამხრეთ ოსეთი, Samkhret Oseti ; Russian: Южная Осетия, Yuzhnaya Osetiya) was an autonomous oblast of Georgia in Soviet times. Now the greater part[citation needed] of it is controlled by the government of the de facto independent "South Ossetian Republic" which is not recognised by any country or international organisation (UN, OSCE, EU, etc). Another part of South Ossetia is controlled by the Ossetian authorities of the Georgian government. Georgia does not recognise South Ossetia as a distinct or independent entity. However in April of 2007, the Georgian government created a temporary administrative unit (Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia [2]) headed by ethnic Ossetians (former members of separatist government) which would enable Tbilisi to administer the region through local leaders, negotiate with Ossetian authorities regarding the final status and conflict resolution[3] taken from Estonian Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: South Ossetia Categories: GFDL images | Caucasus maps ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Ossetia. ... Image File history File links South_Ossetia_coat_of_arms. ... The flag of South Ossetia The flag of South Ossetia is a tricolour, top to bottom white, red, and yellow. ... Forms of the coat of arms On a red round escutcheon a golden snow leopard with black spots, walking on a golden ground, behind it seven silver mountains. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Monument to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Tskhinvali Tskhinvali (also spelled Cchinvali) (ge. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Ossetic or Ossetian is an Iranian language spoken on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoity (surname also rendered as Kokoyty or Kokoiti or in a Russified version as Kokoyev) is the current President of South Ossetia, a de facto (though internationally unrecognized) independent state within the Republic of Georgia. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 10. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links South_Ossetia_coat_of_arms. ... The flag of South Ossetia The flag of South Ossetia is a tricolour, top to bottom white, red, and yellow. ... Forms of the coat of arms On a red round escutcheon a golden snow leopard with black spots, walking on a golden ground, behind it seven silver mountains. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This article is in need of improvement. ... Dmitry Sanakoev (born in Java, South Ossetia, 1969) is a South Ossetian politician and Head of the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia. ... Georgian 1 lari Georgian 2 lari Georgian 5 lari Georgian 10 lari Georgian 50 lari Georgian 100 lari The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of Georgia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... This article is in need of improvement. ... An oblast (Russian, Ukrainian: о́бласть) is a name for the subnational entity of Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...

Contents

Political status regarding independence

The United Nations, European Union, OSCE, Council of the European Union, NATO and most of the countries around the world recognize South Ossetia as an integral part of the Georgian state and its constitution. However, the de facto independent republic governed by the secessionist government has held a second independence referendum[4] on November 12, 2006, after its first referendum in 1992 was not recognized by the international community as valid.[5]. As expected the referendum turned out a majority for independence from Georgia. However, it was not recognized internationally by the UN, European Union, OSCE, NATO and the Russian Federation, given the lack of ethnic Georgian participation and the legality of such referendum without recognition from the central government in Tbilisi.[6] Parallel to the secessionist held referendum and elections, the Ossetian opposition movement (The Salvation Union of South Ossetia) to Kokoity, organized their own elections in which both Georgian and Ossetian inhabitant of the region votes in favour of Dmitri Sanakoev as the alternative President of South Ossetia.[7] In 2007, Dmitri Sanakoev became the head of the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The Justus Lipsius building, the headquarter of the EU Council in Brussels The Council of the European Union (German: Rat der Europäischen Union, French: Le Conseil de lUnion européenne), is a governing body that forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Detailed map of the former autonomous oblast of South Ossetia. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Salvation Union of South Ossetia (Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон) movement is the main opposition party in South Ossetia which was formed by the ethnic Ossetians formerly members of secessionist government in Tskhinvali and outspoken critics of de facto President Kokoity. ... Dmitry Sanakoev (born in 1969) is a South Ossetian politician. ...


History

Medieval and early modern period

The Ossetians are originally descendants of Iranian-speaking tribes from Central Asia. They became Christians during the early Middle Ages, under Georgian influence. Under Mongol rule, they were pushed out of their medieval homeland south of the Don river in present-day Russia and part migrated towards and over the Caucasus mountains, to Georgia[8] where they formed three distinct territorial entities. Digor in the west came under the influence of the neighboring Kabard people, who introduced Islam. Tualläg in the south became what is now South Ossetia, part of the historical Georgian principality of Samachablo[9] where Ossetians found refuge from Mongol invaders. Iron in the north became what is now North Ossetia, under Russian rule from 1767. Most Ossetians are now Christian (approximately 61%); there is also a significant Muslim minority. The Ossetians (oss. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Official language Ossetian Capital Tskhinvali President Eduard Djabeevich Kokoity Prime Minister Igor Viktorovich Sanakoyev Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  3,900 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density (2004)  70,000 (approx)  18/km² Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  â€“ November 28, 1991  â€“ none Currency Russian ruble, Georgian lari Time zone UTC +3 Detailed... The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия-Ала́ния; Ossetic: Цæгат Иры&#1089...


South Ossetia under Russia and the Soviet Union

The modern-day South Ossetia was annexed by Russia in 1801, along with Georgia proper, and absorbed into the Russian Empire. Following the Russian Revolution, South Ossetia became a part of the Menshevik Georgian Democratic Republic, while the north became a part of the Terek Soviet Republic. The area saw brief clashes between the Georgian governmental forces and Ossetians led by Ossetian and Georgian bolsheviks in 1920. The Soviet Georgian government established by the Russian 11th Red Army in 1921, created the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast (i.e. district) in April 1922. Although the Ossetians had their own language (Ossetian), Russian and Georgian were administrative/state languages.[10] At present, Russian is the only administrative language[citation needed] used by the separatist government in Tskhinvali. In the Soviet time, under the rule of Georgia's government, it enjoyed some degree of autonomy, including to practice (Ossetian) language and teach it in schools.[11] Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Meeting of the National Council (May 26, 1918) The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG, 1918-1921) was the first Republic of Georgia, established after the collapse of the Russian Tsarist empire. ... Terek Soviet Republic (Терская Советская Республика) (March, 1918 — February, 1919) was created within the RSFSR on the territory of the Terek Oblast. ... The Georgian-Ossetian conflict (1918-1920) comprised a series of uprisings, which took place in the Ossetian-inhabited areas of what is now South Ossetia, a breakaway republic in Georgia, against the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and then the Menshevik-dominated Democratic Republic of Georgia which claimed several thousands of... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast was created in April 1922. ... This article is in need of improvement. ... This article is in need of improvement. ...


Georgian-Ossetian conflict

Main article: Georgian-Ossetian conflict
South Ossetia detailed map

The tensions in the region began to rise amid the rising nationalism among both Georgians and Ossetians in 1989. Prior to this, the two communities had been living in peace with each other except for the episode in 1920. Both ethnicities have had a high level of interaction and high rates of intermarriages. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (735x1020, 115 KB)South Ossetia detailed map Source: International Crisis Group website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (735x1020, 115 KB)South Ossetia detailed map Source: International Crisis Group website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


In the same year, the influential South Ossetian Popular Front (Ademon Nykhas) demanded unification with North Ossetia as a measure to defend Ossetian autonomy. On 10 November 1989, the South Ossetian Supreme Soviet approved a decision to unite South Ossetia with the North Ossetian ASSR, part of Russia. A day later, the Georgian parliament revoked the decision and abolished South Ossetian autonomy. Additionally, the parliament authorized the suppression of newspapers and demonstrations. The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия-Ала́ния; Ossetic: Цæгат Иры&#1089... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following Georgia's independence in 1991 under the nationalist leader Zviad Gamsakhurdia, the Georgian government declared Georgian to be the only administrative language throughout the country. Throughout the Soviet era Georgian, along with Russian, were the state and administrative languages, since it was stipulated as such in both the 1936 and 1979 constitutions of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. This caused great concern in South Ossetia, whose leaders demanded that Ossetian become the language of their state. The Ossetian minority continued to seek greater levels of autonomy, but were faced with increasing nationalist sentiment among the Georgian majority. Violent conflict broke out towards the end of 1991 during which many South Ossetian villages were attacked and burned down as well as Georgian houses and schools in Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia. As a result, approximately 1,000 died and 60,000-100,000 refugees fled the region, most across the border into North Ossetia or into Georgia proper. Many South Ossetians were resettled in uninhabited areas of North Ossetia from which the Ingush had been expelled by Stalin in 1944, leading to conflicts between Ossetians and Ingush over the right of residence in former Ingush territory. Only 15% of the Ossetian population now lives in South Ossetia. Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: ) (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ... Soviet redirects here. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... This article is in need of improvement. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...

The monument to the victims of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict in Tskhinvali
The monument to the victims of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict in Tskhinvali

In 1992, Georgia was forced to accept a ceasefire to avoid a large scale confrontation with Russia. The government of Georgia and South Ossetian separatists reached an agreement to avoid the use of force against one another, and Georgia pledged not to impose sanctions against South Ossetia. A peacekeeping force of Ossetians, Russians and Georgians was established. On November 6, 1992, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) set up a Mission in Georgia to monitor the peacekeeping operation. From then, until mid-2004 South Ossetia was generally peaceful. In June 2004, tensions began to rise as the Georgian authorities strengthened their efforts against smuggling in the region. Hostage takings, shootouts and occasional bombings left dozens dead and wounded. A ceasefire deal was reached on August 13 though it was repeatedly violated. Presently the situation is tense though largely peaceful, although Moscow and Tskhinvali view the recent Georgian arms build-up with concern. In the last year or so Georgia has purchased SU-25 fighter bombers from Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, as well as Mi-8 "Hip" helicopters from Ukraine, and its army is being trained by US Marine instructors. The Georgian government protests against the continually increasing Russian economic and political presence in the region, as well as the uncontrolled military of the South Ossetian side. Image File history File links Pmt. ... Image File history File links Pmt. ... Monument to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Tskhinvali Tskhinvali (also spelled Cchinvali) (ge. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Su-25 of the Russian Air Force The Su-25 (NATO reporting name Frogfoot) is a battlefield attack, close air support, and anti-tank aircraft designed by the Soviet Union. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large twin-turbine transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


Politics

Georgian-Russian
relations

Events To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Primary parties involved This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Abkhaz separatists Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Russian Cossacks Russian Forces1 Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces Paramilitary groups and volunteer batallions Commanders Iysuph Soslanbekov, Musa Shanibov, Shamil Basaev, Beslan Barghandjia, Anri Djergenia Geno Adamia, Guram Gubelashvili, Gia Kharkharashvili, Davit Tevzadze, Soso Akhalaia Casualties ~2,500-4... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ajaria crisis refers to a political crisis in Georgia’s Ajarian Autonomous Republic led by a local strongman Aslan Abashidze, who refused to obey the central authorities after President Eduard Shevardnadze’s was ousted during the Rose Revolution of November 2003. ... On January 22 2006, Two explosions occurred on the main branch and a reserve branch of the Mozdok-Tbilisi pipeline in the Russian border region of North Ossetia at around 0300 local time (2400 GMT). ... The 2006 Russian import ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines began in late-March 2006 and created a diplomatic conflict between the Republic of Moldova and Georgia on the one hand and Russia on the other. ... Map of Abkhazia showing the location of the Kodori Gorge The 2006 Kodori crisis erupted in late July 2006 in Georgia’s Kodori Gorge, when a local militia leader declared his disobedience to the government of Georgia, which sent police forces to disarm the rebels. ... Russian officers arrested on charges of espionage paraded in Tbilisi before being handed over to the OSCE The 2006 Georgian-Russian espionage controversy began when the Government of Georgia arrested four Russian officers on charges of espionage, on September 27, 2006. ...

Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ...

De facto authorities in Tskhinvali

The Republic of South Ossetia is not a territorially contiguous entity. It is, instead, something of a checkerboard of Georgian-inhabited and Ossetian-inhabited towns and villages in an arc around the largely Ossetian city of Tskhinvali. The capital and most of the other Ossetian-inhabited communities are governed by the separatist government in Tskhinvali, while the Georgian-inhabited villages are governed by the Georgian government. This close proximity and the intermixing of the two communities has made the conflict in South Ossetia particularly dangerous, as any attempt to create an ethnically pure territory would necessarily have to involve population transfer on a large scale. Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ...


The political dispute has, however, yet to be resolved and the South Ossetian separatist authorities still govern the region with effective independence from Tbilisi. Although talks have been held periodically between the two sides, little progress was made under the government of Eduard Shevardnadze (1993–2003). His successor Mikheil Saakashvili (elected 2004) made the reassertion of Georgian governmental authority a political priority. Having successfully put an end to the de facto independence of the southwestern province of Ajaria in May 2004, he pledged to seek a similar solution in South Ossetia. After the 2004 clashes, the Georgian government has intensified its efforts to bring the problem to international attention. On January 25, 2005, President Saakashvili presented a Georgian vision for resolving the South Ossetian conflict at the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) session in Strasbourg. Late in October, the U.S. Government and the OSCE expressed their support to the Georgian action plan presented by Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli at the OSCE Permanent Council at Vienna on October 27, 2005. On December 6, the OSCE Ministerial Council in Ljubljana unanimously adopted a resolution supporting the Georgian peace plan which was subsequently rejected by the South Ossetian de facto authorities. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mikhail Saakashvili briefing the press at UN headquarters Mikhail Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი) (born December 21, 1967), Georgian jurist and politician, is the President of Georgia. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... ... Zurab Noghaideli (Georgian: ზურაბ ნოღაიდელი) (born October 22, 1964) is a Georgian politician and the current Prime Minister of the nation. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. ...


On August 26, 2006, the high-ranking delegation of the United States Senators led by the Arizona Senator John McCain paid a visit to the Georgian-Ossetian conflict zone. The group visited Tskhinvali and met with the de facto leader Eduard Kokoity. Speaking about his visit to Tskhinvali, Senator McCain said that the trip was "not very productive." Senator McCain said: August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (239th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936, in Panama Canal Zone, Panama) is an American Republican politician, currently the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona. ... Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoity (surname also rendered as Kokoyty or Kokoiti or in a Russified version as Kokoyev) is the current President of South Ossetia, a de facto (though internationally unrecognized) independent state within the Republic of Georgia. ...

Because there was not a direct response to our questions about why OSCE has been blocked from doing its job; why there has been no progress on peace initiatives from Georgia, from the UN, from the OSCE, from other organizations - there has been no progress. I think that the attitude there is best described by what you see by driving in [Tskhinvali]: a very large billboard with a picture of Vladimir Putin on it, which says 'Vladimir Putin Our President'. I do not believe that Vladimir Putin is now, or ever should be, the President of sovereign Georgian soil.[12]

Two days later, on August 28, Senator Richard Lugar, then visiting Georgia's capital Tbilisi, joined the Georgian politicians in criticism of the Russian peacekeeping mission, stating that "the U.S. administration supports the Georgian government’s insistence on the withdrawal of Russian peacekeepers from the conflict zones in Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali district."[13] August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Richard Green Dick Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Indiana. ...


On September 11, 2006, the South Ossetian Information and Press Committee announced that the republic will hold an independence referendum[14] (the first referendum was not recognized by the international community as valid in 1992[15]) on November 12, 2006. The voters will decide on whether or not South Ossetia "should preserve its present de facto status of an independent state". Georgia denounced the move as a "political absurdity". However, On September 13, 2006, the Council of Europe (CoE) Secretary General Terry Davis commented on the problem, stating that September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Detailed map of the former autonomous oblast of South Ossetia. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... The Right Honourable Terry Davis (born January 5, 1938) is a British politician, and former Member of Parliament for the Labour Party for the Birmingham, Hodge Hill constituency. ...

The secessionist authorities of the South Ossetian region of Georgia are wasting time and effort on the organisation of a "referendum on independence" in November... I do not think that anyone will recognise the result of such a referendum. If the people in power in South Ossetia are genuinely committed to the interest of the people they claim to represent, they should engage in meaningful negotiations with the Georgian government in order to find a peaceful, internationally accepted outcome.[16]

On September 13, 2006 EU Special Representative to the South Caucasus, Peter Semneby, while visiting Moscow, said: "results of the South Ossetian independence referendum will have no meaning for the European Union".[17] Peter Semneby also added that this referendum will not contribute to the peaceful conflict resolution process in South Ossetia September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ...


On October 5, 2006, Javier Solana, the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union, ruled out the possibility of replacing the Russian peacekeepers with the EU force."[18] However, on October 10, EU South Caucasus envoy Peter Semneby admitted that "Russia's actions in the Georgia spy row have damaged its credibility as a neutral peacekeeper in the EU's Black Sea neighbourhood."[19] October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... Russian officers arrested on charges of espionage paraded in Tbilisi before being handed over to the OSCE The 2006 Georgian-Russian espionage controversy began when the Government of Georgia arrested four Russian officers on charges of espionage, on September 27, 2006. ...


South Ossetians nearly unanimously approved a referendum on November 12, 2006 opting for independence from Georgia. The referendum was hugely popular, winning between 98 and 99 percent of the ballots, flag waving and celebration marked were seen across South Ossetia, but elsewhere observers were less enthusiastic. International critics claimed that the move could worsen regional tensions, and the Tblisis government thoroughly discounted the results. "Everybody needs to understand, once and for all, that no amount of referendums or elections will move Georgia to give up that which belongs to the Georgian people by God's will," declared Georgi Tsagareishvili, leader of the Industralist's bloc in Georgia's parliament.[20] On November 13, Terry Davis, head of the 46-nation Council of Europe, called the referendum on "independence" as "unnecessary, unhelpful and unfair" because ethnic Georgians were not given the right to vote in it.[21] On the other hand Russia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs described it as a "free expression of the will of South Ossetia’s people through democratic procedures" and stated that the referendum's results must be taken into account by the international community.[22] November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... The Right Honourable Terry Davis (born January 5, 1938) is a British politician, and former Member of Parliament for the Labour Party for the Birmingham, Hodge Hill constituency. ...


Provisional Administration of South Ossetia

The Salvation Union of South Ossetia was founded in October of 2006 by the ethnic Ossetians who were outspoken critics and presented a serious opposition to secessionist authorities of Eduard Kokoity. The Salvation Union of South Ossetia (Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон) movement is the main opposition party in South Ossetia which was formed by the ethnic Ossetians formerly members of secessionist government in Tskhinvali and outspoken critics of de facto President Kokoity. ...


The group headed by the former defence minister and then prime minister of secessionist government Dmitri Sanakoev organized the so-called alternative presidential election, on November 12 2006– parallel to those held by the secessionist authorities in Tskhinvali.[23] High voter turnout was reported by the alternative CEC, which estimated over 42,000 voters from both Ossetian (Java district and Tskhinvali) and Georgian (Eredvi, Tamarasheni, etc) communities of South Ossetia. In few days Alternative CEC announced Sanakoev as the winner of the Presidential race.[24] Sanakoev’s inauguration ceremony was held on December 1, 2006 near Tskhinvali. Dmitry Sanakoev (born in 1969) is a South Ossetian politician. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Inauguration of Dmitry Sanakoev as President of South Ossetia

“I, the President of the Republic of South Ossetia, declare before God and Nation that I will protect the interests of the South Ossetian people... I will take care of the security, well-being and revival of South Ossetia and its people,” Image File history File links 25607sanakoev. ... Image File history File links 25607sanakoev. ...


Dimitri Sanakoev said in his presidential oath, which he gave in the Ossetian and Georgian languages.[25]


Soon after Sanakoev formed his government, appointing Uruzmag Karkusov as Prime Minister, Jemal Karkusov (former Interior Minister in the secessionist government) as Interior Minister and Maia Chigoeva-Tsaboshvili (head of the Tbilisi-based non-governmental organization Iber-Ironi Georgian-Ossetian Union) as Foreign Minister.[26]


“This is a historic day. A year ago no one could imagine that South Ossetian flags could appear here in the Georgian-populated village,” Vladimir Sanakoev, co-founder of the Salvation Union of South Ossetia, said.[27]


There were large number of Ossetian flags also used by the South Ossetian secessionist authorities, flown alongside the Georgian flag in Kurta, near Tskhinvali. South Ossetian flags are usually displayed in Tskhinvali by the Separatist controlled territories of the breakaway region alongside of the Russian national flag. The flag of South Ossetia The flag of South Ossetia is a tricolour, top to bottom white, red, and yellow. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The official flag of Georgia is the five-cross flag, restored to official use on January 14, 2004 after a break of some 500 years. ...


Initialy the entity of Sanakoev was known as "the Alternative Government of South Ossetia", but during the course of 2007 the central authorities of Georgia decided to give it official status and on April 13 the formation of "Provisional Administration of South Ossetia" was announced. [28] On May 10, 2007 Dmitry Sanakoev was appointed head of the provisional administrative entity in South Ossetia. [29] 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ...

Dmitry Sanakoyev addressing the Parliament of Georgia. May 11, 2007.

For the first time since the fall of Soviet Union, the former Ossetian secessionist leader gave a speech in the Georgian parliament on May 11, 2007. In his speech in Ossetian language (full text), Sanakoev mentioned about the armed conflict which ignited the region in early 90s: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

“Many of [Ossetians] took arms [in early 90s] and I was among them. But we all have understood that armed confrontation brought nothing but misfortune… It became clear for us that we were in impasse.”

He also mentioned that:

“vicious Soviet legacy, grave mistakes committed by the both sides and the imperialistic policy of divide and rule exerted by the external forces.” [30]

Sanakoev also mentioned that despite of his high-level position in the South Ossetian secessionist authorities as Prime Minister he failed to build confidence between the two sides and make a breakthrough in the conflict resolution process “because it was beyond my powers.”

“There is only one solution – direct dialogue between the Georgian and Ossetian people, neutralizing external and internal destructive forces and their replacement with effective and healthy support of the international democratic community. European Union’s role in respect of confidence-building and economic rehabilitation is of vital importance. We should counter-balance antidemocratic propaganda by our movement’s brave peaceful initiatives and economic development projects,”

.


As for current situation, Sakanoev mentioned that Tskhinvali secessionist authorities take instruction from “foreign supervisors” who try to thwart confidence-building and provoke hostilities between the two people.


"Our Ossetian children grow up in an environment of endless conflict, under constant stress and tension… They don’t know what is going on beyond checkpoints… We are losing entire generations,” “I will not allow it! We should not allow it,” he added. “This is our current challenge; this is our current goal: to create a new Ossetia, strong and delightful, free of violence: an Ossetia of free people.”


Many European and US observers and ambassadors who were present during Sanakoevs speech, welcomed his proposition and initiatives.


Geography

South Ossetia covers an area of about 3,900km² on the southern side of the Caucasus, separated by the mountains from the more populous North Ossetia (part of Russia) and extending southwards almost to the Mtkvari river in Georgia. It is extremely mountainous, with most of the region lying over 1,000m (3,300ft) above sea level. Its economy is primarily agricultural, although less than 10% of South Ossetia's land area is cultivated, with cereals, fruit and vines the major produce. Forestry and cattle industries are also maintained. A number of industrial facilities also exist, particularly around the capital Tskhinvali. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия-Ала́ния; Ossetic: Цæгат Иры&#1089... Monument to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Tskhinvali Tskhinvali (also spelled Cchinvali) (ge. ...


Demographics

Before the Georgian-Ossetian conflict about two thirds of the population of South Ossetia were Ossetians and 25-30% Georgians. The present composition of the population is unknown. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ossetians (oss. ...

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989
Ossetians 60,351 (69.1%) 72,266 (68.1%) 63,698 (65.8%) 66,073 (66.5%) 65,077 (66.4%) 65,200 (66.2%)
Georgians 23,538 (26.9%) 27,525 (25.9%) 26,584 (27.5%) 28,125 (28.3%) 28,187 (28.8%) 28,700 (29.0%)
Russians 157 (0.2%) 2,111 (2.0%) 2,380 (2.5%) 1,574 (1.6%) 2,046 (2.1%)
Armenians 1,374 (1.6%) 1,537 (1.4%) 1,555 (1.6%) 1,254 (1.3%) 953 (1.0%)
Jews 1,739 (2.0%) 1,979 (1.9%) 1,723 (1.8%) 1,485 (1.5%) 654 (0.7%)
Others 216 (0.2%) 700 (0.7%) 867 (0.9%) 910 (0.9%) 1,071 (1.1%) 5,100 (4.8%)
Total 87,375 106,118 96,807 99,421 97,988 99,000

The Ossetians (oss. ...

Economy

Following a war with Georgia in the 1990s, South Ossetia has struggled economically. Employment and supplies are scarce. Additionally, Georgia cut off supplies of electricity to the region, which forced the South Ossetian government to run an electric cable through North Ossetia. The majority of the population survives on subsistence farming. In addition to its economic problems, unclear political perspectives[citation needed], thousands of refugees, and an illegal drug[citation needed] and arms trade[citation needed] have made the region unstable again in the last few years[citation needed]. Virtually the only significant economic asset that South Ossetia possesses is control of the Roki Tunnel that links Russia and Georgia, from which the South Ossetian government reportedly obtains as much as a third of its budget by levying customs duties on freight traffic[citation needed]. These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The drug trade is a worldwide black market consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... The arms industry is a massive global industry. ... The Roki Tunnel cuts through the Greater Caucasus Mountains, joining North Ossetia in the Russian Federation to South Ossetia, a breakaway region of Georgia. ...


See also

Ossetia is a region, split into South Ossetia in Georgia and North Ossetia in Russia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=15089
  2. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=15080
  3. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=14865
  4. ^ Niko Mchedlishvili. "Georgian rebel region to vote on independence", Reuters, September 11, 2006. 
  5. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=13522
  6. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/11/13/sossetia.independence.ap/index.html
  7. ^ http://www.caucaz.com/home_eng/breve_contenu.php?id=279
  8. ^ David Marshall Lang, The Georgians, New York, p. 239
  9. ^ Roger Rosen, History of Caucasus Nations, London, 2006
  10. ^ D.M. Lang, History of Modern Georgia, 1963
  11. ^ D.M. Lang, History of Modern Georgia, 1963
  12. ^ Civil Georgia, August 27, 2006 Issue
  13. ^ U.S. Senator Urges Russian Peacekeepers’ Withdrawal From Georgian Breakaway Republics. (MosNews).
  14. ^ Niko Mchedlishvili. "Georgian rebel region to vote on independence", Reuters, September 11, 2006. 
  15. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=13522
  16. ^ Council of Europe Secretary General calls for talks instead of "referendum" in the Georgian region of South Ossetia. Council of Europe Information Office in Georgia. Retrieved on 13-09-2006.
  17. ^ http://207.44.135.100/eng/article.php?id=13544
  18. ^ Solana fears Kosovo 'precedent' for Abkhazia, South Ossetia. (International Relations and Security Network).
  19. ^ Russia 'not neutral' in Black Sea conflict, EU says, EUobserver, October 10, 2006.
  20. ^ [1] AFP by Simon Ostrovsky, retrieved November 13, 2006.
  21. ^ http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/11/20251a3b-47b6-4f6d-9400-14d721a34d34.html
  22. ^ Interfax, November 10, 12-14, [2]
  23. ^ http://www.caucaz.com/home_eng/breve_contenu.php?id=279
  24. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=14065
  25. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=14224
  26. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=14223
  27. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/detail.php?id=14224
  28. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=14944
  29. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=15089
  30. ^ http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=15100

September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
South Ossetia (1537 words)
The term "South Ossetia", for instance, has never been accepted by the Georgian side, as it seems to prompt demands for reunification with North Ossetia, which is a part of the Russian Federation.
Conflicts in South Ossetia became a political issue as a result of an attempt by the South Ossetian Supreme Soviet to upgrade the status of the AO.
South Ossetia, a land that seems to have been forgotten by the outside world: no ties with Georgia, and hence no supplies from there; almost no attempt made (for lack of financial resources) to rebuild what has been destroyed in the war; factories idle, with the population engaged in subsistence farming.
South Ossetia - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (2817 words)
South Ossetia (Ossetian: Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон, Respublikæ Xussar Iryston; Russian: Южная Осетия, Yuzhnaya Osetiya; Georgian: სამხრეთ ოსეთის ავტონომიური ოლქი, Samkhret Oseti) is a self-proclaimed republic within the internationally recognized borders of Georgia.
The Republic of South Ossetia is not a territorially contiguous entity.
South Ossetia covers an area of about 3,900km² on the southern side of the Caucasus, separated by the mountains from the more populous North Ossetia (part of Russia) and extending southwards almost to the Mtkvari river in Georgia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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