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Encyclopedia > South African Republic
Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
South African Republic
18561877
18811902

Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Transvaalse Volkslied
Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica
Capital Pretoria

25°43′S, 28°14′E 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Transvaal. ... Flag of Transvaal - Vierkleur. For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Transvaal. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (827 × 827 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Illustration of arms from National and Provincial Symbols of the Republic of South Africa by F G Brownell. ... Flag of Transvaal - Vierkleur The Flag of Transvaal is the flag of the Transvaal province of South Africa. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Image File history File links Map of the South African Republic (1854-1900) - Transvaal File links The following pages link to this file: South African Republic ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ...

Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans
Religion Dutch Reformed Church
Government Republic
President
 - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
 - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger
 - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting)
History
 - Established June 27, 1857
 - British annexation 1877-1881
 - Second Boer War October 11, 1899
 - Treaty of Vereeniging May 31, 1902

The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, or ZAR), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent Afrikaner/Boer country in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. It is not to be confused with the present-day South Africa; rather, it occupied the area later known as the South African province of Transvaal. The ZAR was established in 1852, and was independent from 1856 to 1877, then again from 1881 to 1900 after the First Boer War, in which the Boers regained their independence from the British Empire. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... List of the presidents of the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic): Categories: | ... Son of Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (17 September 1819 - 19 May 1901) was the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 20,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Vereeniging was a treaty signed on 31 May 1902 to end the Second Anglo-Boer War between the South African Republic and the Orange Free State Republic on one side and the Great Britain on the other. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Afrikaners are an ethnic group of Northwestern European ancestry and associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... The First Boer War (Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally First Freedom War) also known as the First Anglo-Boer War or the Transvaal War, it was fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


In 1900 the ZAR was annexed by the United Kingdom during the Second Boer War but the Boers officially gave in only in 1902. In 1910 it became the Transvaal province of the Union of South Africa. The first president of the South African Republic was Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, elected in 1857, son of the famous Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, who commanded the Boers to victory at the Battle of Blood River. Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 20,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Son of Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (17 September 1819 - 19 May 1901) was the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Voortrekker Monument built in 1949. ... Andries Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (November 27, 1798 – 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic in present-day South Africa. ... Combatants Voortrekkers Zulu Commanders Andries Pretorius Dambuza Ndlela kaSompisi Strength about 470 men between 10,000 and 20,000 men Casualties 3 wounded 3,000 dead The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier) was fought on 16 December 1838 on the banks of the Blood River (Bloedrivier) in...


The capital was established at Pretoria (founded 1855), though for a brief period Potchefstroom served as the seat of government. The parliament, the Volksraad, had 24 members. Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Potchefstroom Flag Potchefstroom is a large academic town with the North-West University, situated on the banks of the Mooi River (literally pretty river), 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg in the North West Province of South Africa. ... The Volksraad was the parliament of the former South African Republic (ZAR) (also sometimes referred to as the Transvaal Republic), which existed from 1857 to 1902 in part of what is now the Republic of South Africa. ...

Contents

History

Early history

The Transvaal region is known to have been inhabited by the earliest ancestors of modern South Africans, the Khoisan, for tens of thousands of years, and by iron-age ancestors of modern Bantu-language speaking South Africans, such as the Sotho, Tswana, Pedi, Venda and Transvaal-Ndebele peoples since the mid fourth century AD. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the area that would eventually become the South African Republic was home to thousands of human settlements, including chiefdoms, villages and subtantial towns such as Dithakong, whose population was comparable in size to that of contemporary early nineteenth century Cape Town. The residents of these villages, towns and cities engaged in farming, cattle keeping, iron, copper and tin mining, metal tool making, and long distance direct and indirect trade. In 1817, the region was invaded by Mzilikazi, originally a lieutenant of Zulu King Shaka who was pushed from his own territories to the west by the Zulu armies. After a brief alliance with the Transvaal Ndebele, Mzilikazi became leader of the Ndebele people. (The Ndebele called themselves Matabele, but because of linguistic differences, were called Ndebele by the local Sotho-Tswana.) Mzilikazi's invasion of the Transvaal was one part of a vast series of inter-related wars, forced migrations and famines that indigenous people and later historians came to call the Difaqane or mfecane. In the Transvaal, the Difaqane severely weakened and disrupted the towns and villages of the Sotho-Tswana chiefdoms, their political systems and economies, making them very weak, and easy to colonize by the European settlers who would shortly arrive from the south. Sesotho is a language spoken in southern Africa. ... Venda, also known as Tshivenda, or Luvenda, is a Bantu language. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Mzilikazi (meaning the path of blood) (ca. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Only known drawing of Shaka standing with the long throwing assegai and the heavy shield in 1824 - four years before his death Shaka (sometimes spelled Tshaka, Tchaka or Chaka; ca. ... The Matabele are a branch of the Zulus who split from King Shaka in the early 1820s under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former general in Shakas army. ... Mfecane (isiZulu), also known as the Difaqane or Lifaqane (Sesotho), is an African expression used about chaos and disturbances. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


As Ndebele moved into Transvaal, the remnants of the Bavenda retreated north to the Waterberg and Zoutpansberg, while Mzilikazi made his chief kraal north of the Magaliesberg mountains near present day Pretoria, with an important military outpost to guard trade routes to the north at Mosega, not far from the site of the modern town of Zeerust. As the Ndebele conquered the Transvaal they absorbed many members of the conquered Sotho-Tswana and other tribes and established a military despotism. From about 1827 until about 1836, Mzilikazi dominated the southwestern Transvaal. Before that time the region between the Vaal and Limpopo was scarcely known to Europeans, but in 1829, Mzilikazi was visited at Mosega by Robert Moffat, and between that date and 1836 a few British traders and explorers visited the country and made known its principal features. Zeerust is an agricultural town situated in North West Province, South Africa. ... Robert Moffat (born December 21, 1795 in Ormiston (Haddingtonshire); died August 9, 1883 in Leigh near Tunbridge Wells) was a Scottish Congregationalist missionary to Africa. ...


Colonisation

Statue of Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, the first President of the ZAR in Pretoria.
Statue of Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, the first President of the ZAR in Pretoria.

In the 1830s and the 1840s, descendants of Dutch and other settlers, collectively known as Boers (farmers) or Voortrekkers (pioneers), left the British Cape Colony, in what was to be called the Great Trek. With their military technology, they overcame the local forces with relative ease, and formed several small Boer republics in areas beyond British control, without a central government. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Son of Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (17 September 1819 - 19 May 1901) was the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria... // Events and Trends Technology First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. War, peace and politics First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Trekboers in the Karoo. ...


From 1835 until 1838, Boer settlers started to cross the Vaal and they had several skirmishes with the Ndebele. On October 16, 1836, a Boer laager (or fortified circle of wagons) led by Andries Hendrik Potgieter, was attacked by an Ndebele force of about 5,000, who looted all of Potgiester's livestock, but were unable to defeat the laager. One of the Sotho-Tswana chiefs, Chief Moroko of the Barolong people, who had earlier fled the Difaqane to the south to create the settlement of Thaba Nchu, sent fresh livestock to Potgieter to draw his party's wagons back to the safety of the Rolong stronghold of Thaba Nchu, where the Sotho-Tswana chief offered the Boers food and protection. By January 1837, an alliance of 107 Boers, sixty Rolong, and forty Coloured men, organized as a commando under the leadership of Potgieter and Gert Maritz, attacked Mzilikazi's settlement at Mosega, which suffered heavy losses, and early in 1838 Mzilikazi fled north beyond the Limpopo (to current day Zimbabwe), never to return to Tranvaal. Andries Hendrik Potgieter, after the flight of the Ndebele, issued a proclamation in which he declared the country which Mzilikazi had abandoned and forfeited to the emigrant farmers, but also denying land rights to the Sotho-Tswana who had saved him and assisted in the defeat of the Mzilikazi and the Ndebele. After the Ndebele and Sotho-Tswana claims to the territory had been suppressed by the Boer political leadership, many Boer farmers trekked across the Vaal and occupied parts of the Transvaal, often near Sotho-Tswana villages, dividing the population up as forced laborers. Into these areas, still partly populated by remnants of the Ndebele and Sotho-Tswana, there was also a considerable immigration of members of the various Sotho-Tswana chiefdoms who had fled during the Difaqane. The Battle of Waterloo by William Sadler. ... Andries Hendrik Potgieter (19 December 1792 - 16 December 1852) was a Voortrekker leader. ... Barolong is a clan name for the Batswana living in North West in South Africa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Andries Hendrik Potgieter (19 December 1792 - 16 December 1852) was a Voortrekker leader. ...


The first permanent European settlement north of the Vaal was made by a party under Potgieter's leadership. That commandant had in March 1838 gone to Natal, and had endeavoured to avenge the massacre of Piet Retief and his comrades by the Zulus. Jealous, however, of the preference shown by the Dutch farmers in Natal to another commandant, Gert Maritz, Potgieter speedily recrossed the Drakensberg, and in November 1838 he and his followers settled by the banks of the Mooi river, founding a town named Potchefstroom in honour of Potgieter. This party instituted an elementary form of government, and in 1840 entered into a loose confederation with the Natalia Republic Boer, and also with the Boers south of the Vaal, whose headquarters were at Winburg. In 1842, however, Potgieter's party declined to go to the help of the Natal Boers, then involved in conflict with the British. Up to 1845 Potgieter continued to exercise authority over the Boer communities on both sides of the Vaal. A determination to keep clear of the British and to obtain access to the outer world through an independent channel led Potgieter and a considerable number of the Potchefstroom and Winburg burghers in 1845 to migrate towards Delagoa Bay. Potgieter settled in the Zoutpansberg, while other farmers chose as headquarters a place on the inner slopes of the Drakensberg, where they founded a village called Andries Ohrigstad. It proved fever-ridden and was abandoned, a new village being laid out on higher ground and named Lydenburg in memory of their sufferings at the abandoned settlement. Meanwhile, the southern districts abandoned by Potgieter and his comrades were occupied by other Boers. These were joined in 1848 by Andries W. J. Pretorius, who became commandant of the Potchefstroom settlers. Potchefstroom Flag Potchefstroom is a large academic town with the North-West University, situated on the banks of the Mooi River (literally pretty river), 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg in the North West Province of South Africa. ... Flag The Natalia Republic was located in the southern half of this region Capital Pietermaritzburg Language(s) Dutch, Zulu Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic Prime Minister  - 1839 – 1843 Andries Pretorius Historical era 19th century  - Republic founded October 12, 1839  - Battle of Blood River December 16, 1838  - Alliance with Zulu... Winburg is a small mixed farming town in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Andries Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (November 27, 1798 – 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic in present-day South Africa. ...

Coat of arms of the South African Republic displayed on Kruger's wagon
Coat of arms of the South African Republic displayed on Kruger's wagon

On January 17, 1852, the United Kingdom signed the Sand River Convention treaty with 5,000 or so of the Boer families (about 40,000 white people), recognizing their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River, or the Transvaal. The Orange Free State, a sister Boer republic, was granted independence around the same time. But while they had obtained independence, they were far from being a united people. When Pretorius conducted the negotiations which led to the signing of the Sand River Convention he did so without consulting the volksraad, and Potgieter's party accused him of usurping power and aiming at domination over the whole country. However, the volksraad, at a meeting held at Rustenburg on March 16, 1852, ratified the convention, Potgieter and Pretorius having been publicly reconciled on the morning of the same day. Both leaders were near the end of their careers; Potgieter died in March and Pretorius in July 1853. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 1242 pixel, file size: 406 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image history of en:Image:Kruger logo wagon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 1242 pixel, file size: 406 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image history of en:Image:Kruger logo wagon. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Sand River Convention was a convention whereby Great Britain formally recognised the independence of the Boers living beyond the Vaal River. ... The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... The Volksraad was the parliament of the former South African Republic (ZAR) (also sometimes referred to as the Transvaal Republic), which existed from 1857 to 1902 in part of what is now the Republic of South Africa. ...


On the death of Andries Pretorius his son Marthinus W. Pretorius (q.v.) had been appointed his successor, and to the younger Pretorius was due the first efforts to end the discord and confusion which prevailed among the burghers - a discord heightened by ecclesiastical strife, the points at issue being questions not of faith but of church government. In 1856 a series of public meetings, summoned by Pretorius, was held at different districts in the Transvaal for the purpose of discussing and deciding whether the time had not arrived for substituting a strong central government in place of the petty district governments which had hitherto existed. The result was that a representative assembly of delegates was elected, empowered to draft a constitution. Statue of Marthinus Wessel Pretorius in Pretoria Son of Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (17 September 1819 - 19 May 1901) was the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic. ...


Creation

In December 1856, the Transvaal assembly met at Potchefstroom, and for three weeks was engaged in modelling the constitution 1856 of the country. The name Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (South African Republic) was adopted as the title of the state, and the new constitution made provision for a volksraad to which members were to be elected by the people for a period of two years, and in which the legislative function was vested. The administrative authority was to be vested in a president, aided by an executive council. It was stipulated that members both of the volksraad and council should be members of the Dutch Reformed Church, and of European blood. No equality of coloured people with the white inhabitants would be tolerated either in church or state. In reviewing an incident so important in the history of the Transvaal as the appointment of the Potchefstroom assembly it is of interest to note the gist of the complaint among the Boers which led to this revolution in the government of the country as it had previously existed. In his History of South Africa Theal says: "The community of Lydenburg was accused of attempting to domineer over the whole country, without any other right to pre-eminence than that of being composed of the earliest inhabitants, a right which it had forfeited by its opposition to the general weal." In later years this complaint was precisely that of the Uitlanders at Johannesburg. To conciliate the Boers of Zoutpansberg the new-born assembly at Potchefstroom appointed Stephanus Schoeman, the commandantgeneral of the Zoutpansberg district, commandant-general of the whole country. This offer was, however, declined by Schoeman, and both Zoutpansberg and Lydenburg indignantly repudiated the new assembly and its constitution. The executive council, which had been appointed by the Potchefstroom assembly, with Pretorius as president, now took up a bolder attitude: they deposed Schoeman from all authority, declared Zoutpansberg in a state of blockade, and denounced the Boers of the two northern districts as rebels. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Uitlanders (outlanders) was a term used to describe foreigners and non-citizen settlers in the Orange Free State in South Africa, who accounted for around three quarters of the white population of the Orange Free State but who did not have voting rights and were taxed highly. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Historical nation-states of present-day
South Africa

(including Boer republics and TBVC states)

Swellendam (1795)
Graaff Reinet (1795-1796)
Waterboer's Land (1813-1871)
Adam Kok's Land (1825-1861)
Winburg (1836-1844)
Potchefstroom (1837-1844)
Potchefstroom, North West (1844-1848)
Republic of Utrecht (1854-1858)
Lydenburg Republic (1856-1860)
Nieuw Republiek (1884-1888)
Griqualand East (1861-1879)
Griqualand West (1870)
Klein Vrystaat (1886-1891)
Stellaland (1882-1885)
Goshen (South Africa) (1882-1883)
Zululand (1816-1897)
Natalia Republic (1839–1843)
Orange Free State (1854-1902)
South African Republic (1857-1902)
Union of South Africa (1910–1961)
Bophuthatswana (1977-1994)
Ciskei (1981-1994)
Transkei (1976-1994)
Venda (1979-1994)
Republic of South Africa (1961-present)
The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... Swellendam Municipality is a municipality located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. ... Graaff Reinet, a town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, 185 miles by rail NW by N of Port Elizabeth. ... Griquatown is a cattle farming town situated in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. ... Philippolis is a small town in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Winburg is a small mixed farming town in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Potchefstroom is a large academic town with the North-West University, situated on the banks of the Mooi River (literally pretty river), 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg in the North West Province of South Africa. ... Potchefstroom is a large academic town with the North-West University, situated on the banks of the Mooi River (literally pretty river), 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg in the North West Province of South Africa. ... Utrecht is a small town in the foothills of the Balele Mountains in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ghghghgh Vryheid is a coal mining and cattle ranching town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The Griqua are a subgroup of South Africas Coloured population, descended from an admixture of European settlers and the Khoisan peoples they encountered on their initial arrival at the Cape. ... The Griqua are a subgroup of South Africas Coloured population, descended from an admixture of European settlers and the Khoisan peoples they encountered on their initial arrival at the Cape. ... Flag of Klein Vrystaat, almost identical to that of Transvaal Klein Vrystaat (Afrikaans:Little Free State) was a short-lived Boer republic in what is now South Africa. ... Map of Stellaland and surrounding regions Stellaland was a short-lived Boer republic established in 1882 by David Massouw and 400 followers, who invaded a Bechuana area west of the Transvaal. ... Goshen (named after the biblical Land of Goshen) was a short-lived Boer republic from 24 October 1882 until 7 August 1883; it was located in an area of Bechuanaland, west of the then South African Republic. ... Zululand was the Zulu-dominated area of what is now northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... Flag The Natalia Republic was located in the southern half of this region Capital Pietermaritzburg Language(s) Dutch, Zulu Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic Prime Minister  - 1839 – 1843 Andries Pretorius Historical era 19th century  - Republic founded October 12, 1839  - Battle of Blood River December 16, 1838  - Alliance with Zulu... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Bophuthatswana as of 1977 Flag of Bophuthatswana bantustan Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the north of South Africa. ... Ciskei Flag of Ciskei Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. ... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province. ...

Further to strengthen their position, Pretorius and his party unsuccessfully endeavoured to bring about a union with the Orange Free State. Peaceful overtures having failed, Pretorius and Paul Kruger placed themselves at the head of a commando which crossed the Vaal with the object of enforcing union, but the Free State compelled their withdrawal. Within the Transvaal the forces making for union gained strength notwithstanding these events, and by 1860 Zoutpansberg and Lydenburg had become incorporated with the republic. Pretoria, newly founded, and named in honour of the elder Pretorius, was made the seat of government and capital of the country. The ecclesiastical efforts at unity had not been equally successful. The Separatist Reformed Church of Holland had sent out a young expositor of its doctrines named Postma, who, in November 1858, became minister of Rustenburg. In the following year a general church assembly endeavoured to unite all the congregations in a common government, but Postma's consistory rejected these overtures, and from that date the Separatist (or Dopper) Church has had an independent existence. Paul Kruger, who lived near Rustenburg, became a strong adherent of the new church. Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ...


Pretorius, while still president of the Transvaal, had been elected, through the efforts of his partisans, president of the Orange Free State. He thereupon (in February 1860) obtained six months' leave of absence and repaired to Bloemfontein, in the hope of peacefully bringing about a union between the two republics. He had no sooner left the Transvaal than the -old Lydenburg party, headed by Cornelis Potgieter, landdrost of Lydenburg, protested that the union would be much more beneficial to the Free State than to the people of Lydenburg, and followed this up with the contention that it was illegal for any one to be president of the South African Republic and the Free State at the same time. At the end of the six months Pretorius, after a stormy meeting of the volksraad, apparently in disgust at the whole situation, resigned the presidency of the Transvaal. J. H. Grobelaar, who had been appointed president during the temporary absence of Pretorius, was requested to remain in office. The immediate followers of Pretorius now became extremely incensed at the action of the Lydenburg party, and a mass meeting was held at Potchefstroom (October 1860), where it was resolved that: (a) the volksraad no longer enjoyed its confidence; (b) that Pretorius should remain president of the South African Republic, and have a year's leave of absence to bring about union with the Free State; (c) that Schoeman should act as president during the absence of Pretorius; (d) that before the return of Pretorius to resume his duties a new volksraad should be elected.


In 1865 an empty exchequer called for drastic measures, and the volksraad determined to endeavour to meet their liabilities and provide for further contingencies by the issue of notes. Paper money was thus introduced, and in a very short time fell to a considerable discount. In this same year the farmers of the Zoutpansberg district were driven into laagers by a native rising which they were unable to suppress. Schoemansdal, a village at the foot of the Zoutpansberg, was the most important settlement of the district, and the most advanced outpost in European occupation at that time in South Africa. It was just within the tropics, and was situated in a well-watered and beautiful country. It was used as a base by hunters and traders with the interior, and in its vicinity there gathered a number of settlers of European origin, many of them outcasts from Europe or Cape Colony. They earned the reputation of being the most lawless white inhabitants in the whole of South Africa. When called upon to go to the aid of this settlement, which in 1865-1866 was sore pressed by one of the mountain Bantu tribes known as the Baramapulana, the burghers of the southern Transvaal objected that the white inhabitants of that region were too lawless and reckless a body to merit their assistance. In 1867 Schoemansdal and a considerable portion of the district were abandoned on the advice of Commandant-general Paul Kruger, and Schoemansdal finally was burnt to ashes by a party of natives. It was not until 1869 that peace was patched up, and the settlement arrived at left the mountain tribes in practical independence. Meanwhile the public credit and finances of the Transvaal went from bad to worse. The paper notes already issued had been constituted by law legal tender for all debts, but in 1868 their power of actual purchase was only 30% compared with that of gold, and by 1870 it had fallen as low as 25%. Civil servants, who were paid in this depreciated scrip, suffered considerable distress. The revenue for 1869 was stated as £31,511; the expenditure at 30,836.


The discovery of gold at Tati led President Pretorius in April 1868 to issue a proclamation extending his territories on the west and north so as to embrace the goldfield and portion of Bechuanaland. The same proclamation extended Transvaal territory on the east so as to include part of Delagoa Bay. The eastern extension claimed by Pretorius was the sequel to endeavours made shortly before, on the initiative of a Scotsman, to develop trade along the rivers leading to Delagoa Bay. It was also in accord with the desire of the Transvaal Boers to obtain a seaport, a desire which had led them as early as 1860 to treat with the Zulus for the possession of St Lucia Bay. That effort had, however, failed. And now the proclamation of Pretorius was followed by protests on the part of the British high commissioner, Sir Philip Wodehouse, as well as on the part of the consul-general for Portugal in South Africa. The boundary on the east was settled by a treaty with Portugal in 1869, the Boers abandoning their claim to Delagoa Bay; that on the west was dealt with in 1871.


Boer Wars

In 1877, before the 1886 Witwatersrand Gold Rush, Britain annexed the Transvaal. The Boers viewed this as an act of aggression, and protested. In December 16, 1880 the independence of the republic was proclaimed again, leading to the First Boer War. The Pretoria Convention of 1881 gave the Boers self-rule in the Transvaal, under British oversight, and the republic was restored with full independence in 1884 with the London Convention, but not for long. The Gold rush also brought an influx of non-Boer European settlers (called uitlanders, outlanders, by the Boers), leading to a destabilization of the republic. 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa are closely connected. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The First Boer War (Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally First Freedom War) also known as the First Anglo-Boer War or the Transvaal War, it was fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881. ... The peace treaty that ended the First Boer War (December 16, 1880 until March 23, 1881) between the Transvaal Boers and the United Kingdom, which was signed by the South African Republic forces and the British forces. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Uitlanders (outlanders) was a term used to describe foreigners and non-citizen settlers in the Orange Free State in South Africa, who accounted for around three quarters of the white population of the Orange Free State but who did not have voting rights and were taxed highly. ...


In 1895, Cape Premier Cecil Rhodes planned to support an uitlander coup d'etat against the Transvaal government. Leander Starr Jameson carried out this plan, without British authorization, in December of that year — in the ill-fated Jameson Raid. After the failed raid, there were rumors that Germany offered protection to the Boer republic, something which alarmed the British. In 1899 British forces were gathering on the borders of the Boer Republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State and fearing Britain's imminent annexation, the Boers launched a preemptive strike against the nearby British colonies in 1899, a strike which became the Second Boer War. Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cecil Rhodes. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... An 1895 cartoon of Jameson from Vanity Fair Sir Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet, KCMG (February 9, 1853 – November 26, 1917), also known as Doctor Jim, was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid. ... The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ... A preemptive attack (or preemptive war) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat an imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (usually unavoidable) war. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 20,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede...


The Second Boer War was a watershed for the British Army in particular and for the British Empire as a whole. It was here that the British first used concentration camps in a war setting (the first general use being by the Spanish during the Cuban insurrections of the 1890s). The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...


By May 1902, to prevent further bloodshed the last of the Boer troops surrendered mourning the deaths of 26,000 mainly women and children who died in British concentration camps. The independent Boer republic in the Transvaal was no more - the region became part of the British Empire. In 1910 the Transvaal became a province of the newly created Union of South Africa, a British Dominion. 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ...


Politics

Officials

List of the presidents of the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic): Categories: | ... The State Secretary of the Transvaal was the principal administrative officer of the Transvaal, or, as it was also known, the South African Republic. ... The State Attorney of the Transvaal was the principal legal officer of the Transvaal, or, as it was also known, the South African Republic. ...

Flag

Main article: Flag of Transvaal

The national flag of the ZAR featured three horizontal stripes of red, white, and blue (mirroring the Dutch national flag), with a vertical green stripe at the hoist, and was known as the Vierkleur (lit. four colours). The former national flag of South Africa (from 1927—1994) had, as part of a feature contained within its central white bar, a horizontal flag of the Transvaal Republic (ZAR). Flag of Transvaal - Vierkleur The Flag of Transvaal is the flag of the Transvaal province of South Africa. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of the Netherlands, with its three equal horizontal bands coloured red (top), white and blue is the oldest tricolour still in use today. ... It has been suggested that List of South African flags be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Flag The Natalia Republic was located in the southern half of this region Capital Pietermaritzburg Language(s) Dutch, Zulu Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic Prime Minister  - 1839 – 1843 Andries Pretorius Historical era 19th century  - Republic founded October 12, 1839  - Battle of Blood River December 16, 1838  - Alliance with Zulu... Volkstaat (Afrikaans for Peoples state) is a proposal for the establishment of an independent state or autonomous homeland in South Africa for the Afrikaner minority to obtain self determination. ...

External links

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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Encyclopedia: South African Republic (804 words)
The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, or ZAR), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent country in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century.
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South Africa is a middle-income country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange (the JSE Securities Exchange), that ranks among the 10 largest in the world, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centres throughout the region.
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