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Encyclopedia > South Asian Stone Age
History of the Indian Subcontinent
Stone Age 70,000–7000 BCE
Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BCE
Kuru Dynasty 1200–316 BCE
Maha Janapadas 700–321 BCE
Magadha Empire 684–321 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 600 BCE–1279 CE
Maurya Empire 321–184 BCE
Gupta Empire 240–550 CE
Chola Empire 848–1279 CE
Islamic Sultanates 979–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Delhi Sultanate 1210–1526
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Era 1526–1707
Maratha Empire 1674–1761
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Republic of India 1947 onwards
General Histories
India · Pakistan
Bangladesh · Sri Lanka
Nepal · Bhutan
Regional Histories
Punjab · South India · Assam
Pakistani Regions · Bengal
Specialized Histories
Timeline · Dynasties · Economy
Maritime · Mathematics · Military
Science and Technology

The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... It has been suggested that Ancient Metropolitan City be merged into this article or section. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... // The Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... // Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the... The history of South India begins with the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Bengal had been quite distant and cut off (by the rivers, especially the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) from the mainland of India for ages. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... The chronology of Indian mathematics spans from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1500 BC) and Vedic civilization (1500-500 BC) to modern India (21st century AD). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age) is the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. ... South Asia or Southern Asia is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ...



Homo erectus

Homo erectus lived in South Asia during the Pleistocene Epoch. Biface handaxe and cleaver traditions may have origninated in the middle Pleistocene (Kennedy 2000: 136). The beginning of the use of Acheulian and chopper-chopping tools of lower paleolithic may be dated to approx. the middle Pleistocene (Kennedy 2000: 160). Binomial name †Homo erectus (Dubois, 1892) Subspecies †Homo erectus palaeojavanicus †Homo erectus soloensis Homo erectus (upright man) is a hominin species that is believed to be an ancestor of modern humans (with Homo heidelbergensis usually treated as an intermediary step). ... The Pleistocene epoch is part of the geologic timescale, usually dated as 1. ... The Pleistocene epoch (pronounced like ply-stow-seen) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Acheulean (also spelled Acheulian) is the name of an industry of stone tools used by prehistoric hominids. ...

Homo sapiens

Cave sites in Sri Lanka have yielded the earliest record of modern homo sapiens in South Asia. They were dated to 34 kya. (Kennedy 2000: 180). mtDNA analysis dates the immigration of Homo sapiens to South Asia to 70 to 60 kya (see human migration). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... Human migration denotes any movement by humans from one locality to another, often over long distances or in large groups. ...

For finds from the Belan in southern Uttar Pradesh radio carbon data have indicated an age of 18-17 kya. Also palaeolithic rock art is well-known. Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش), also popularly known by its abbreviation UP, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... Rock art is a term in archaeology for any man-made markings made on natural stone. ...

At Bhimbetka humans lived from late Pleistocene to the mid-Holocene. The Narmada valley, the Sivaliks and the Potwar region have exhibit many vertebrate fossil remains and paleolithic tools. Bhimbetka is a place in Madhya Pradesh where the earliest known traces of human life in India were found. ...

Chert, jasper and quartzite were often used by humans during this period. Upper paleolithic tools were also found in Bhimbetka. Chert Chert is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ... Jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... Quartzite Quartzite is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ...


The Mesolithic in South Asia seems to be more diverse and innovative than in other parts of the world (eg. Europe). The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age) is the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...

The Bhimbetka site has revealed many cave paintings that date to the mesolithic period. Bhimbetka is a place in Madhya Pradesh where the earliest known traces of human life in India were found. ... Cave or rock paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ...


See Mehrgarh Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ...

See also Ruins in the Gulf of Cambay for the recent pseudoarchaeological claims of submerged neolithic (or even paleolithic) settlements. On May 19, 2001, Indias science and technology minister Murli Manohar Joshi announced the finding of the remains of an ancient city on the seabed of the Gulf of Cambay (also known as the Gulf of Khambat), along a nine kilometer stretch off the coast of Gujarat province. ... Pseudoarchaeology is an aspect of pseudohistory. ...


  • Kenneth A.R. Kennedy. 2000, God-Apes and Fossil Men: Palaeoanthropology of South Asia Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.



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