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Encyclopedia > Sourdough
Sourdough starter made with flour and water refreshed for 3 or more days
Sourdough starter made with flour and water refreshed for 3 or more days

Sourdough (or, more formally, natural leaven or levain) refers to the process of leavening bread by capturing wild yeasts in a dough or batter, as opposed to using a domestic, purpose-cultured yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sourdough more specifically refers to a symbiotic culture of lactobacilli and yeasts, giving a distinctively tangy or sour taste (hence its name), due mainly to the lactic acid and acetic acid produced by the lactobacilli. Though no longer the standard method for bread leavening in most developed countries (it was gradually replaced first by the use of barm from beermaking, then after the confirmation of germ theory by Louis Pasteur by cultured yeasts), some form of natural leaven is used in many specialty bakeries. Image File history File linksMetadata Masa_madre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Masa_madre. ... A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Species L. acidophilus L. brevis L. delbrueckii subsp. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Barm, a word derived from the old English for yeast, is the foam, or scum, formed on the top of liquor when fermenting. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... The germ theory of disease states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms, and that microorganisms grow by reproduction, rather than being spontaneously generated. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ...


Sourdough bread is made by using a small amount (20-25%) of "starter" dough (sometimes known as "the mother sponge"), which contains the yeast culture, and mixing it with new flour and water. Part of this resulting dough is then saved to use as the starter for the next batch. As long as the starter dough is fed flour and water daily, the sourdough mixture can stay in room temperature indefinitely and remain healthy and usable. It is not uncommon for a baker's starter dough to have years of history, from many hundreds of previous batches. As a result each bakery's sourdough has a distinct taste. The combination of starter, yeast culture and air temperature, humidity, and elevation also makes each batch of sourdough different. A bread starter, also called a sponge, consists of a simple mixture of flour, water, and a leavening agent (typically yeast or yogurt), and is added to bread dough before the kneading and baking process as a substitute for yeast. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ...

Contents

Biology and chemistry of sourdough

Two loaves of naturally-leavened (sourdough) bread.
Two loaves of naturally-leavened (sourdough) bread.

A sourdough starter is a stable symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast present in a mixture of flour and water. The yeasts Candida milleri or Saccharomyces exiguus usually populate sourdough cultures symbiotically with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensi.[1]. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (bacteria) was named for its discovery in San Francisco sourdough starters. A bread starter, also called a sponge, consists of a simple mixture of flour, water, and a leavening agent (typically yeast or yogurt), and is added to bread dough before the kneading and baking process as a substitute for yeast. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Binomial name Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ex Kline & Sugihara 1971) Weiss & Schillinger 1984 Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly L. sanfrancisco) is a species of bacteria that helps give sourdough bread its characteristic taste. ...


Often a starter will consist of basic items such as: water, bread flour, rye flour and a sourdough starter which can be purchased at certain grocery stores. Once the starter is made water and flour must be added in time increments over a period of days. Depending on the locale of the bakery and the type of bread being made, the starter can be either a relatively fluid batter or a stiffer dough; as a general rule, the more sour breads are made with a liquid starter. Firm starters (such as the Flemish Desem starter) are often more resource-intensive, traditionally being buried in a large container of flour to prevent drying out. Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Desem is a mature Flemish sourdough starter made from flour and water, inoculated by wild yeasts and bacteria. ...


A fresh culture begins with a mixture of flour and water. Fresh flour naturally contains a wide variety of yeast and bacteria spores. When wheat flour contacts water, naturally-occurring amylase enzymes break down the starch into complex sugars (sucrose and maltose); maltase converts the sugars into glucose and fructose that yeast can metabolize. The lactobacteria feed mostly on the metabolism products from the yeast. [1] The mixture develops a balanced, symbiotic culture after repeated feedings. Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Maltase, drawn from PDB 1OBB. Maltase (EC 3. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ...


There are several ways to increase the chances of creating a stable culture. Unbleached, unbromated flour contains more microorganisms than more processed flours. Bran-containing (wholemeal) flour provides the greatest variety of organisms and additional minerals, though some cultures use an initial mixture of white flour and rye flour or "seed" the culture using unwashed organic grapes (for the wild yeasts on their skins). Using water from boiled potatoes also increases the leavening power of the bacteria, by providing additional starch. Bakers recommend un-chlorinated water for feeding cultures. Adding a small quantity of diastatic malt provides maltase and simple sugars to support the yeasts initially.[2] Potassium bromate (KBrO3), is a bromate of potassium and takes the form of white crystals or powder. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ...


The flour-water mixture can also be inoculated from a previously kept culture. The culture is stable due to its ability to prevent colonization by other yeasts and bacteria as a result of its acidity and other anti-bacterial agents. As a result, many sourdough bread varieties tend to be relatively resistant to spoilage and mold. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ...


The yeast and bacteria in the culture will cause a wheat-based dough, whose gluten has been developed sufficiently to retain gas, to leaven or rise. Obtaining a satisfactory rise from sourdough, however, is more difficult than with packaged yeast, because the lactobacteria almost always outnumber the yeasts by a factor of between 100 and 1000, and the acidity of the bacteria inhibit the yeasts' gas production. The acidic conditions, along with the fact that the bacteria also produce enzymes which break down proteins, result in weaker gluten, and a denser finished product.[3] Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ...


Preparing sourdough products

Sourdough starter can be used in two different manners. Traditionally, a certain amount of sourdough starter (somewhere around 20-25% on average, depending on the water content of the starter) is mixed into the bread dough, and the bread is kneaded and allowed to rise as normal. The process is largely similar to using a pure strain of baker's yeast, although some care must be taken since the rise time of most sourdough starters is usually somewhat longer than the average for typical baker's yeasts. (As a result, many sourdough starters are unsuitable for use in a bread machine.) When using a particularly liquid starter with a high concentration of lactobacillus or acetobacter organisms, the large amount of lactic and acetic acids produced needs to be managed carefully, since the acid can break down the gluten in the bread dough; this becomes less of a concern in a stiffer starter, where the yeast usually predominates. A bread machine, or bread maker A bread machine (more usually known in Australian and British English as a bread maker or breadmaker) is a home appliance for baking bread. ...


The other manner of using sourdough starter is common for making quick breads or foods like pancakes. It involves using baking soda (and sometimes baking powder) to neutralize some or all of the acid in the starter, with the acid-base reaction generating carbon dioxide to provide lift to the dough or batter in a manner very similar to Irish soda bread. This technique is particularly common in kitchens where the starter is intentionally kept off-balance, with a substantially high acid level, and is particularly associated with areas such as Alaska. A type of bread that does not require rising. ... Two pancakes with maple syrup. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... [[Image:PIPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPbe caused by ingredients like buttermilk, lemon, yoghurt, citrus, or honey. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


History of sourdough

Sourdough bread
Sourdough bread

Sourdough likely originated in Ancient Egyptian times around 1500 BC, and was likely the first form of leavening available to bakers. Sourdough remained the usual form of leavening down into the European Middle Ages[4] until being replaced by barm from the beer brewing process, and then later purpose-cultured yeast. Sourdough bread. ... Sourdough bread. ... An Egyptian couple harvesting from a painting in the tomb from the early Ramessid period. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Barm, a word derived from the old English for yeast, is the foam, or scum, formed on the top of liquor when fermenting. ...


Bread made from 100% rye flour, which is very popular in the northern half of Europe, is usually leavened with sourdough. Baker's yeast is not useful as a leavening agent for rye bread, as rye does not contain enough gluten. The structure of rye bread is based primarily on the starch in the flour, as well as other carbohydrates known as pentosans; however, rye amylase is active at substantially higher temperatures than wheat amylase, causing the structure of the bread to disintegrate as the starches are broken down during cooking. The lowered pH of a sourdough starter therefore inactivates the amylases when heat cannot, allowing the carbohydrates in the bread to gel and set properly.[5] In the southern part of Europe, where baguette and even panettone were originally made with wheat flour and rye flour has become less common as the standard of living has risen, it has been replaced by the faster growing baker's yeast, sometimes supplemented with longer fermentation rests to allow for some bacterial activity to build flavor. Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... A baguette (French for little stick) is a variety of bread distinguishable by its much greater length than width, and noted for its very crispy crust. ... Panettone (this isnt the original shape). ...


Sourdough was the main bread made in Northern California during the California Gold Rush, and it remains a part of the culture of San Francisco today. The bread became so common that "sourdough" became a general nickname for the gold prospectors. The nickname remains in "Sourdough Sam", the mascot of the San Francisco 49ers. Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Sourdough Sam is a mascot for the NFLs San Francisco 49ers. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... City San Francisco, California Other nicknames Niners, The Red And Gold, Bay Bombers Team colors Cardinal red, metallic gold and black Head Coach Mike Nolan Owner Denise DeBartolo York and John York General manager Lal Heneghan Mascot Sourdough Sam League/Conference affiliations All-America Football Conference (1946-1949) Western Division...


The sourdough tradition was carried into Alaska and the western Canadian territories during the Klondike Gold Rush. Conventional leavenings such as yeast and baking soda were much less reliable in the conditions faced by the prospectors. The sourdough starter, however, had to be kept warm to survive. Experienced miners and other settlers frequently carried a pouch of starter either around their neck or on a belt and were often fiercely guarded. Old hands came to be called "sourdoughs", a term that is still applied to any Alaskan old-timer. [2] Routes to the Klondike. ...


San Francisco sourdough is the most famous sourdough bread made in the US. In contrast to the majority of the country, it has remained in continuous production for nearly 150 years, with some bakeries able to trace their starters back to California's territorial period. It is a white bread, characterized by a pronounced sourness (not all varieties are as sour as the San Francisco sourdough), so much so that the dominant strain of lactobacillus in sourdough starters was named Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Sourdough also became popular because of its ability to combine well with seafoods and soups such as clam chowder and chili.


Sourdough has not enjoyed the popularity it once had since bread became mass-produced. Manufacturers make up for the lack of yeast and bacteria culture by introducing an artificially-made mix known as bread improver into their dough. Bread improver has been a common ingredient in bread since the early 1950s used to speed up bread production. ...


Sourdough breads

Aside from what might be called plain sourdough bread, there are a number of other breads that use similar starters and techniques. Amish Friendship Bread uses a sourdough starter that includes sugar and milk. However, it is further leavened with baking powder and baking soda, making it more of a quick bread. The German Pumpernickel, is traditionally made from a sourdough starter, although modern pumpernickel loaves often use commercial yeasts, sometimes spiked with citric acid or lactic acid to inactivate the amylases in the rye flour. Also, the Flemish Desem bread is a popular form of whole-wheat sourdough, though cultured in a much less liquid medium. Amish Friendship Bread (along with Amish Cinnamon Bread) is the chain letter of the baking world. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... A glass of cows milk. ... [[Image:PIPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPbe caused by ingredients like buttermilk, lemon, yoghurt, citrus, or honey. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... A type of bread that does not require rising. ... Pumpernickel is a type of German sourdough bread made with a combination of rye flour and rye meal (a more coarsely ground form of the flour). ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... Desem is a mature Flemish sourdough starter made from flour and water, inoculated by wild yeasts and bacteria. ...


Other recipes use starters that aren't actually truly natural leavens. The Italian Biga and French Poolish add sourdough-like flavors to breads by allowing the yeast a lengthy half-day or longer fermentation. Unlike a true sourdough, these recipes usually start with commercial yeast, and cultivation of lactobacillus bacteria is generally an incidental effect. Biga is a type of sourdough starter used in Italian baking. ... A poolish is a form of prefermentation which gives bread a richer taste. ...


See also

  • Salt rising bread

External links

  • Usenet rec.food.sourdough FAQ, including further HOWTOs and links to suppliers and recipes
  • Sourdough Companion - A Sourdough Bread Community, videos and tutorials
  • Modeling of Growth of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida milleri... from Applied and Environmental Microbiology, July 1998, by Gänzle et al., Universität Hohenheim
  • [3] Recipe, discussion and pictures of making sourdough bread.
  • SourDom's Beginners' Blog - A series of 5 basic tutorials on sourdough baking
  • 1847 Oregon Trail Sourdough Starter - A source for free sourdough starter.

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

References

  1. ^ Rosada, Didier (1997) Advanced Sourdough. Minneapolis: National Baking Center.
  2. ^ Reinhart, Peter (1998) Crust & Crumb: Master formulas for serious bread bakers. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-003-0
  3. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen, 544. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2
  4. ^ Hieatt, Constance et al., Pleyn Delit, 2ed, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996, ISBN 0802076327.
  5. ^ Wing, Daniel, and Alan Scott. The Bread Builders, White River Junction (VT), Chelsea Green Publishing, 1999.

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is Sourdough? (1380 words)
From a scientific perspective, a sourdough starter is a natural leaven - a mixture of grains and liquid (usually flour and water) inhabited by so-called "wild" yeasts and bacteria which leaven and flavor bread dough.
Sourdough Starter: A starter or culture of wild/natural yeast and lactobacilli in a medium of flour and liquid which is propagated through ongoing refreshments (or "feedings") for the purpose of leavening bread dough, is on-going and is continued on from one bake or activation to the next.
With sourdough, the degree of sourness depends on many factors including the temperature, length of fermentation, type of grains, amount of water, and most importantly, the particular strains of yeast and lactobacilli that live in the starter.
Sourdough - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (721 words)
Sourdough is a symbiotic culture of lactobacilli and yeasts used to leaven bread.
A sourdough starter is a stable symbiotic culture of yeast and lactobacteria, including the well known Candida milleri (yeast) and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (bacteria) of San Francisco sourdough, growing in a paste of flour and water.
Sourdough was the main bread made in Northern California during the California Gold Rush, and it remains a major part of the culture of San Francisco.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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