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Encyclopedia > South Khorasan Province

South Khorasan (Persian: خراسان جنوبی) is a province located in eastern Iran. Birjand is the centre of the province. Image File history File links South Khorasan, an Iranian province File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Birjand is the central city of the South Khorasan province in east Iran, known for its saffron, rug and handmade carpet exports. ...


Other counties are Sarayan, Nahbandan, and Sarbisheh.


South Khorasan is one the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004. Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


History

kolah-Farangi Mansion, in Birjand, built during the Zand dynasty.
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kolah-Farangi Mansion, in Birjand, built during the Zand dynasty.

Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of the Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Turkemen and Afghans brought changes to the region time and time again. Image File history File links Emarat e Kolah Farangi, Birjand, South Khorasan province, Iran. ... Image File history File links Emarat e Kolah Farangi, Birjand, South Khorasan province, Iran. ... Birjand is the central city of the South Khorasan province in east Iran, known for its saffron, rug and handmade carpet exports. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Greater Khorasan is an area of land from the past which included parts that are presently in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ...


Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Iran-Shahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Greater Khorasan is an area of land from the past which included parts that are presently in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ...


The famous Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years. However they did have many fortifications and strongholds in Khorasan, such as the Nehbandan castle in South Khorasan province. Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ...


During the Sassanid dynasty the province was governed by an Espahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgoosban" and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


Khorassan was divided into four parts during the Islamic Conquest of Iran and each section was named after the four large cities, such as Neyshabour, Merv, Herat, and Balkh. The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Today Balkh is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...


In the year 651 CE, the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan. The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820 CE, followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896 CE and the Samanid dynasty in 900 CE. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ...


Sultan Mohmud Qaznavi conquered Khorasan in 994 CE and in the year 1037 CE Toqrol, the first of the Seljuqian rulers conquered Neyshabour. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... ToÄŸrül (TuÄŸril or Toghrïl Beg; c. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to... Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ...


Mahmud Qaznavi retaliated against the invaders several times, and finally the Qaznavi Turks defeated Sultan Sanjar. But there was more to come, as in 1157 CE Khorasan was conquered by The Khwarazmids and because of simultaneous attacks by the Mongols, Khorasan was annexed to the territories of the Mongol Ilkhanate. Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...


In the 14th century, a flag of independence was hoisted by the Sarbedaran movement in Sabzevar, and in 1468 CE, Khorasan came into the hands of Amir Teimoor Goorkani (Tamerlane) and the city of Herat was declared as capital. Tomb of Meulana Hosein Kashefi, Sabzevar. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ...


In 1507 CE, Khorassan was occupied by Uzbek tribes. After the death of Nadir Shah Afshar in 1747 CE, Khorasan was occupied by the Afghans. Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...


During the Qajar period, Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company. Herat was thus separated from Persia, and Nasereddin Shah was unable to defeat The British to take back Herat. Finally, the Paris Treaty was concluded in 1903 and Iran was compelled not to challenge The British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan. The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Nassereddin Shah in uniform Nasser-al-Din Shah Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (Persian: ناصرالدین شاه قاجار; also Nassereddin Shah or Nassiruddin Shah) (July 16, 1831 - May 1, 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 17, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ...


Finally Khorasan was divided into two parts: the eastern part, which was the most densely populated region came under British occupation, and the other western section remained part of Iran.


Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided to three provinces on September 29, 2004. The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on May 18, 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on May 29, 2004) were Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan. September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Razavi Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان رضوی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... South Khorasan (Persian: خراسان جنوبی) is a province located in eastern Iran. ...


South Khorasan today

The 12th century Ghal'eh Paeen-Shahr citadel towers above the picturesque architectural fabric of Birjand.
Enlarge
The 12th century Ghal'eh Paeen-Shahr citadel towers above the picturesque architectural fabric of Birjand.
Furg citadel is a 12th century castle in South Khorasan province.
Enlarge
Furg citadel is a 12th century castle in South Khorasan province.

The major ethnic groups in this region are the Persians, Khorasani Turks, Turkmens, Kurds, and Arabs. There is also a sizeable Afghan community in the province due to the influx of refugees coming from Afghanistan in recent years. Image File history File links Ghaleh Paeen-Shahr, a 12th century fort in Birjand, South Khorasan, Iran. ... Image File history File links Ghaleh Paeen-Shahr, a 12th century fort in Birjand, South Khorasan, Iran. ... The remains of Ghaleh Paeen-shahr towers over the picturesque traditional architecture of Birjand. ... Birjand is the central city of the South Khorasan province in east Iran, known for its saffron, rug and handmade carpet exports. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Furg Citadel, Birjand, South Khorasan Province, Iran. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Furg Citadel, Birjand, South Khorasan Province, Iran. ... The remains of Arg-e-Furg. ...


Khorasan is known for its famous rugs as well as its saffron which is produced in the southern cities of this province in particular. Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ...


Attractions

South Khorasan has many historical and natural attractions, but besides these, South Khorasan encompasses various religious buildings and places of pilgrimage as well.


The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 1179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan.


In the past, Birjand was a small part of a region which called "Ghahestan" and had an important role after Islam.


On the one hand, this region was a place of refuge for some movements like the Ismaili, and was the target of Arab refugees who escaped from the tyranny of the Abbasid Caliphate. On the other hand, some Zoroastrian vestiges have exist in the area. The Ismāīlī (Arabic: الإسماعيليون; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) are shia muslims which recognize the continuation of the line of imams from the descendents Imam Ismail, rather than the concept of the hidden Imam Mahdi, which is advoacted by other shia muslims and has arisen among the followers of Ismails brother... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ...


Some of the popular attractions of South Khorasan are:

  • Nehbandan citadel
  • Furg citadel
  • Kolah Farangi mansion in Birjand
  • Ghal'eh Paeen-Shahr
  • Chahr Derakht Mosque
  • Amir Abad garden
  • Behgard Garden
  • Akbariyeh Garden
  • Ghal'eh Paeen-Shahr
  • Chenshat cave,
  • Jame’ mosque of Birjand
  • Imamzadeh Mosa,
  • Alam palace
  • deragon cave in Sarayan
  • ghaleh ghala castle of Sarayan

and 260 other sites of historical and cultural significance, as listed by Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization. Image:Nehbandan1. ... The remains of Arg-e-Furg. ... The remains of Ghaleh Paeen-shahr towers over the picturesque traditional architecture of Birjand. ... The remains of Ghaleh Paeen-shahr towers over the picturesque traditional architecture of Birjand. ... Image:Deragon cave. ...


Colleges and universities

    1. University of Birjand
    2. Islamic Azad University of Birjand
    3. Birjand University of Medical Sciences

See also

Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Greater Khorasan is an area of land from the past which included parts that are presently in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Razavi Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان رضوی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ...

External links

  • The text of the law for division of Khorasan into three provinces (in Persian)
  • Cultural Heritage Foundation of Khorasan
Provinces of Iran Flag of Iran
Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azarbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and Baluchistan | South Khorasan | Tehran | West Azarbaijan | Yazd | Zanjan

 
 

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