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Encyclopedia > South America

South America

File links The following pages link to this file: South America User talk:Morwen Category:Continent locator maps Categories: Continent locator maps | GFDL images ...

Area 17,840,000 km²
Population 382,000,000
Countries 12
Dependencies 3
Languages Portuguese, Spanish, French, Quechua, Aymara, Guaraní, Italian, English, German, Dutch, Japanese and many others
Time Zones UTC -2:00 (Brazil) to UTC -5:00 (Ecuador)
Largest Cities São Paulo
Buenos Aires
Rio de Janeiro
Lima
Bogotá
Santiago
Caracas

South America is a continent occupying the southern part of the supercontinent of America. It sits entirely in the Western Hemisphere, and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean. North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the city. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Bogota redirects here. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... The Americas (sometimes referred to as America) is the area including the land mass located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, generally divided into North America and South America. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... North American redirects here. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


South America was named in 1507 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a New World unknown to Europeans. Martin Waldseemüller (19th century painting). ... Matthias Ringmann (19th century painting) Matthias Ringmann (1482-1511) was a German cartographer and humanist poet. ... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


South America has an area of 17,780,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of the Earth's surface. As of 2005, its population was estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ...

Contents

Geography

A composite relief image of South America.
A composite relief image of South America.

South America occupies the major southern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which is sometimes considered a single continent[1] and South America a subcontinent).[2] It is south and east of the Colombia-Panama border according to most authorities or, according to a few, the Panama Canal which transects the Isthmus of Panama. Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. Geopolitically and geographically, all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is generally considered a part of North America alone and among the countries of Central America. Map of South America. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1712, 258 KB) HELLO PICTURE DONATED BY N.A.S.A A composed satellite photograph of South America in orthographic projection This is NASA Blue Marble image applied as a texture on a sphere using Art of Illusion program. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1712, 258 KB) HELLO PICTURE DONATED BY N.A.S.A A composed satellite photograph of South America in orthographic projection This is NASA Blue Marble image applied as a texture on a sphere using Art of Illusion program. ... A landmass is a large continuous area of land. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir) A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ...  The South American plate, shown in purple The South American Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...



The South American continent also includes various islands, many of which belong to countries on the continent. Many of the islands of the Caribbean (or West Indies) – e.g., the Leeward and Lesser Antilles – sit atop the Caribbean Plate, a tectonic plate with a diffuse topography. The islands of Aruba, Barbados, Trinidad, and Tobago sit on the northerly South American continental shelf. The Netherlands Antilles and the federal dependencies of Venezuela lie along the northerly South American. Geopolitically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part or subregion of North America.[3][4][5] The South American nations that border the Caribbean Sea – including Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana – are also known as Caribbean South America. Other islands are the Galápagos, Easter Island (in Oceania but belongs to Chile), Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé Island, and the Tierra del Fuego West Indies redirects here. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Detail of tectonic plates from: Tectonic plates of the world. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... The Federal Dependencies of Venezuela encompass all of Venezuelas off shore islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Venezuela. ... Caribbean South America is a region of South America consisting of the nations that border the Caribbean Sea, namely: Colombia Venezuela But culturally, the Guianas are most similar to the Caribbean: Guyana Suriname French Guiana Due to the regions closeness to the equator, its climate is very tropical. ... Galápagos redirects here. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Town San Juan Bautista, Robinson Crusoe, Cumberland Bay A fisherman with 2 Lobsters Robinson Crusoe Island, located in the Juan Fernández archipelago, which is situated in the middle of the South Pacific Ocean, 674 kilometres from the South American continent. ... Chiloé Island Location of Chiloé in Chile Chiloé Island (Spanish: Isla de Chiloé), also known as Isla Grande de Chiloé Big Island of Chiloé, is a South American island off the coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...

The Andes.
The Andes.
River in the Amazon rainforest.
River in the Amazon rainforest.

South America is home to the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela, the largest river (by volume), the Amazon River, the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m (22,841 ft)), the driest desert, the Atacama Desert, the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest, the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia, the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca, and the world's southernmost town, Puerto Toro, Chile. Subject: The Andes as seen from a plane flying from Santiago, Chile to Buenos Aires, Argentina Source: Property of User:Cantus File links The following pages link to this file: Andes Categories: GFDL images ... Subject: The Andes as seen from a plane flying from Santiago, Chile to Buenos Aires, Argentina Source: Property of User:Cantus File links The following pages link to this file: Andes Categories: GFDL images ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 221 KB)A river scene in the Amazon Rainforest Amazon river - Salinopolis - Para - Brazil Photographer: cesarpb Source: Stock. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 221 KB)A river scene in the Amazon Rainforest Amazon river - Salinopolis - Para - Brazil Photographer: cesarpb Source: Stock. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... Angel Falls (indigenous name: Kerepakupai merú) is the worlds highest free-falling waterfall at 979 m (3,212 ft), with a clear drop of 807 m (2,648 ft). ... This article is about the river. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Atacama Desert The Atacama Desert is a virtually rainless plateau in South America, extending 966 km (600 mi) between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... Central La Paz La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. ... Lake Titicaca sits 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level making it the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. ... Puerto Toro is a small Chilean town on Navarino Island. ...


South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and oil. The many resources of South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The inevitable fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often also causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify their production to drive them away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Petro redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species. For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anaconda (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Piranha (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... Species Tapirus bairdii Tapirus indicus Tapirus pinchaque Tapirus terrestris Tapirs (IPA:ˈteɪpÉ™r, pronounced as in taper, or IPA:təˈpɪər, pronounced as in tap-ear) are large browsing mammals, roughly pig-like in shape, with short, prehensile snouts. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


The largest country in South America by far, in both area and population, is Brazil, followed by Argentina. Regions in South America include the Andean States, the Guianas, the Southern Cone, and Brazil. The Andean States are nations in South America that contain portions of—or border—the Andes mountain range. ... Guiana (also known as the Guiana highlands or the Guiana shield) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ...


History

Main article: History of South America

While perhaps the last continent--except Antarctica-- to be inhabited by humans, South America has a history that spans the full range of human cultural and civilizational forms. ...

The rise of agriculture and domestication of animals

A pair of alpacas near an Inca burial site in Peru.
A pair of alpacas near an Inca burial site in Peru.

South America is thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering Land Bridge, which is now the Bering Strait. Some archaeological finds do not fit this theory, and have led to an alternative theory Pre-Siberian American Aborigines. The first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America date back to circa 6500 BCE, when potatoes, chillies and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple foodstuff today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BCE.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 307 KB) A pair of Alpacas from Sillustani, Peru. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 307 KB) A pair of Alpacas from Sillustani, Peru. ... Binomial name Lama pacos (Linnaeus, 1758) The Alpaca is one of two domesticated breeds of South American camel-like ungulates, derived from the wild guanaco. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... The chile pepper (also chili or chilli; from Spanish chile) is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family (Solanaceae). ... This article is on the plant. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta; also yuca in Spanish, and mandioca, aipim, or macaxera in Portuguese) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop for its edible starchy tuberous root. ...


By 2000 BCE many agrarian village communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding religious regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast which helped to establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.[6]


South Americans cultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BCE. Besides their use as sources of meat, and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods (maximum load for a llama is typically 40 kg).[6] Binomial name Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Llama (Lama glama) is a large camelid native to South America. ... Binomial name Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782) The Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the alpaca, which lives in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... Binomial name Lama pacos (Linnaeus, 1758) The Alpaca is one of two domesticated breeds of South American camel-like ungulates, derived from the wild guanaco. ...


Pre-Columbian civilizations

The Inca ruins of Machu Picchu.

The rise of agriculture and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1116 KB) This Picture was taken the 9th of April 2005 6. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1116 KB) This Picture was taken the 9th of April 2005 6. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ...


The earliest known settlements, and culture in South America, and the Americas altogether, are the Valdivia on the south east coast of Ecuador. The Valdivia Culture thrived in the coast of Ecuador, in a small hill next to the town of Valdivia, between 3500 and 1800 B.C. The discovery of this culture was done in 1956 by the Ecuadorian archeologist Emilio Estrada. ...


The earliest known South American civilization was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. The Chavín established a trade network and developed agriculture by 900 BCE, according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavín de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters. Chavín civilization spanned 900 BCE to 300 BCE. Norte Chico ranging over three river valleys north of present-day Lima: Supe, Fortaleza and Pativilca. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Chavín & Chavín influence The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in what is now the country of Peru. ... Chavín de Huantar is an archaeological site located 250 kilometers (155 miles) north of Lima, Peru. ...


The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now modern Colombia. They established a confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves. They were goldsmiths and farmers. For other uses, see Muska (disambiguation). ...


Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: Moche (100 BCE – 700 CE, at the northern coast of Peru); Tiuahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BCE – 1200 BCE, Bolivia); the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Paracas and Nazca (400 BCE – 800 CE, Peru); Wari or Huari Empire (600 – 1200, Central and northern Peru); Chimu Empire (1300 – 1470, Peruvian northern coast); Chachapoyas; and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000 – 1450, Bolivia and southern Peru). The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... A piece of a Paracas Textil, Ica, Peru The Paracas culture was an important Andean society between approximately 750 BCE and 100 CE that developed in the Paracas Peninsula, located in what today is the Paracas District of the Pisco Province in the Ica Region. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures The Nazca culture flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BC and 800 AD. They created the famous Nazca lines and built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. ... Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the southern Andes from about 500 to 1200 AD. The capital city is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ... The Chimú were the residents of Chimor with its capital at the city of Chan Chan in the Moche valley of Peru. ... The name Chachapoyas is shared by: The city of Chachapoyas, in the Amazonas region, Peru. ...


Holding their capital at the great cougar-shaped city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tawantin suyu, or "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca civilization was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some 9 to 14 million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture. There is evidence of excellent metalwork and even successful brain surgery in Inca civilization. Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map Synonyms Felis concolor The cougar (Puma concolor), also puma, mountain lion, or panther, is a mammal of the Felidae family, native to the Americas. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... In agriculture, a terrace is a levelled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed to slow or prevent the rapid run-off of irrigation water. ... Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. ...


European colonization

European Control over South America since 1700

In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries. Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty. ... A true duopoly is a specific type of oligopoly where only two producers exist in one market. ...


The Treaty established an imaginary line along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line known to comprehend most of the South American soil), would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal. As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Motto: Unity, Work, Progress Anthem: Cântico da Liberdade Capital Praia Largest city Praia Official language(s) Portuguese (official) and nine Portuguese Creoles Government Republic  - President Pedro Pires  - Prime Minister José Maria Neves Independence from Portugal   - Recognized July 5, 1975  Area    - Total 4,033 km² (165th)   1,557 sq mi... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ...


Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies. Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kē-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement...


European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) to which the native populations had no immune resistance, and systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mita, decimated the native population under Spanish control. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Flu redirects here. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ... Mita was mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. ...


African slaves were brought in large quantities for several centuries for a number of reasons, both political and economical, however, it was mainly because they were much better fitted than the American natives for hard labor in tropical climate, such as sugar cane plantations or gold mining. Slave redirects here. ...


The Spaniards were committed to convert their native subjects to Christianity, and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end. However, most initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with traditional idolatry and their polytheistic beliefs. Furthermore, the Spaniards did impose their language to the degree they did their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ...

A representation of a Mestizo, in a "Pintura de Castas" in the Colonial era. "From Spaniard and Amerindian woman, begets Mestizo".
A representation of a Mestizo, in a "Pintura de Castas" in the Colonial era. "From Spaniard and Amerindian woman, begets Mestizo".

Eventually the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. Essentially all of the mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of an amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers. Mestizos and the Indian natives were often forced to pay extraordinary taxes to the Spanish crown and were punished more harshly for disobeying the law. Representation of Mestizos during the Latin American colonial period. ... Representation of Mestizos during the Latin American colonial period. ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ...


Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers, this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal.


Guyana was a Portuguese, Dutch and eventually a British colony. The country was once partitioned into three, each being controlled by one of the colonial powers until the country was finally taken over fully by the British.


Independence

Main article: Hispanic American wars of independence
Map of South America in 1750 by Robert de Vaugondy.
Map of South America in 1750 by Robert de Vaugondy.

The South American possessions of the Spanish Crown won their independence between 1804 and 1824 in the South American Wars of Independence. Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and José de San Martín of Argentina were the most important leaders of the independence struggles. Bolívar led a great uprising in northern South America, then led his army southward towards the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru, Lima. Meanwhile, San Martín led an army from the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata across the Andes Mountains, meeting up with General Bernardo O'Higgins in Chile, and then marched northward to gain the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru. The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2295x1850, 4310 KB) Summary Modified the lighting of the previous photo Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2295x1850, 4310 KB) Summary Modified the lighting of the previous photo Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1688–1766), also known as Le Sieur or Monsieur Robert, and his son, Didier Robert de Vaugondy (c. ... Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808–1814, Latin America was, in these years, ruled by independent juntas. ... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South Americas successful struggle for independence from Spain. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Created in 1776, the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last and most shortlived viceroyalty created by Spain. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ...


In Brazil, a Portuguese colony, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese king Dom João VI, proclaimed the country's independence in 1822 and became Brazil's first Emperor. This was peacefully accepted by the crown in Portugal. Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro I of Brazil, known as Dom Pedro (October 12, 1798 - September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazils first Emperor. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... John VI (Portuguese João), the Clement (Port. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ...


Although Bolivar attempted to unify politically the Spanish-speaking parts of the continent into the "Gran Colombia", they rapidly became independent states without political connections between them, despite some later attempts such as the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation. Gran Colombia Capital Bogotá Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic History  - Established December 17, 1819  - Disestablished November 19, 1831 Gran Colombia (Spanish for Greater Colombia) is a name used today for the Republic of Colombia of the period 1819-1831. ... Capital Tacna Created 1836 Dissolved 1839 Demonym Peru-bolivian The Peru-Bolvian Confederacy was a short-lived state that existed in South America between the years 1836 and 1839. ...


A few countries did not gain independence until the 20th century:

French Guiana remains part of France as of 2008, and hosts the European Space Agency's principal spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre. ESA redirects here. ... A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ... The now-decommissioned Ariane 4 launch site The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais or CSG) is a French spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ...


Recent history

The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay were overthrown or displaced by U.S.-aligned military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s. To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed (on inter-state collaboration, see Operation Condor). Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the U.S. Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict (see Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement and Shining Path). Colombia currently faces an internal conflict, often described as a civil war, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxist guerrillas (FARC-EP) and now involves several illegal armed groups of both leftist and rightist leanings as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords and the Colombian state itself. Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s a wave of democratization came through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by encouraging free... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Peru Shining Path Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement Commanders Fernando Belaúnde Terry Alan García Alberto Fujimori Abimael Guzmán Óscar Ramírez Comrade ArtemioVíctor Polay Nestor Cerpa Cartolini It has been estimated that nearly 70,000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru... The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) was an insurgent guerrilla movement active in Peru from 1984 to 1997. ... The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru that launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980. ...


Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, in most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued this far.


International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without recurring to unorthodox economical policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century. Developing countries debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries, generally in quantities beyond that countrys ability to repay. ... The Argentine economic crisis was part of the situation that affected Argentinas economy during the late 1990s and early 2000s. ...


During the first decade of the 21st century, South American governments have drifted to the political left, with social democratic leaders being elected in Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela and left-leaning presidents in Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay, Nicaragua, and Paraguay. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Regions

The countries in the table below are categorised according to the scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles. Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated. The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations for statistical purposes The UN geoscheme divides the world into macro regions[1] and subregions, all in alphabetical order. ...

Unasur member states.
Unasur member states.
Name of territory,
with flag
Area
Population
(1 July 2008 est.)
Population density
per km² (per sq mi)
Capital
Flag of Argentina Argentina 2,766,890 km² (1,068,302 sq mi)  40,677,348 14.3/km² (37/sq mi) Buenos Aires
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia 1,098,580 km² (424,164 sq mi)   8,857,870 8.1/km² (21/sq mi) La Paz, Sucre[7]
Flag of Brazil Brazil 8,514,877 km² (3,287,612 sq mi) 191,908,598 22.0/km² (57/sq mi) Brasília
Flag of Chile Chile[8]   756,950 km² (292,260 sq mi)  16,454,143 21.1/km² (54.6/sq mi) Santiago
Flag of Colombia Colombia 1,138,910 km² (439,736 sq mi)  45,013,674 37.7/km² (97.6/sq mi) Bogotá
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador   283,560 km² (109,483 sq mi)  13,927,650 47.1/km² (122/sq mi) Quito
Flag of the Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (UK)[9]    12,173 km² (4,700 sq mi)       2,967 0.24/km² (0.6/sq mi) Stanley
Flag of French Guiana French Guiana (France)    91,000 km² (35,135 sq mi)     209,000 2.1/km² (5.4/sq mi) Cayenne
Flag of Guyana Guyana   214,970 km² (83,000 sq mi)     770,794 3.6/km² (9.3/sq mi) Georgetown
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay   406,750 km² (157,047 sq mi)   6,347,884 15.6/km² (40.4/sq mi) Asunción
Flag of Peru Peru 1,285,220 km² (496,226 sq mi)  27,925,628 21.7/km² (56.2/sq mi) Lima
Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and
South Sandwich Islands
(UK)
[10]
    3,093 km² (1,194 sq mi)           20 0/km² (0/sq mi) Grytviken
Flag of Suriname Suriname   163,270 km² (63,039 sq mi)     438,144 2.7/km² (7/sq mi) Paramaribo
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay   176,220 km² (68,039 sq mi)   3,477,778 19.4/km² (50.2/sq mi) Montevideo
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela   912,050 km² (352,144 sq mi)  26,414,815 27.8/km² (72/sq mi) Caracas

See Also: List of South American countries by population Subject: South American Community of Nations member states. ... Subject: South American Community of Nations member states. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470... For other uses, see Sucre (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Country Region State Brazilian Federal District Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - Total 5,802 km² (2,240. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Bogota redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Falkland_Islands. ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cayenne is the capital of the French overseas région of French Guiana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands. ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... Cumberland Bay and Thatcher Peninsula with King Edward Cove (Grytviken) Grytviken (Swedish for Pot Cove; Grytvika/Grytviken in Norwegian) is the principal settlement in the United Kingdom territory of South Georgia in the South Atlantic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ... Paramaribo (nicknamed Parbo) is the capital of Suriname, located in the Paramaribo district, with a population of roughly 250,000 people. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... For other uses, see Montevideo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... This is a list of continental South American countries/dependencies by population. ...


Economy

View of a financial district in São Paulo, Brazil.
View of a financial district in São Paulo, Brazil.
Buenos Aires, Argentina financial district.
Buenos Aires, Argentina financial district.
Lima, Peru financial center.
Santiago, Chile financial center at night.
Santiago, Chile financial center at night.
View of a financial center in Bogotá, Colombia.

Due to histories of high inflation in nearly all South American countries, interest-rates and thus investment remain high and low, respectively. Interest rates are usually twice that of the United States. For example, interest-rates are about 22% in Venezuela and 23% in Suriname. The exception is Chile, which has been implementing free market economic policies since establishing military dictatorship in 1973 and increased its social spending since the return of democratic rule in the early 1990s. This has led to economic stability and interest rates in the low single digits. The economy of South America comprises about 500 million people living in 14 states and territories. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 543 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 543 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Buenos_Aires-Retiro(CatalinasNorte)-P3090002. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Buenos_Aires-Retiro(CatalinasNorte)-P3090002. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Vitacura_at_night. ... Image File history File links Vitacura_at_night. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bogota redirects here. ...


The Union of South American Nations is a planned continent-wide free trade zone to unite two existing free-trade organizations – Mercosur and the Andean Community. Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... A free trade zone (FTZ) or Export processing zone (EPZ) is one or more areas of a country where tariffs and quotas are eliminated and bureaucratic requirements are lowered in hopes of attracting new business and foreign investments. ... A South Korean container ship approaching the Bay Bridge in San Francisco Bay. ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción... States of CAN The Andean Community of Nations (in Spanish: Comunidad Andina de Naciones, abbreviated CAN) is a trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. ...


The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is considered to be larger than in most other continents. In Venezuela, Paraguay, Bolivia and many other South American countries, the richest 20% may own over 60% of the nation's wealth, while the poorest 20% may own less than 5%. This wide gap can be seen in many large South American cities where makeshift shacks and slums lie adjacent to skyscrapers and upper-class luxury apartments. Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ...

Country GDP (nominal) of 2006[11] GDP (PPP) of 2005[12] GDP (PPP) per capita of 2005[12] HDI of 2007
Flag of Argentina Argentina &&&&&&&&&0214058.&&&&&0214,058 &&&&&&&&&0419600.&&&&&0419,600 &&&&&&&&&&011076.&&&&&011,076 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.869
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia &&&&&&&&&&011163.&&&&&011,163 &&&&&&&&&&034200.&&&&&034,200 &&&&&&&&&&&03623.&&&&&03,623 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.695
Flag of Brazil Brazil &&&&&&&&01067962.&&&&&01,067,962 &&&&&&&&01585100.&&&&&01,585,100 &&&&&&&&&&&08606.&&&&&08,606 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.800
Flag of Chile Chile &&&&&&&&&0145841.&&&&&0145,841 &&&&&&&&&0199800.&&&&&0199,800 &&&&&&&&&&012277.&&&&&012,277 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.867
Flag of Colombia Colombia &&&&&&&&&0135836.&&&&&0135,836 &&&&&&&&&0264000.&&&&&0264,000 &&&&&&&&&&&06314.&&&&&06,314 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.791
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador &&&&&&&&&&040800.&&&&&040,800 &&&&&&&&&&086400.&&&&&086,400 &&&&&&&&&&&06541.&&&&&06,541 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.772
Flag of French Guiana French Guiana (France) &&&&&&&&&&&03524.&&&&&03,524[13] N/A &&&&&&&&&&017336.&&&&&017,336 (nominal, 2006)[13] N/A
Flag of Guyana Guyana &&&&&&&&&&&&0896.&&&&&0896 &&&&&&&&&&&02393.&&&&&02,393 &&&&&&&&&&&03186.&&&&&03,186 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.750
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay &&&&&&&&&&&09110.&&&&&09,110 &&&&&&&&&&023000.&&&&&023,000 &&&&&&&&&&&03905.&&&&&03,905 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.755
Flag of Peru Peru &&&&&&&&&0107000.&&&&&0107,000 &&&&&&&&&0217500.&&&&&0217,500 &&&&&&&&&&&07574.&&&&&07,574 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.773
Flag of Suriname Suriname &&&&&&&&&&&01597.&&&&&01,597 &&&&&&&&&&&02591.&&&&&02,591 &&&&&&&&&&&05770.&&&&&05,770 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.774
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay &&&&&&&&&&019308.&&&&&019,308 &&&&&&&&&&030700.&&&&&030,700 &&&&&&&&&&&09277.&&&&&09,277 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.852
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela &&&&&&&&&0181862.&&&&&0181,862 &&&&&&&&&0262800.&&&&&0262,800 &&&&&&&&&&&09888.&&&&&09,888 0Expression error: Unexpected < operator.Expression error: Unexpected < operator 0.792

For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

Culture and language

Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity.
Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity.

Portuguese and Spanish are the most spoken languages in South America, each spoken by around 90% of the continent's population. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, which holds nearly 50% of the South American population. Spanish is the official language of most countries of the continent. Dutch is the official language of Suriname; English is the official language of Guyana, although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country such as Hindi, Arabic, and various indigenous dialects. English is also spoken in the Falkland Islands. French is the official language of French Guiana. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...


Indigenous languages of South America include, among several others, Quechua in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia; Guaraní in Paraguay and, to a much less extent, in Bolivia; Aymara in Bolivia, Peru and less often in Chile, while Mapudungun is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile and, more rarely, Argentina. At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua in Ecuador,Peru and Bolivia, Aymara also in Bolivia, and guarani in Paraguay) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Guaraní (gwah-rah-nee) [gwarani] (local name: avañeẽ) is a language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... Mapudungun test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapudungun (mapu means earth and dungun means to speak) is a language isolate spoken in central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche (mapu is earth and che means people) people. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Other languages found in South America include Hindi and Indonesian in Suriname; Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Chile; and German in certain pockets, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Peru and Paraguay and in many regions of the southern states of Brazil (Riograndenser Hunsrückisch is the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival). Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentinean Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese-speakers in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru and Ecuador. Arabic speakers, often of Lebanese, Syrian or Palestinian descent, can be found in Arab communities in Brazil, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina, and less frequently in Colombia and Paraguay. Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (hunsriqueano riograndense) is a Brazilian variation of the German dialect Hunsrückisch, which is originally from the Hunsrück region of Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz). ... Stefan RamuÅ‚ts Dictionary of the Pomeranian (Kashubian) language, published in Kraków, 1893 Pomeranian language edition of Wikipedia Pomeranian is a group of Lechitic dialects which were spoken in the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania, between the Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Welsh Peoples Museum, Trelew Avenida Road in Fontana National Bank at night Trelew is a city in the province of Chubut, in the Argentine Patagonia, with a population of about 102,000 as per the 2001 census [INDEC]. The city has a small commercial center, several neighborhoods, and some... Rawson is the name of two towns in the United States: Rawson, North Dakota Rawson, Ohio Rawson is the name of the capital of Chubut Province in Argentina Rawson, Chubut, Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


In most of the continent's countries, the upper classes and well-educated people regularly study English, French, German or Italian. In those areas where tourism is a significant industry, English and some other European languages are often spoken. There are small Spanish speaking areas in Southernmost Brazil, due to the proximity of Uruguay.


South Americans are culturally enriched by the historic connection with Europe, especially Spain and Portugal, and the impact of mass culture from the United States of America. Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


South American nations have a rich variety of music. Some of the most famous genres include cumbia from Colombia, samba and bossa nova from Brazil, and tango from Argentina and Uruguay. Also well known is the non-commercial folk genre Nueva Canción movement which was founded in Argentina and Chile and quickly spread to the rest of the Latin America. People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo (mixed) of South American rhythms such as the Marinera (from Lima), the Tondero (from Piura), the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse, the soulful Arequipan Yaravi and the early 20th century Paraguayan Guarania. In the late 20th century, Rock en Español emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay. Brazil has a Portuguese-language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres. Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music in The United States, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties. ... Monument to the dance and music of cumbia in El Banco. ... For other uses, see Samba (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Tango is a style of music that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. ... Nueva Canción (Spanish for new song) is a movement in Latin American music that was developed first in the Southern Cone of South America - Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay - during the 1950s and 1960s, but also popularized shortly after in Central America. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A caj n (Spanish for crate, drawer, or box, pronounced ka. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Guarania is a style of music created in Paraguay by musician José Asunción Flores in 1925 with the purpose of expressing the character of the Paraguayan people. ... Rock en español is the latest generation of Spanish language rock and roll. ...


The literature of South America has attracted considerable critical and popular acclaim, especially with the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s, and the rise of authors such as Gabriel García Márquez in novels, and Pablo Neruda and Jorge Luis Borges in other genres. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927[1] in Aracataca, Colombia) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, editor, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Borges redirects here. ...


Because of South America's broad ethnic mix, South American cuisine takes on African, American Indian, Asian and European influences. Bahia, Brazil, is especially well-known for its West African-influenced cuisine. Argentines, Chileans and Uruguayans regularly consume wine, while Argentina along with Paraguay, Uruguay and people in southern Chile and Brazil enjoy a sip of Mate a regional brewed herb cultivated for its drink, the paraguayan version, Terere, differing from the others in that it's served cold. Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapevine produced in Peru and Chile, however, there is a recurring dispute between those countries regarding its origins. Peruvian cuisine mixes elements from Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, African, Andean and Amazonic food. Latin American cuisine is a phrase that refers to typical foods, beverages, and cooking styles common to many of the countries and cultures in Latin America. ... Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ... Mate may refer to: Relationships: Mate (term), a term for a friend, especially in the United Kingdom and Australasia; also used to address strangers One of a pair of animals, sometimes also applied to a human partner; see mating Nautical: A deck officer on a merchant marine vessel, usually ranked... Tereré is a drink made of specially prepared maté. It is slightly toasted and rests for 8 months before it is ready to drink. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

Descendents of Indigenous peoples, such as the Quechua and Aymara, make up the majority of the population in Peru and Bolivia, and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies. Exceptions to this include Argentina and Uruguay where Southern European descent make up the majority of the population. Mestizo (mixed white and amerindian) are the largest ethnic group in Chile, Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. Suriname is the only country in South America where Asians form the majority of the population. Creoles are the largest ethnic group in French Guiana but they also form a large part of the population in Guyana, Venezuela, Suriname, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. Brazil is the South American country with the biggest ethnic diversity, with large numbers of Blacks, Whites and mulattoes, and also with significant number of Asians and Amerindians. For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Descent may refer to: Media Descent (computer game), a computer game released by Parallax Software in the mid-1990s Descent: Freespace, a computer game series released by Volition Inc. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Representation of Mulattos during the Latin American colonial period Mulatto (also Mulato) is a term of Spanish and/or Portuguese origin describing first-generation offspring of African and European ancestry. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ...


Indigenous peoples

Remains of the Tulor settlement (800 BC) near San Pedro de Atacama Pukará de Quitor The Atacameños (also called Lickan-antay) were a Native American people who inhabited the Anden portion of the Atacama Desert. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... The Awá are an endangered indigenous group of people living in the eastern Amazon forests of Brazil. ... The Banawa (Banawá) are an indigenous group of just seventy people Brazil, where they are concentrated in a single village and two smaller settlements containing a single extended family each. ... Caiapos are a Brazilian indigenous tribe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Diaguita, also called Diaguita-Calchaquí, are a group of South American indigenous peoples. ... Chayahuita is an indiginous American language spoken by thousands of native Chayahuita people in South America. ... The Enxet are an indigenous people of about 17,000 living in the Gran Chaco region of western Paraguay. ... Ge are the people who speak the Gê languages of northern South American Carribean coast, their society is or was highly egalitarian and anti-authoritarian, because of that they resisted the Incas as well as the Spaniards. ... For other uses, see Guaraní (disambiguation). ... The Juris were a tribe of South American Indigenous people, formerly occupying the country between the rivers Ica (lower Putumayo) and Yapura, north-western Brazil. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... The Matsés are an indigenous tribe of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... Shipibo (also Shipibo-Conibo, Shipibo-Konibo) is a Panoan language spoken in Peru by approximately 26,000 speakers. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people.[1] The people who speak the Shuar language live in tropical rainforest between the upper mountains of the Andes, and the tropical rainforests and savannas of the Amazonian lowlands, in Ecuador and Peru. ... Tupinambá redirects here. ... The Xucuru are an indigenous people with a population of approximately 8,500, living in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... There are approximately 3,000 to 4,000 Yagua people in northeastern Peru. ... The Zaparos a tribe or group of tribes of South American Indians of the river Napo. ... The Arawakan languages are an indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... Wai Wai is a popular snack in Nepal, Sikkim and parts of northern West Bengal. ...

References

Content notes

^ Continent Model: In some parts of the world South America is viewed as a subcontinent of America[14][2] (a single continent in these areas), for example Latin America, Latin Europe, and Iran. In most of the countries with English as an official language, however, it is considered a continent. See Continent.
World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Olympic symbols. International Olympic Committee. 2002. Lausanne: Olympic Museum and Studies Centre. The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania).
  2. ^ a b Ambassador Rubens how do I make a violin A. Barbosa. MERCOSUL IN THE REGIONAL CONTEXT. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  3. ^ South America Atlas National Geographic
  4. ^ North America Atlas National Geographic
  5. ^ Unstats Americas
  6. ^ a b c O'Brien, Patrick. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. pp. 25
  7. ^ La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia; Sucre is the judicial seat.
  8. ^ Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania. Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile; Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.
  9. ^ Claimed by Argentina.
  10. ^ Also claimed by Argentina, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean are commonly associated with Antarctica (due to proximity) and have no permanent population, only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors.
  11. ^ Source: [1]
  12. ^ a b Source: [2]
  13. ^ a b (French) INSEE-CEROM. Les comptes économiques de la Guyane en 2006 : premiers résultats. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  14. ^ South America Travel, Tour To South America Continent. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.

Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470... For other uses, see Sucre (disambiguation). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Wikijunior South America
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
South America
Latin America Portal

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The Americas, also known as America, are the lands of the western hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture. ... The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... The economy of South America comprises about 500 million people living in 14 states and territories. ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ... This is a gallery of flags of South American countries and affiliated international organizations. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the peoples of Latin America, and includes both high culture (literature, high art) and popular culture (music, folk art and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices. ... Middle America For other uses, see Middle America (disambiguation). ... CONMEBOL or CSF (Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol, South American Football Confederation) is the governing body of football in most of South America. ... Kukenan tepui. ...

External links

News
Sports

South America also has Rugby, Auto Racing, Golf, and Kayaking.

Music
Tourism
Articles
  • "The failure of Latin America": an article by David Gallagher in the TLS, February 29, 2008


Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
South America travel guide (1024 words)
South America is a sub-continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere.
South America consists of the countries of: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands (UK), French Guiana (Fr.), Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.
South America is home to many interesting species of animals including parrots, tarantulas, snakes, and mammals.There are not many large predators in South America, but the Jaguar is one of the strongest predators in the world.
South America - MSN Encarta (1022 words)
The Orinoco River drains a lowland in the north; to the south lies the Paraguay-Paraná basin.
The lowest point in South America (40 m/ 131 ft below sea level) is on Península Valdés in eastern Argentina, and the greatest elevation (6,960 m/22,834 ft) is atop Aconcagua in western Argentina, the highest peak in the Western Hemisphere.
Farther south are the shallow valleys and flat plains of the Gran Chaco and the Pampas, both of which merge with the swampy floodplains of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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