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Encyclopedia > South India
States Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Union Territories Lakshadweep and Puducherry (including Yanam, Mahe and Karaikal)
Main languages Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Tulu
Major cities Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad , Coimbatore
Other Cities Mangalore, Kochi , Guntur, Trichy, Hubli, Kozhikode, Mysore, Vizag, Vijayawada, Thiruvananthapuram.
Largest metropolitan area ChennaiMadras (TN)
Main religions Hinduism, Islam, Jainism and Christianity (along with Judaism historically)
Area 635,780 km² 
Population (2001) 233,000,000
Density 337/km²
Birth rate[1](2001) 20.4
Death rate (2001) 7.7
Infant mortality rate (2001) 48.4

The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. The southern part of India, except Maharastra and Goa on the west coast and Orissa on the east cost, is a Dravidian linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians or more properly Southern Indians by North Indians, also in this page from now on unless defined otherwise. India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry ... Karaikal, also Karikal, is one of the four regions of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... The following is a list of the most populous cities in India. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Hyderabad may refer to: Hyderabad, the independent state Hyderabad State, the pre-1956 state India Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad district (India) Begumpet Airport, also known as Hyderabad Airport Hyderabad Central, a huge shopping mall in Hyderabad Hyderabad, Uttar Pradesh, a... , Coimbatore   (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India. ... , Mangalore (Kannada: ಮಂಗಳೂರು, Mangalooru; Tulu: ಕುಡ್ಲ, Kudla; Konkani: ಕೊಡಿಯಾಲ್, Kodial; Beary: ಮೈಕಾಲ, Maikala)   is the chief port city of the state of Karnataka, India. ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... This article is about a city in India. ... Tiruchirapalli (also spelled Tiruchchirappalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy, formerly known as Trichinopoly under British rule) is a city situated on the banks of the Kaveri river, centrally located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Hubli-Dharwad is a twin city in the state of Karnataka in India. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... Visakhapatnam (Also Vishākhapatnam, shortened and Anglicized: Vizag) is a large city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... , Vijayawada ( ) (విజయవాడ) literally translates to The Place of Victory. It is also known as Bezawada. ... , Thiruvananthapuram   (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം TiruvanÅ­ntapuraṁ), also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram District. ... This article lists the top fifty metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2007. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Indian States See also: States and territories of India Categories: States and territories of India ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ...


This region includes the entire Indian Peninsula, south of the Vindhya Range. The Narmada and Mahanadi rivers form the northern boundaries of the region, while the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal surround the peninsula in the west, south and east respectively. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: India Wikinews has news related to this article: India Look up India in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikibooks has more about this subject: India Wikisource has original text related to this article: India Official GOI Directory — Directory of governmental websites Indiaimage... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The southernmost point of the region (and of mainland India), is Kanyakumari. The geography of Southern India is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges — the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats and a plateau heartland. The Tungabhadra, Kaveri, Krishna and Godavari rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. For other uses, see Kanyakumari (disambiguation). ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... This article is about a river. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river that flows continuously all year round. ...

Contents

Description

Southern Indians primarily speak Dravidian languages, although some communities such as the Konkani retain distinct identities. During its history, a number of dynasties including the Satavahanas, Ikshvakus, Cholas, Kakatiya, Pandyas, Cheras, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and Vijayanagara ruled over different parts of South India prior to the British occupation of India. South Indian dynasties conquered Sri Lanka and Srivijaya and had great cultural influences which can still be seen today. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... The Konkani people are a group of people who speak Konkani. ... The history of South India covers a span of over two thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Ikshvaku Ikshu (Sea of sugar cane) Ikshvaku (Son of Manu and father of Kukshi; the founder of the Suryavanshi dynasty, reigning at Ayodhya at the commencement of the Treta Yuga. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Vijayanagara (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ, English: ) is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ...


Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product. Information technology (IT) is a rapidly growing industry in Southern India, whose main cities constitute some of India’s major IT hubs. Southern India has higher literacy and per-capita income than the rest of India. The South has a unique and diverse culture and traditions that are distinct from that of the rest of India. Literary and architectural styles evolved over two thousand years are unique to this region. Politics in Southern India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by India's national political parties. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Literacy is an indispensable means for effective social and economic participation, contributing to human development and poverty reduction, says UNESCO. [3] The Right to Education is a fundamental human right. ...


Apart from the English language terms South India and Peninsular India, Southern India has been known by several other historic names. The region has been referred to as the Deccan (from the Sanskrit word Dakshina meaning south). This term currently refers only to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau, a major geographic feature of the region.[2] The Carnatic is an English term derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād", meaning black country. The terms Karnād and Carnatic have long overgrown particular association with the plateau and refer to all of South India, including the coasts, the eastern of which is named the Carnatic coast. The name Karnātaka is derived from the same root.[3] Drāvida Nādu (from Drāvida and Nādu; meaning land of the Dravidian people) is another name for the region; often shortened to Dravida, a term later added in the Indian national anthem. During the British rule, much of South India was organised into the Madras Presidency. Mostly, these states are referred to by their individual names and/or by the languages. ex: People from Kerala speak Malayalam and are referred to as Malayalees. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) is the national anthem of India. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ...


History

Chalukya territories during Pulakesi II, c. 640 CE.
Chalukya territories during Pulakesi II, c. 640 CE.
Main article: History of South India

Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; however, there does not appear to be a fully developed Bronze Age preceding the Iron Age in South India.[4] South India was a crossroads of the ancient world, linking the Mediterranean and the Far East. The southern coastline from Karwar to Kodungallur was the most important trading shore in the Indian subcontinent resulting in intermingling between locals and traders.[5] The South Indian coast of Malabar and the Tamil people of the Sangam age traded with the Graeco-Roman world. They were in contact with the Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews, and the Chinese.[6] Image File history File links Chalukya_territories_lg. ... Image File history File links Chalukya_territories_lg. ... The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... PULAKESI II (C.610-642 A.D.): Pulakesi II ascended the throne in C.610 A. D., and he has been rightly regarded as the ablest monarch in the Chalukyan line. ... The history of South India covers a span of over two thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. ... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Rabindranath Tagore Beach, Karwar Karwar Evening Karwar (Kannada: ಕಾರವಾರ)is a small seaside town situated on the west coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... , “Cranganore” redirects here. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... For other uses of Sangam see Sangam (disambiguation). ... Greco-Roman refers to the culture of Ancient Greece and Classical Rome and reflects the essential unity of the Mediterranean world at the time when those cultures flourished, between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Rome | Ancient Greece ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...

Extent of Chola empire, c. 1014 CE
Extent of Chola empire, c. 1014 CE

There were several significant rulers and dynasties in south Indian history. The ancient history of the region comprises dynasties such as the Satavahanas of Amaravati, Kadambas of Banavasi, Western Ganga Dynasty, Chalukya dynasty of Badami, Western Chalukyas, Eastern Chalukya, Cheras, Cholas, Hoysalas, Kakatiya dynasty, Pallavas, Pandyas, and Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha. The early medieval period saw the rise of Muslim power in South India. The defeat of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal by Tughlaq forces of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE heralded a new chapter in South Indian history. The struggle of the period was between the Bahmani Sultanate based in Gulbarga (and later, Bidar) and the Vijayanagara Empire with its capital in Vijayanagara in modern Hampi. With the fall of Vijayanagara and the break-up of the Bahmani sultanate, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda and Hyderabad became the dominant power in the region. Qutb Shahi dominance of the region continued until the middle of the seventeenth century, when the Mughals under Aurangzeb made determined inroads into the Deccan. Following Aurangzeb’s death, Mughal power weakened, and South Indian rulers gained autonomy from Delhi. The Wodeyar kingdom of Mysore, the Asaf Jahis of Hyderabad, and Marathas all gained power. Image File history File links Chola_map. ... Image File history File links Chola_map. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Amaravati may refer to: Amaravati (capital), in Hinduism, (అమరావతి) is the capital of Svarga, a temporary paradise where the dead live. ... Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... The Gangas of Talakad, like the Kadambas of Banavasi, rose to political eminence in the middle of the fourth century A.D., and ruled over the southern parts of Karnataka, in southern India. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... The Western Chalukyas ruled the western Deccan in South India between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries CE. They were related to the Chalukya dynasty of Badami who were a powerful dynasty who reigned over most of the Deccan between the seventh and the eight centuries. ... Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... This article needs cleanup. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... , For the district of the same name, see Warangal district. ... The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India started in 1321 CE in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ... Gulbarga is a town in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... , Bidar (Kannada ಬೀದರ್)is a city and taluka in Karnataka state, India. ... Vijayanagara (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ, English: ) is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. ... Hampi (Kannada: ಹಂಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in northern Karnataka, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in India. ... The Qutb Shahi dynasty was the ruling family of the kingdom of Golconda in southern India. ... Golconda is a ruined city and fortress 11 km west of the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... The Wodeyar dynasty (also spelt as Wadiyar-by the British and the Royal family members themselves and also as Odeyar by some) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the independence of India from British rule and the subsequent unification of... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... The Nizams Coat of Arms Nizam-ul-Mulk was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ...


In the middle of the eighteenth century, the French and the British initiated a protracted struggle for military control of South India. Shifting alliances between the two European powers and the local powers marked the period with mercenary armies being employed by all sides causing general anarchy in South India. The four Anglo-Mysore wars and the three Anglo-Maratha wars saw Mysore, Pune and Hyderabad allying themselves with the British or the French. South India during the British colonial rule was divided into the Madras Presidency and Hyderabad, Mysore, Thiruvithamcoore (also known as Travancore), Kochi (also known as Cochin or Perumpadapu Swaroopam), Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. British Residents were stationed in the capitals of the important states to supervise and report on the activities of the rulers. The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of eighteenth-century wars fought in India between the Kingdom of Mysore (then a French ally) and the British East-India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. ... The Anglo-Maratha Wars were three wars fought in India between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... The Asafia flag of Hyderabad This article is about Hyderabad State. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Travancore (originally called Thiruvithaamcoore or Thiruvitankur in Malayalam) was a princely state in India whose capital was Thiruvananthapuram. ... Perumpadapu Swaroopam (also know as Madarajyam, Goshree Rajyam, Kuru Swaroopam) was the name of the Kingdom of Kochi. ... , The official residence of the District Collector Vizianagaram (Telugu: ), sometimes spelt as Vijayanagaram is the main city of the Vizianagaram District of North Eastern Andhra Pradesh in Southern India. ...


After independence, most of South India was included in madras state, which included the former Madras Presidency and the princely states of Banganapalle, Pudukkottai, and Sandur. In 1953, the government yielded to pressure from the northern Telugu-speaking districts of Madras State, and allowed them to create India's first linguistic state - Andhra State on October 1, 1953. The States Reorganisation Act (1956) created several new states along linguistic lines. Andhra State was renamed Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala was created from the Malayalam-speaking region. Madras State, which after 1956 included the Tamil-majority regions, changed its name to Tamil Nadu in 1968, and Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1972. Portuguese India, which included Goa, was annexed by India in 1961, and Goa became a state in 1987. The enclaves of French India were ceded to India in the 1950s, and the southern four were organised into the Union Territory of Pondicherry. Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Madras Province in 1859. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Portuguese India evolution Capital Cochin (1510-1530); Nova Goa Language(s) Portuguese Political structure Ultramarine Province King President  - 1511-1521 Manuel I  - 1958-1961 Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás Viceroy  - 1505-1509 Francisco de Almeida (first)  - 1827-1835 Manuel de Portugal e Castro (last) Governor-general  - 1509-1515... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ...

See also: Middle kingdoms of India and History of India

Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ...

Geography

NASA satellite photo of South India, January 31, 2003.
NASA satellite photo of South India, January 31, 2003.

South India is a peninsula in the shape of a vast inverted triangle, bounded on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the north by the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The line created by the Narmada River and Mahanadi river is the traditional boundary between northern and southern India. Technically all Indian territories below the 20th Parallel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1800, 602 KB) Numerous scattered fires (red dots) were detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite across southern India on January 31, 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1800, 602 KB) Numerous scattered fires (red dots) were detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite across southern India on January 31, 2003. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ...


The Narmada flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The Satpura ranges define the northern spur of the Deccan plateau, one of the main geographic features of South India. The Western Ghats, along the western coast, mark another boundary of the plateau. The narrow strip of verdant land between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is the Konkan region; the term encompasses the area south of the Narmada as far as Goa. Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


The Western Ghats continue south, forming the Malnad (Canara) region along the Karnataka coast, and terminate at the Nilgiri mountains, an inward (easterly) extension of the Western Ghats. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadu with northern Kerala and Karnataka, encompassing the Palakkad and Wayanad hills, and the Satyamangalam ranges, and extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastern Ghats, on the western portion of the Tamil Nadu-Andhra Pradesh border. The Tirupati and Annamalai hills form part of this range. Malnad (Kannada: ಮಲೆನಾಡು) (an English word for Malenadu in Kannada, male means rain and nadu means land) is a region of Karnataka state in South India. ... The Kanara or Canara (called Kannada in Karnataka) districts comprise three districts of Karnataka - North Kanara (Uttara Kannada) whose administrative headquarters is Karwar, Udupi, and South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada), whose administrative headquarters is Mangalore. ... Nilgiri, which literally means Blue Mountain in various Indo-Aryan languages, can refer to: Nilgiris (mountains), a range of mountains panning across the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India Nilgiri, a mountain located in Balasore District of the state of Orissa in East India Nilgiris (mountains in... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... , Sri Killikkurussi Mahadeva Kshetram ( Shiva temple of Killikkurussimangalam). ... For the district with the same name, see Wayanad District. ... Sathyamangalam or Satyamangalam is a town in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Annamalia may refer to: Annamalai Hills, a trekking destination in the Western Ghats Annamalai University, in Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India See also: Anaimalai Hills, in Tamilnadu state, India This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


The Deccan plateau, covering the major portion of the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, is the vast elevated region bound by the C-shape defined by all these mountain ranges. No major elevations border the plateau to the east, and it slopes gently from the Western Ghats to the eastern coast. The plateau is watered by the east flowing Godavari and Krishna rivers. The other major rivers of the Deccan plateau are the Pennar and the Tungabhadra, a major tributary of the Krishna. Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... The Penner (also Pennar or Penneru) is a river of southern India. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ...


The river Kaveri rises in the Western Ghats, in the Kodagu district of Karnataka and flows through the fertile Mandya, Mysore, Hassan regions before entering Tamil Nadu, where it forms an extensive and fertile delta on the east coast. The three major river deltas of South India, the Kaveri, the Godavari and the Krishna, are located along the Bay of Bengal. These areas constitute the rice bowls of South India. Rivers that flow westward, from the mountains to the Arabian Sea, include the Periyar, Netravati River, Mandovi and Tapti River (or Tapi) rivers, and the Narmada at the northern edge of the region. The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... Location of the Kodagu district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Netravati River (or Nethravathi River) has its origins at Gangamoola at Samse in Chikkamagaluru district of Karnataka, India. ... The Mandovi River, is described to be the lifeline of the state of Goa, India. ... The Tapti River (also Tapi River) is a river of central India. ... The Tapti River (also Tapi River) is a river of central India. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ...


Regions

The four states of South India generally follow linguistic boundaries. In addition to these linguistic regions, South India has a number of overlapping traditional geographic regions. Some of these regions are:

The low-lying coral islands of Lakshadweep are off the south-western coast of India. Sri Lanka lies off the south-eastern coast, separated from India by the Palk Strait and the chain of low sandbars and islands known as Rama's Bridge. The Andaman and Nicobar islands lie far off the eastern coast of India, near the Tenasserim coast of Burma. The southernmost tip of mainland India is at Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin) on the Indian Ocean. Bayaluseemae is the area lying to the east of Malnad, a region of Karnataka state in South India, or east of the western ghats. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Carnatic is a name given by Europeans to a region of southern India, between the Eastern Ghats and the Coromandel Coast, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Kanara or Canara (called Kannada in Karnataka) districts comprise three districts of Karnataka - North Kanara (Uttara Kannada) whose administrative headquarters is Karwar, Udupi, and South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada), whose administrative headquarters is Mangalore. ... The Kanara or Canara (called Kannada in Karnataka) districts comprise three districts of Karnataka - North Kanara (Uttara Kannada) whose administrative headquarters is Karwar, Udupi, and South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada), whose administrative headquarters is Mangalore. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Chettinad is a region of southern Tamil Nadu state, India. ... Sivagangai is the land of Marudhu Pandyas who opposed the colonial power with patriotic fervour. ... Chola Nadu is a region of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Map of the districts comprising the Aurangabad Division of Maharashtra. ... Map of the districts comprising the Vidarbha region. ... Location of Telangana region Telangana region marked in white. ... the region marked in green Rayalaseema is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... North Karnataka is a relatively arid expanse of plateau, lying between 300 and 700 meters elevation. ... The Mysore region is an unofficial region that is part of Karnataka state in southern India. ... Kammanadu is an ancient geographical region in the present day South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... For the district with the same name, see Nellore district. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Kongu Nadu is the north western region of the state of Tamil Nadu in Southern India. ... , Coimbatore   (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India. ... , Salem   (Tamil: சேலம்) is a city and a municipal corporation in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Coastal Andhra Regions marked in white. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... The Malabar region lies along the southwest coast of India and forms the northern part of the present-day state of Kerala. ... Malabar Coast, Kerala Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala The Malabar Coast also known as the Malabarian Coast, is a long and narrow south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. ... Malnad (Kannada: ಮಲೆನಾಡು) (an English word for Malenadu in Kannada, male means rain and nadu means land) is a region of Karnataka state in South India. ... The Mysore region is an unofficial region that is part of Karnataka state in southern India. ... North Karnataka is a relatively arid expanse of plateau, lying between 300 and 700 meters elevation. ... Dharwad Peda Dharwad, also known as Dharwar, is a town in Indias Karnataka state. ... Circar is an Indian term applied to the component parts of a subah or province, each of which is administered by a deputy governor. ... Chicacole, was the former name for the city of Srikakulam. ... Get the information of Kakinada at http://www. ... Eluru is a town in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... fort fore court Kondapalli is a village on the outskirts of Vijayawada city. ... This article is about a city in India. ... Palnadu is the northern region of Guntur District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... This article is about a city in India. ... Prakasam is an administrative district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Pandya Nadu is a region of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... , Tirunelveli district [8] is the penultimate southern most district of Tamilnadu in India. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922. ... Thoothukudi (தூத்துக்குடி in Tamil), also known as Tuticorin is a city and district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... The Raichur Doab is the triangular region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states which lies between the Krishna River and its tributary the Tungabhadra, named for the town of Raichur. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... the region marked in green Rayalaseema is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Tondai Nadu is a region of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Pudukkottai is a city in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) or Tamil திருவிதாங்கூர் was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... Map of Tulu Nadu with respect to the rest of Karnataka. ... Udupi is a temple town located in Udupi District, near Mangalore, Karnataka state on the south west coast of India. ... Dakshina Kannada, also called South Kannada, South Kanara, or South Canara, is a district of Indias Karnataka state. ... Location of Telangana region Telangana region marked in white. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... Velandu is the name of the region on the banks of River Krishna in the ancient Telugu country. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... This article is about a city in India. ... Srisailam is a Jyothirlingam (Hindu shrine to Shiva) located in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Palk Strait is a 40-85 mi (64-137 km) wide strait that lies between Indias Tamil Nadu state and the island nation of Sri Lanka. ... Ramas Bridge, also called Nalas Bridge and Adams Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a union territory of India. ... Tanintharyi, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... For other uses, see Kanyakumari (disambiguation). ...


Flora and fauna

There is a large number and wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from its varied climates and geography. Lush evergreen vegetation, the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats. Tropical Dry Forests, the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and scrub lands Deccan thorn scrub forests are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have high altitude rain forests called the South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The Malabar Coast moist forests are found on the coastal plains.[7] The Western Ghats itself is a biodiversity hotspot.[8] The South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southern India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests is an ecoregion of southern India. ... The Deccan thorn scrub forests is a xeric shrubland ecoregion of India and northernmost Sri Lanka. ... The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters. ... The Malabar Coast moist forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

A mountain stream in Nelliampathi, Kerala.
A mountain stream in Nelliampathi, Kerala.

Some of India's famous protected areas are found in South India. These include Project Tiger reserves Periyar National Park, Kalakad - Mundanthurai and Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve. Important ecological regions of South India are the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, located at the conjunction of the borders of Karnataka, Kerela and Tamilnadu in the Nilgiri Hills including Mudumalai National Park, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park Silent Valley National Park, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Nugu Wildlife Sanctuary and the Anamalai Hills including the Eravikulam National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary and the adjacent The Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park of the Western Ghats. Important bird sanctuaries including Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary, Neelapattu and Pulicat Sanctuary are home to numerous migratory and local birds. Other protected ecological sites include the backwaters like the Pulicut Lake in Andhra Pradesh, Pitchavarum in Tamil Nadu and the famed backwaters of Kerala formed by the Vembanad Lake, the Ashtamudi Lake and the Kayamkulam Lake. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 800 KB) Summary A small stream in Nelliampathy Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 800 KB) Summary A small stream in Nelliampathy Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... Nelliampathi mountains Nelliampathi is a popular hill station 60 Km. ... Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project initiated in India in 1972 to protect the Bengal Tigers. ... Kerala Forest Department sign, located at the Information Centre. ... Panthera tigris tigris Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) is situated in the Southern Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu state, South India. ... The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is an International Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills ranges of southern India. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Mudumalai sanctuary lies on the northern and north-western side of the Nilgiri (Blue Mountains), about 80 km north-west of Coimbatore in the extreme north-western corner of Tamil Nadu, on the interstate boundaries with Karnataka and Kerala states in southern India. ... Bandipur National Park is one of Indias best known sanctuaries, and is an important Project Tiger reserve. ... Nagarhole National Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi National Park) is located 94 km away from Mysore. ... Silent Valley National Park is a National Park in Palakkad district, Kerala, India. ... Muthanga is a Wynad wild life sanctuary in Wayanad district of Kerala, south India. ... Annamalai (Anamalai or Anamalah) Mountains are a mountain range and wildlife sanctuary in the Western Ghats range of southern India, straddling the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu states. ... A national park located along the Western Ghats in the Idukki district of Kerala in India. ... // , Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary is located 18 km north of Marayoor in the Marayoor and Kanthalloor Panchayats of Devikulam Taluk in Kerala state in South India. ... Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is a Protected area in Palakkad district of Kerala state, South India. ... Indira Gandhi National Park is a wildlife sanctuary located in the Anaimalai Hills of Tamilnadu state, India. ... Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary is a Bird Sanctuary in the Mysore District of the state of Karnataka in India. ... In Indian English (English usage as per those speaking it in India), a backwater is a body of saltwater (connected to the sea) which has a lake-like absence of surf and tides. ... Location of Vembanad lake, Kerala Vembanad Lake (Vembanad Kayal or Vembanad Kol) is the largest lake in Kerala, India. ... Map of Backwaters The Kerala Backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast) of Kerala state in southern India. ...


Demographics

The estimated population of the political region of South India, comprising Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu is over 233 million.[9] South India is home to diverse linguistic and religious groups. The largest linguistic groups in South India include the Telugus, Tamils, Kannadigas, Malayalis, Tulus, Kodavas and Konkanis. Numerically Telugu speaking population is the largest entity. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Kannadiga is the term for a native speaker of Kannada. ... Languages Malayalam (മലയാളം) Religions Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Malayali or Malayalee(മലയാളി) is a name given to the inhabitants of the state of Kerala. ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... Languages Kodava Takk Religions Hinduism, Christianity Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahuis Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas The Kodava (written ಕೊಡವ in Kannada script) are a people of southern India, originating in the western region of Kodagu. ... Konkani is a term used to refer both to a language and to an Indian ethnic group. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ...


Around 83% of South Indians follow Hinduism. Tamil Nadu has the highest Hindu population of about 90% and Kerala with the least of about 50%. Of the rest, around 11% follow Islam. While Christians constitute around 5% of the population. South India has one of the largest Christian populations in India. Christian and Muslim South Indians, like their Hindu counterparts, have maintained their identity by strictly conducting marriages within their own communities. It is said that Christianity was brought to South India in the first century A.D. and that Islam entered India during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The Christians consists of those who follow the Latin rite, the Indian Orthodox Church, Syrian Jacobite Church, Protestant churches and those belonging to the Syro-Malabar Church and the Marthoma Church. Jains, Buddhists and Jews together form less than 1% of the population of South India. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East) is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family in Christianity, founded by St. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... Heritage The history of the Mar Thoma Church is divided into three main eras viz. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...

Traditional South Indian Oil lamp stand "Vilakku" at a temple courtyard in Mattancherry palace

The average literacy rate of South India is approximately 73%, considerably higher than the Indian national average of 60%.[10] Kerala leads the nation with a literacy rate of 91%. The sex ratio in South India is fairly equable at 997; Kerala is the only state in India with a sex ratio higher than 1000.[9] The population density of the region is approximately 463. Scheduled Castes and Tribes form 18% of the population of the region. Agriculture is the major employer in the region — 47.5% of the population is involved in agrarian activities. About 60% of the population lives in permanent housing structures. 47.8% of South India has access to tap water. Wells and springs are other major forms of water supply. The predominant form of transport is the bicycle, which constitutes 31% of the various modes of transport in South India. Television access in the region is 36.7% with the state-run Doordarshan and its various regional stations freely available. This photograph was taken by me in December 2000. ... This photograph was taken by me in December 2000. ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) A terra-cotta oil lamp, Antique oil lamp (replica) An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... Sex ratio by country for total population. ... In India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are communities that are accorded special status by the Constitution of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Domestic water system. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ...


Languages

Main article: Dravidian languages

The languages of South India are the Dravidian represented by Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam besides Gondi and other minor dialects, and the Austro-Asiatic by the Munda languages.[11] South India's predominant language family is Dravidian, a family of approximately seventy-three languages[12] spoken in South Asia.[13] A relationship of the Dravidian language family to other linguistic families has not been established, though various theories have been proposed. Dravidian as an independent language family was first established by Francis W. Ellis, a British civil servant in 1816. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

The evolution of South Indian Dravidian languages. Adapted from Encyclopædia Britannica.

The languages of the Dravidian family Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu have been influenced by Sanskrit to varying degrees and the converse is true as well. Almost all Dravidian languages spoken in South India belong either to the South Dravidian (or South Dravidian I) or South-Central Dravidian (sometimes also known as South Dravidian II) subfamilies. Tamil, Malayalam, Tulu and Kannada are South Dravidian languages, while Telugu and Gondi are South-Central Dravidian. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 divided states in India along linguistic lines and led to the creation of separate states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in areas where Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil respectively were dominant. Image File history File linksMetadata Proto-Dravidian_Language_Map. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Proto-Dravidian_Language_Map. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ...


In the 2001 Census, Telugu, with approximately 80 million native speakers, was the second largest language in India, after Hindi. Tamil was accorded the status of classical language by the Government of India in 2002 and had about 74 million speakers (native and non-native speakers). Kannada had 46 million speakers[citation needed] while Malayalam has 35.7 million.[14] All four languages are designated as national languages of India. Konkani, an Indo-Aryan language is widely spoken in Goa, Maharashtra. In coastal Karnataka and Kerala Konkani draws heavy influences from Kannada and Malayalam respectively. Most of Maharashtra, which includes the northern Deccan and Konkan regions of South India, is predominantly Marathi-speaking. Marathi and Konkani are part of the southern zone of the Indo-Aryan languages. Some inscriptions in the Tulu language are found in and around Barkur. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... A classical language, is a language with a literature that is classical—ie, it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as National languages 1. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... Tulu ತುಳು is a Dravidian language of India with fewer than two million speakers, known as Tuluvas. ... Barkur is a village in Udupi district of the Karnataka state in South India. ...


Economy

Comparison between North India and South India
North India South India
Per capita income (Rs.) 8433 13629
Literacy rate (%) 53 74
Per capita expenditure on public health (Rs.) 92 127
Proportion of households with electricity (%) 49 74
Source: Business Today, January 2005

Over 48% of South India's population is engaged in agriculture.[9] The populace is largely agrarian, dependent on monsoons, as is the populace in most of India. Some of the main crops cultivated in South India include paddy, sorghum, pearl millet, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, chilli, and ragi. Areca, coffee, tea, vanilla, rubber, pepper, tapioca, and cardamom are cultivated on the hills, while coconut grows in abundance in coastal areas. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of rice in India,[15] while Karnataka produces 70% of India's coffee. Frequent droughts in northern Karnataka, Rayalaseema and Telangana have left farmers debt-ridden, forcing them to sell their livestock and sometimes even to commit suicide.[16] The region also suffers from water scarcity, especially during summer. The Economy of South India is largely agrarian, dependent on monsoons, as are most people in India. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... The Indian Rupee (Symbol: INR) is Indias national currency, subdivided into 100 paise (singular paisa). ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Founded in 1992, Business Today is an Indian magazine that focuses on economic trends. ... Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name (L.) R. Br. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Binomial name Eleusine coracana L. Finger millet, also known as African millet or ragi, is an annual plant widely grown as a cereal in the arid areas of Africa and Asia. ... Species (Betel nut palm) and about 50 more Areca is a genus of about 50 species of single-stemmed palms in the family Arecaceae, found in humid tropical forests from Malaysia to the Solomon Islands. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Vanilla pods Vanilla is a flavouring derived from orchids in the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... For other uses, see Tapioca (disambiguation). ... This article is about the herbs. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... the region marked in green Rayalaseema is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Location of Telangana region Telangana region marked in white. ...


Chennai, houses the manufacturing units of many automobile and electronic manufacturers. Bangalore is headquarters to several public manufacturing heavy industries A notable improvement in the economy of South India recently has been due to the growth of information technology (IT). Bangalore, the "Silicon Valley of India", is India's IT hub, and is home to over 200 software companies. From 2001 to 2005, Tamil Nadu attracted the third highest total Foreign Direct Investment approvals in India, approximately Rs 22,582.64 crores, next only to Maharashtra and DelhiThe Hindu. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.. Software exports from South India grossed over Rs 64000 crore in fiscal 2005-06.[17] The net state domestic product of Tamil Nadu ranks higher than the net state domestic products of most Indian states.[18] In terms of industrialisation, Kerala lags behind many of the Indian states, but in terms of the people’s quality of life, Kerala is one of India's most developed states. Around 20% of the state GDP is from overseas remittances. This paradox is often termed as the Kerala Phenomenon or Kerala model of development. Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... The Silicon Valley of India is a nickname of the Indian city of Bangalore. ... Foreign direct investment (FDI) is defined as a long-term investment by a foreign direct investor in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that in which the foreign direct investor is based. ... INR may stand for: International normalized ratio, a laboratory test of blood coagulation the currency code for the Indian Rupee the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences the US Department of States Bureau of Intelligence and Research This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Location of Kerala in India The Kerala model refers to a set of economic practices developed in Indias state of Kerala. ... Location of Kerala in India The Kerala model refers to a set of economic practices developed in Indias state of Kerala. ...


Politics

A Left Democratic Front rally in Kerala.
A Left Democratic Front rally in Kerala.

Politics in South India is dominated typically by a mix of regional parties and larger national political parties like the Congress (INC), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). With the exclusion of Karnataka, each state has at least two parties dominating politics in that state. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 228 KB) Summary Communist Party of India (Marxist) rally in Ernakulam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 228 KB) Summary Communist Party of India (Marxist) rally in Ernakulam. ... Left Democratic Front is one of the two major alliances that dominate the political life of the Indian state Kerala. ... A political rally of the Left Democratic Front in Kerala. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ... The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all elections. ...


Pre-independence politics in the Madras Presidency was dominated by the Justice Party and the INC. Periyar Ramasami who started the Periyar movement was elected leader of the Justice party in 1938 and in 1944 renamed it to Dravidar Kazhagam. The initial aim of the Dravidar Kazhagam was the secession of Dravida Nadu from the rest of India on independence.[19] Following independence, Periyar strongly believed that the party should not participate in elections in the newly created India, something his closest followers disagreed with. In 1948, C. N. Annadurai, a follower of Periyar and a Joint Secretary of Dravidar Kazhagam parted ways with Periyar to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam political party.[19]INC's political influence over Tamil Nadu gave way to the rise of the DMK which formed its first government in 1968 and again in 1978. The following year, a split in the DMK resulted in the formation of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), lead by M. G. Ramachandran. Together, the AIADMK and the DMK currently command a 60% share in Tamil Nadu state elections. Justice Party was the political wing of Then Nala Urimai Sangam (literal translation: The South Indian Welfare Association). ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (Dravidian Organization) was the first fully Dravidian party in India. ... Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (Dravidian Organization) was the first fully Dravidian party in India. ... Dravida nadu is a proposal put forward by C.N Annadurai and Ramasamy Naikar of Erode to group the Andrapradesh , Tamilnadu and Kerala together and declare it as an independent nation called Dravida Nadu. ... C.N.Annadurai (1909 to 1969), popularly called Anna (which means elder brother in Tamil language) was the first non Congress Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, India. ... DMK redirects here. ... Dr M. G. Ramachandran Janaki Ramachandran second Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu from AIADMK Party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) (Tamil: அனைத்து இந்திய அண்ணா திராவிட முன்னேற்ற கழகம்) is a regional political party in Tamil Nadu state in India. ... Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran (Tamil: மருதூர் கோபால இராமச்சந்திரன், Malayalam:മരത്തൂര്‍ ഗോപാലന്‍ രാമചന്ദ്രന്‍) (January 17, 1917–December 24, 1987), popularly known as MGR எம்.ஜி.ஆர்., Puracthi Nadigar, Ponmana Chemmal, Makkal Thilakam and Puratchi Thalaivar (Tamil: Revolutionary Leader), was a longtime leading Tamil film actor and Chief Minister of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu from 1977 until his death. ...

The Vidhana Soudha, Karnataka's legislative assembly.
The Vidhana Soudha, Karnataka's legislative assembly.

In 1982, the establishment of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh by former Telugu actor Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (NTR) broke the dominance of the Congress in Andhra Pradesh politics. NTR successfully challenged the INC's supremacy in the state and his party was voted into power a total of four times. In 1996, a year after winning the state assembly election by a landslide, a dispute between NTR, his wife Lakshmi Parvati and his immediate family resulted in a split in the TDP. Concerned over undue influence over NTR and his policies, the bulk of the party favoured the family under the leadership of NTR's son-in-law, N Chandrababu Naidu, who later became Chief Minister of the state. Naidu is regarded as a visionary who promoted the growth of information technology in the state. There has been a recent growth in popularity of the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) in Andhra Pradesh's northwestern Telangana region. The party's main mandate is the separation of Telangana from the rest of Andhra Pradesh. The Congress, in spite of being plagued by factionalism through the 1990s, has managed to remain in prominence in the state and has, under the leadership of Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, and with a strategic alliance with TRS, managed to oust the TDP from power in the last state assembly elections by an overwhelming majority. Vidhana Soudha, Bangalore. ... Vidhana Soudha, Bangalore. ... Bangalore (anglicised from Bengalooru) is the capital of Karnataka, located in South India. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Telugu Desam Party (Telugu :తెలుగు దేశం Party for Telugu Land and people) or TDP is a regional political party in Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... // Filmmaking Though widely recognised for his mythological characters, Ramarao is considered one of the greatest and legendary actors in Telugu film, and in South Indian film generally. ... Nara Chandrababu Naidu Nara Chandrababu Naidu (born April 20, 1951) was the chief minister of Andhra Pradesh during 1995-2004. ... Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) is a regional political party in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Location of Telangana region Telangana region marked in white. ... Location of Telangana region Telangana region marked in white. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Dr. Yeduguri Sandinti Rajasekhara Reddy (born 8 July 1949), popularly known as Y.S.R., is currently serving as Chief Minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ...


The Janata Dal has been far more successful in Karnataka than it has been in national politics. National political parties such as the BJP and INC have experienced more comparative success in Karnataka than they have in other states of South India. Karnataka's political environment is dominated by two rival caste groups — the Vokkaligas and the Lingayats.[20] Ramakrishna Hegde played an integral part in the ascent of the Janata Dal into the national foray in the late 1980s. However, it was his political rival H. D. Deve Gowda, then the Chief Minister of Karnataka, who later went on to become the Prime Minister of India. Janata Dal is an Indian political party which was formed through the merger one of the major Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal and a group of Congressmen led by V.P. Singh. ... The Vokkaligas are an Indian caste or social group found mainly in the Old Mysore Region of southern Karnataka state. ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... Ramakrishna Hegde (Kannada: ರಾಮಕೃಷ್ಣ ಹೆಗಡೆ) (August 29, 1926-January 12, 2004 at Siddapur, Uttara Kannada district) was an Indian politician who was thrice chief minister of Karnataka and also served as Union Commerce Minister. ... Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda (Kannada: ಹರದನಹಳ್ಳಿ ದೊಡ್ಡೇಗೌಡ ದೇವೇಗೌಡ) (b. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ...


Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF, led by the Indian National Congress) and the Left Democratic Front (LDF, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist)). Kerala numbers among India's most left-wing states. An interesting phenomenon of Kerala politics is the alternate election of Congress and the Communists to power. United Democratic Front (UDF) is an alliance of progressive, pro-development political parties of Kerala state of the Republic of India. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Left Democratic Front is one of the two major alliances that dominate the political life of the Indian state Kerala. ... The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ...


Culture and heritage

Tyagaraja, one of the trinity of Carnatic music.
Main article: South Indian culture

Mutual interaction and the impress of similar external influences have made much cultural impact between different regions of India. According to some experts, the weltanschauung of South Indians is essentially the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body, and motherhood, which is exemplified through their dance, clothing, and sculptures.[21] Tyagaraja The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Tyagaraja The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Sri Tyagaraja (శ్రీ త్యాగరాజ) (17??-1848), an ardent devotee of Sri Ramachandra, was one of the most important composers of Carnatic music. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... South Indian culture refers to the culture of the four southern most states of India, namely Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. ... A world view, also spelled as worldview is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (look onto the world). The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form world outlook. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Look up mother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A Malayalee woman wearing saree.
A Malayalee woman wearing saree.

South Indian women traditionally wear the Saree while the men wear a type of sarong, which could be either a white pancha (veshti in Tamil) or a colourful lungi with typical batik patterns. The saree is an unstitched drape and only partially covers the midriff. In Indian philosophy, the navel of the Supreme Being is considered as the source of life and creativity. [21] Hence by tradition, the stomach and the navel is to be left unconcealed, though the philosophy behind the costume has largely been forgotten. [21] As opined in the ancient Natyashastra, this makes the realization where in Angikam bhuvanam yasya (the concept of the human body as the world) unites with the sharira-mandala (the whole universe).[21] These principles of the saree, also hold for other forms of drapes, like the lungi or mundu worn by men.[22] Image File history File links Kerala-girl-left. ... Image File history File links Kerala-girl-left. ... Sari has two meanings: name of an Indian garment worn by women. ... Sari has two meanings: name of an Indian garment worn by women. ... A sarong or sarung is a large sheet of fabric, often wrapped around the waist and worn as a skirt by men and women throughout much of south Asia and southeast Asia, parts of Africa, and on many Pacific islands. ... Similar to sarongs, dhotis are commonly worn with western-style oxford shirts by the men of South India. ... The Dhoti, known locally as the Veshti, Pancha or Panche, is the traditional male clothing of south India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... A boy in a village of Narail, Bangladesh wearing a lungi with single knot. ... This article is about the textile dyeing technique. ... A draped garment is a garment that is made of unstitched cloth that is held to the body by means of pins, fibulae, or clasps, sashes or belts, tying, or friction and gravity alone. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... Natya Shastra is the classic Indian text of theater, acting, dance, music, and gesture. ... A boy in a village of Narail, Bangladesh wearing a lungi with single knot. ... The mundu is a garment worn around the waist in Kerala related to the Dhoti as well as the Lungi. ...

A Yakshagana artist from Karnataka
A Yakshagana artist from Karnataka

The music of South India is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tyagaraja, Annamacharya, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri, Subbaraya Shastri, Mysore Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal. The contemporary singer Dr. K. J. Yesudas is a cultural ambassador of Carnatic music. Image File history File links FullPagadeYakshagana. ... Image File history File links FullPagadeYakshagana. ... A Yakshagana artist wearing pagaDe, one type of head-wear. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Rhythm (Greek = flow, or in Modern Greek, style) is the variation of the length and accentuation of a series of sounds or other events. ... Purandara Dasa Purandara Dasa (1484-1564)(ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ) is one of the most prominient composer in carnatic music. ... Kanaka Dasa was one of the devotees of Krishna and an influential person in the Vaishnava bhakti movement in Karnataka. ... Sri Tyagaraja (శ్రీ త్యాగరాజ) (17??-1848), an ardent devotee of Sri Ramachandra, was one of the most important composers of Carnatic music. ... Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya (శ్రీ తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య) (1408-1503), the mystic saint composer of the 15th century is the earliest known musician of South India to compose songs called “sankeertanas” in praise of Lord Venkateswara, the deity of Seven Hills in Tirumala, India. ... Muttusvami Dikshitar is one of the Carnatic music composer trinity. ... Syama Sastry Shayama Shastri is among the most renowned composers of Carnatic music; indeed, he was the senior-most of the Trinity of Carnatic music, along with Tyagaraja and Muthuswamy Dikshitar. ... Sri Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma(April 16, 1813 - December 25, 1846) was a South Indian king of the state of Travancore, in India. ... Kattassery Joseph Yesudas (or usually referred to as Dr. K. J. Yesudas or in the alternate, Jesudas, Malayalam: കാട്ടശ്ശേരി ജോസഫ് യേശുദാസ് ) (born January 10, 1940) is an eminent Indian classical musician and leading playback singer for film songs in many Indian languages. ...


The motion picture industry has emerged as an important platform in South India, over the years portraying the cultural changes, trends, aspirations and developments experienced by the people. Some movie classics like Nammukku paarkkaan munthiri thoppukal (1986) by Padmarajan, Adi Shankara (1984) by director G V Iyer, and Perumthachan (1990) by Ajayan have gained worldwide acclaim for their masterful depiction of the worldview of the South Indian people. Namukku parkkan munthiri thoppukal (Vineyards for us to dwell) is a landmark motion picture in Malayalam cinema directed by Padmarajan. ... P. Padmarajan (b. ... Ganapathi Venkatrama Iyer also known as G V Iyer was a well known Indian Film Director. ... Perumthachan also spelled as Perunthachan meaning (the master carpenter or the master craftsman) is a honorific title that is used to refer to an ancient legendary carpenter, architect, woodcarver and sculptor from Kerala, South India. ... Ajayan is a film director. ...

South India is home to several distinct dance forms — the Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Yakshagana, Theyyam, Ottamthullal, Oppana, Kerala Natanam and Mohiniaattam (which literally translates as Dance of the Enchantress) The Bharatanatyam expresses the celebration of beauty and the universe, through its tenets of having a perfectly erect posture, a straight and pout curving stomach, a well rounded and proportionate body mass - to the body structure, very long hair and curvaceous hips.[23] These tenets bring to life the philosophy of the Natyashastra. This is elaborated in the araimandi posture, wherein the performer assumes a half sitting position with the knees turned sideways, with a very erect posture. In this fundamental posture of the Bharatanatyam dance, the distance between the head and the navel becomes equal to that between the earth and the navel. In a similar way the distance between the outstretched right arm to the outstretched left arm becomes equal to the distance between the head and the feet, thus representing the "Natyapurusha", the embodiment of life and creation.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata Bharata_natyam_17. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bharata_natyam_17. ... A professional Bharatanatyam dancer must demonstrate a number of qualities. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Mani Madhava Chakyar and his troop performing Thoranayudham koodiyattam ( 1962- Chennai). ... A Bharatanatyam Dancer Bharatanatyam (also spelled Bharathanatyam, Bharatnatyam or Bharata Natyam) is a South Indian classical dance form. ... Kuchipudi (కుచిపుడి) is a Classical Indian dance form from Andhra Pradesh, a state of South India. ... Kathakali (IPA: [kat̪ʰakaÉ­i], Malayalam:�·ഥ�·ളി , Sanskrit:�·थ�·ळि) is a form of Indian dance-drama. ... A Yakshagana artist wearing pagaDe, one type of head-wear. ... Image of Karkitaka theyyam : Theyyam after monsoon season The Theyyam or Theyyattam is a popular ritual dance of north Kerala, south India, particularly presented in the Kolathunadu(of the present Kannur and Kasargode districts). ... This is a popular form of social entertainment among the Muslim community of Kerala prevalent all over, especially in the northern districts of Canaonore, Calicut and Malappuram. ... Kerala Natanam is a new style of dancing evolved from Kathakali. ... Mohiniaattam performers Mohiniaattam performers Mohiniaattam (മൊഹിനിയാട്ടം) (also spelled as mohiniattam or mohiniyattam) is a traditional South Indian dance form from Kerala, India. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... While not moving, a human can be in one of the following main positions. ...


Cuisine

Tradition of serving food on banana leaf.
Tradition of serving food on banana leaf.

Rice is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South Indian meals. Coconut is an important ingredient in Kerala whereas Andhra Pradesh cuisine is characterized by pickles and spicy curries. Hyderabadi cuisine a legacy of the past, is popular for its Biryani. Dosa, Idli, Uttapam are popular throughout the region. There are large coffee estates in southern Karnataka and parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 672 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (840 × 750 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 672 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (840 × 750 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Rice is the staple food of the southern state of India, Andhra Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Pickle. ... This article is about the dish. ... Hyderabadi Cuisine, a princely legacy, to an extent, is a blend of Mughlai cuisine and Persian cuisines. ... lucknowi biryani is original ircanation of all biryanis, biryani is indian food authentic indian recipe based indian rice called basmati found only in indian subcontinent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The idli (IPA:), also romanized idly or iddly, is a steamed rice cake popular throughout South India. ... Uttapam with Sambar. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ...


South India has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the pure dravida style of Tamil Nadu and the Vesara style (also called Karnata dravida style) present in Karnataka. The inspirational temple sculptures of Hampi, Badami, Bhattiprolu, Pattadakal, Aihole, Belur, Halebidu, Lakkundi, Shravanabelagola, Mahabalipuram, Tanjore, Madurai and the mural paintings of Travancore and Lepakshi temples, also stand as a testament to South Indian culture. The paintings of Raja Ravi Varma are considered classic renditions of many a scenes of South Indian life and mythology. There are several examples of Dravidian mural paintings in the Mattancherry palace and the Shiva kshetram in Ettamanoor. South India is home to five of the 26 Indian World Heritage sites.[24] Vesara is a type of Indian architecture primarily used in temples. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Hampi (Kannada: ಹಂಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in northern Karnataka, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in India. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Bhattiprolu is a small village in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh State in Southern India. ... Pattadakal (Kannada- ಪಟ್ಟದಕಲ್) is a town in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for its group of monuments that are the culmination of earliest experiments in vesara style of Hindu temple architecture. ... Aihole (Kannada ಐಹೊಳೆ)is in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. ... Belur (Kannada:ಬೇಲೂರು) was the early capital of the Hoysala Empire. ... Halebidu (Kannada ಹಳೆಬೀಡು) is located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India. ... Lakkundi in Gadag District of Karnataka is a place of antiquarian interest with as many as 50 temples & 29 inscriptions, spread over the period of the later Chalukyas, Kalachuris, Seunas & the Hoysalas. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Shore Temple, rescued from the sea Mahabalipuram (Tamil:மகாபலிபுரம்) (also known as Mamallapuram) is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Thanjavur, also known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... South Indian culture refers to the culture of the four southern most states of India, namely Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. ... Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906) was an Indian King and painter who achieved recognition for his depiction of scenes from the epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana. ... Dravidian mural paintings are the frescos depicting mythology and legends, which are drawn on the walls of temples and churches in South India, principally in Kerala. ...

Jain monolith of Gomatheswara in Karnataka dating from 978-993 AD.
Jain monolith of Gomatheswara in Karnataka dating from 978-993 AD.
Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Brihadisvara Temple.
Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Brihadisvara Temple.

Sculpture became one of the finest medium of South Indian expression after the human form of dance. In this medium it was possible to etch the three dimensional form in time. The traditional South Indian sculptor starts his sculpture of the divinities from the navel which is always represented unclothed by the sari. A koshta or grid of the sculpture would show the navel to be right at the centre of the sculpture, representing the source of the union of the finite body and the infinite universe. Sculptures adorn many of the temples around the complexes and also inside them. They are also depiction of dance steps of various stylizations and have served to preserve dance forms and revive it.[25] Image File history File links The image shows the 58 foot, 8 inch statue of the Jain prophet Gomatheswara. ... Image File history File links The image shows the 58 foot, 8 inch statue of the Jain prophet Gomatheswara. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Gomateshwara is a monolithic statue standing at 60 feet above a hill in a place called Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka state, India. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ, IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brahadeeswarar temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Divinity is seen as the existence of some entity or entities which are greater than humankind. ... Look up grid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...


South India has an independent literary tradition going back over 2000 years. The first known literature of South India are the poetic Sangams, which were written in Tamil from 2000 to 1500 years ago. The 850 CE Kannada classic Kavirajamarga written by King Amoghavarsha I makes references to Kannada literature of King Durvinita in the early sixth century CE. Tamil Buddhist commentators of the tenth century CE ‘‘Nemrinatham’’ make references to Kannada literature of the fourth century CE. Distinct Malayalam and Telugu literary traditions developed in the following centuries. The artistic expressions of the South Indian people shows their admiration of the magnificence of nature and its rhythms, as in the epic Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal, also called as the Cilappatikaram. Other works include the "Tholkappiam" written by Tholkappiar, and Thiruvalluvar’s Thirukural. In South Indian literature and philosophy, women are considered very powerful. A married woman is regarded as auspicious, her shakti or mother-feminine power, protects and empowers her husband and their children. For other uses of Sangam see Sangam (disambiguation). ... Sri Vijaya, the court poet of Amoghavarsha Nripathunga, the Rashtrakuta ruler, composed it in the 9 Th centuries A.D. It is considered that Sri Vijaya did the first literary works in 9th Century A.D. This work is generally held to be the earliest literary work in Kannada. ... Cilappatikaram (The Ankle Bracelet - initial c pronounced like the first syllable of chat) also spelled as Cilappadhikaram or Silappadhigaram, is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Cilappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம் IPA tʃɪlÊŒppʌθɪkɑːɹʌm),[1] is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Tiruvalluvar statue at Kanyakumari Tirukkural (திருக்குறள் in Tamil) is an important work of Tamil literature by Tiruvalluvar written in the form of couplets expounding various aspects of life. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ...


Diversity

The main spiritual traditions of South India include both Shaivite and Vaishnavite branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist and Jain philosophies had been influential several centuries earlier. The coastal region of Andhra Pradesh was a stronghold of Buddhism as exemplified by the great stupas at Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda. Shravanabelagola in Karnataka is a popular pilgrimage center for Jains. Kodagu, in Karnataka is home to one of the largest Buddhist monasteries in India and provides sanctuary to Tibetan Buddhist monks that fled Tibet fearing persecution from communist China. There is a large Muslim community in South India, particularly in the Malabar coast, which can trace its roots to the ancient maritime trade between Kerala and Omanis and other Arabs. Similarly, Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu (also known as Nagore) also has a sizeable Muslim community - the famed Nagore Dargah is situated in this old town. The Hyderabad region in Andhra Pradesh has a large Muslim population and is a historic center of South Indian Muslim culture. Ayyavazhi is spread significantly across South India. Its followers are more densely populated in South Tamil Nadu.[26] Image File history File links Charminar_Hyderabad. ... Image File history File links Charminar_Hyderabad. ... Charminar (Devanagari: चार मीनार, Nastaliq: چار مینار) (translation: Four Towers), or a mosque of the four minarets, is a monument located in the City of Hyderabad, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Amaravati may refer to: Amaravati (capital), in Hinduism, (అమరావతి) is the capital of Svarga, a temporary paradise where the dead live. ... , Nagarjunakonda (meaning Nagarjuna Hill in Telugu) is a historical Buddhist town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Nalgonda district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... Location of the Kodagu district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Nagapattinam (formerly known as Negapatam and also as Shiva Rajadhani) is a small city with a population of about 100,000, located in coastal Tamil Nadu, India. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Ayyavazhi (IPA: )(Tamil:அய்யாவழி [1] -Path of the father) is a dharmic belief system[2] which originated in South India in the 19th century. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...

Knanaya, the Oriental Orthodox Nasrani temple in Kottayam, containing the ancient Mar Thoma cross and Sassanid Pahlavi inscriptions.
Knanaya, the Oriental Orthodox Nasrani temple in Kottayam, containing the ancient Mar Thoma cross and Sassanid Pahlavi inscriptions.

Christianity has flourished in coastal South India from the times of St. Thomas the Apostle who is believed to have come to Kerala and established the Syrian Christian tradition today called as Saint Thomas Christians or Nasranis.[27] These Christians are also known as Syrian Christians. They are constituted of various churches including Syrian-rite Christians in communion with the church of Rome, the Syro-Malabar Church and Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. They are also constituted by Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church and the Mar Thoma Church.[27] The two Eastern Catholic Churches have their Holy See in Kerala. The Knanaya Christian-Jewish community exists as part of the Syro-Malabar Church and the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church.[28] In addition, Kerala is also home to a significant number of Roman Catholic Christians of the Latin Rite. The Church of South India is an autonomous Protestant church, formed in 1947 through the merger of several Protestant denominations. Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world who are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the time of King Solomon.[29] The oldest surviving Jewish synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations is the Paradesi Synagogue in Kochi, Kerala. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 755 KB) Summary Valia Palli Church inside in Kottayam, Kerala, India selfmade by pitichinaccio, 26 Dec 2005 Licensing File links There are no pages that link to this file. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 755 KB) Summary Valia Palli Church inside in Kottayam, Kerala, India selfmade by pitichinaccio, 26 Dec 2005 Licensing File links There are no pages that link to this file. ... An unvelied tabernacle of a Knanaya Jewish Nasrani palli or Temple with 12 candlesticks in the background for the 12 tribes of ancient Israel. ... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kottayam district. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, commonly referred to as the Mar Thoma Church is a Reformed but episcopal offshoot of the pre-16th century undivided Saint Thomas Christians, and got its current identity in 1889, even though it was born much earlier. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... An unvelied tabernacle of a Knanaya Jewish Nasrani palli or Temple with 12 candlesticks in the background for the 12 tribes of ancient Israel. ... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... CSI St. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient prospetutess and their descendants of the South Indian erstwhile state of Kingdom of Cochin which includes the present day port city of Kochi. ... Solomon or Shlomo (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה; Standard Hebrew: Å É™lomo; Tiberian Hebrew: Å É™lōmōh, meaning peace; Arabic: سليمان Sulayman) in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), also called Jedidiah, was the third king of the united ancient Kingdom of Israel (there was no Kingdom of Judah in his time). ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The Paradesi Synagogue is the oldest synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations, located in Kochi, Kerala, in South India. ... Kochi (formerly known as Cochin) is the largest (pop. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "eCensusIndia. Understanding the Vital Rates — Births, Deaths and Infant Mortality Rate at Natural Division Level". 2006. Office of the Registrar General.. 31 August 2002. Government of India
  2. ^ Dictionary definitions of 'Deccan' from Anwsers.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  3. ^ Origins of the word 'Carnatic' in the Hobson Jobson Dictionary.. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  4. ^ Agarwal, D.P."Urban Origins in India", 2006. Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala Universitet
  5. ^ T. K. Velu Pillai, 1940; Wilfred Schoff 1912 "Periplus Maris Erythraei" (trans) 1912, Menachery, G 1998; James Hough 1893; K.V. Krishna Iyer 1971
  6. ^ (Bjorn Landstrom, 1964; Miller, J. Innes. 1969; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; & Koder S. 1973; Leslie Brown, 1956
  7. ^ Indo-Malayan Terrestrial Ecoregions. Retrieved on April 15, 2006.
  8. ^ Biodiversity Hotspot - Western Ghats & Sri Lanka, Conservation International. Retrieved on April 15, 2006.
  9. ^ a b c Census India Maps. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  10. ^ CIA factbook. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  11. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri., "A History of South India"7th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  12. ^ Language Family Trees - Dravidian. Ethnologue.
  13. ^ Robert Caldwell., "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages" 3rd ed. rev. and edited by J.L. Wyatt, T. Ramakrishna Pillai. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN 81-206-0117-3
  14. ^ "Languages spoken".Office of the Registrar General. Government of India
  15. ^ Andhra Pradesh Online. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  16. ^ BBC. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  17. ^ BusinessLine article on Tamil Nadu Software Exports. Retrieved on 2006-10-05.
  18. ^ India Budget. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  19. ^ a b "Periyar Movement- Periyar.org". Retrieved on 19 April 2006.
  20. ^ Price, Pamela. " Ideological Elements in Political Instability in Karnataka...". University of Oslo
  21. ^ a b c d e Beck, Brenda. 1976; Bharata, 1967; Boulanger, Chantal; 1997; Dehejia, Vidya, Richard H. Davis, R. Nagaswamy, Karen Pechilis Prentiss, 2002; Wadley, Susan, ed. 1980
  22. ^ Boulanger, Chantal; 1997
  23. ^ Kallarasa Virachita Janavasya Ed: G.G. Manjunathan. Kannada Adhyayana Samsthe, University of Mysore, 1974.
  24. ^ World Heritage Listed Sites in India. URL accessed on April 12, 2006.
  25. ^ Dehejia, Vidya, Richard H. Davis, R. Nagaswamy, Karen Pechilis Prentiss; 2002
  26. ^ Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, 2000, Page 100, "At present thousands of Pathis (Nizhal Thangals) are seen throughout South India."
  27. ^ a b Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Mundalan, A. M; 1984; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956
  28. ^ Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Leslie Brown, 1956; Vellian Jacob 2001; Weil, S. 1982; Poomangalam C. A. 1998
  29. ^ David de Beth Hillel, 1832; Lord, James Henry, 1977; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; Koder S. 1973

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References and bibliography

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South India
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South India
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  • Bharata (1967). The Natyashastra [Dramaturgy], 2 vols., 2nd. ed. Trans. by Manomohan Ghosh. Calcutta: Manisha Granthalaya.
  • Boulanger, Chantal; (1997) Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping, Shakti Press International, New York. ISBN 0-9661496-1-0
  • Craddock, Norma. 1994. Anthills, Split Mothers, and Sacrifice: Conceptions of Female Power in the Mariyamman Tradition. Dissertation, U. of California, Berkeley.
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  • Hart, George, ed. and trans. 1979. Poets of the Tamil Anthologies: Ancient Poems of Love and War. Princeton: Princeton U. Press
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  • Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
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  • Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol. I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. [ISBN 81-87133-05-8].
  • David de Beth Hillel (1832) "travels"; madras publication;
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  • Lord, James Henry (1977) "The Jews in India and the Far East"; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN 0-8371-2615-0).
  • Poomangalam C. A. (1998) The Antiquities of the Knanaya Syrian Christians; Kottayam, Kerala.
  • James Hough (1893) "The History of Christianity in India".
  • K.V. Krishna Iyer (1971) Kerala’s Relations with the Outside World, pp. 70, 71 in "The Cochin Synagogue Quatercentenary Celebrations Commemoration Volume", Kerala History Association, Cochin.
  • Periplus Maris Erythraei "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea", (trans). Wilfred Schoff (1912), reprinted South Asia Books 1995 ISBN 81-215-0699-9
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  • Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur.
  • Koder S. 'History of the Jews of Kerala". The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. G. Menachery,1973.
  • Vellian Jacob (2001) Knanite community: History and culture; Syrian church series; vol. XVII; Jyothi Book House, Kottayam
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  • Bloch, J. (1954) "The grammatical structure of Dravidian Languages". tr. of 'Structure grammaticale des langues Dravidiennes' (1946) Poona: Deccan College Handbook Series.
Topics related to South India
(edit )
Geography Eastern GhatsGodavariKaveri (Cauvery)KrishnaNarmada RiverProtected areas of Tamil NaduSapta KonkanSatpura RangeVindhya rangeWestern Ghats.
Regions Carnatic (region)Chola NaduCoromandel CoastDeccanKonkanKongu NaduMalabar CoastMalnadPandya NaduRaichur DoabTelanganaTondai NaduTulu Nadu
History ChalukyasCheraCholasGangasHoysalasKadambasPallavaNizamPandyan kingdomRashtrakutasVijayanagara empire; Wodeyar.
Demographics AdivasisBadagasCochin JewsDravidiansKannadigasKodavasMalayalisSyrian Malabar NasraniTamil peopleTelugu peopleTuluvasBearys
Languages DakhaniKannadaKodavaKonkaniMalayalamTamilTeluguTuluBeary bashe
Political states Andhra PradeshKarnatakaKeralaPuducherryTamil Nadu.
Culture BharatanatyamCarnatic music • Hindustani music • Kannada literatureKathakaliMalayalam literatureMappila paattukalMohiniaattamMundum neriyathum; OnamSareeSopanamTamil LiteratureTelugu literatureYakshagana.
Economy Kerala Model
Flora and Fauna Agasthyamalai Biosphere ReserveAnnamalai HillsFlora and fauna of KarnatakaKerala BackwatersMalabar Coast moist forestsNilgiri HillsSouth Western Ghats montane rain forestsSouth Western Ghats moist deciduous forests.

  Results from FactBites:
 
South India: Information From Answers.com (5281 words)
South India is a socio-political region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians.
South India is a peninsula in the shape of a vast inverted triangle, bounded on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the north by the Vindhya and Satpura ranges.
South India's predominant language family is Dravidian, which is a family of 23 languages spoken in South Asia.
INDIA IN SOUTH AFRICAN HISTORY (3005 words)
One of the urgent and essential tasks in the efforts to rebuild South Africa as a "rainbow nation" is to rediscover and rewrite the history of the country.
Studies on Indians in South Africa concentrate on recounting the many laws and regulations enacted against the Indian settlers in violation of solemn promises and the numerous petitions by the Indian community to the Imperial Government in London and the authorities in South Africa, before Gandhiji decided in 1906 on defiance of unjust laws.
India's role was crucial in international action against apartheid until the early 1960s and remained important, though not central, until the defeat of apartheid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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