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Encyclopedia > Sound recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, usually used for the voice or for music. Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... Sound Recorder is an audio recording program included in Microsoft Windows. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Mechanics (Greek ) is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a longitudinal wave, and therefore is a mechanical wave. ... The word voice can be used to refer to: Sound: The human voice. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

A U.S. Postage Stamp commemorating one hundred years of sound recording.

The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Image File history File linksMetadata Soundrecordingstamp. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Soundrecordingstamp. ... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... Analog recording is the first way humans were able to store sounds for later playback. ... In digital recording, the analog signal of a motion-picture/sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure (chroma and luminace values in case of video) through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound. ...

Contents

The cylinder phonograph

The first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical cylinder phonograph, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878, and in some ways resembled the phonoautograph patented by Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville in 1857. The invention soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the commercial recording, distribution and sale of sound recordings became a growing new international industry, with the most popular titles selling millions of units by the early 1900s. The development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910. Edison cylinder phonograph ca. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Edison cylinder phonograph from about 1899 The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded sound from the 1870s through the 1980s. ... Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville (1817–April 26, 1879) is best known for inventing the phonautograph, the earliest known sound recording device (which, unlike Edisons similar and later invention, was unable to play back the recordings it made). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The disc

The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone disc, generally credited to Emile Berliner and commercially introduced in the United States in 1889. 1897 Berliner Gramophone Record by George W. Johnson A more detailed description of this record Berliner Gramophone was an early record label, the first company to produce disc gramophone records (as opposed to the earlier phonograph cylinder records). ... Emile Berliner with disc record gramophone. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Discs were easier to manufacture, transport and store, and they had the additional benefit of being louder (marginally) than cylinders, which by necessity, were single-sided. Sales of the Gramophone record overtook the cylinder ca. 1910, and by the end of World War I the disc had become the dominant commercial recording format. In various permutations, the audio disc format became the primary medium for consumer sound recordings until the end of the 20th century, and the double-sided 78rpm shellac disc was the standard consumer music format from the early 1910s to the late 1950s. It has been suggested that Childrens gramophone records be merged into this article or section. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Although there was no universally accepted speed, and various companies offered discs that played at several different speeds, the major recording companies eventually settled on a de facto industry standard of 78 revolutions per minute, which gave the disc format its common nickname, the "seventy-eight". Discs were made of shellac or similar brittle plastic like materials, played with metal needles, and had a distinctly limited life.


Electrical recording

Sound recording began as a mechanical process and remained so until the 1920s (with the exception of the 1898 Telegraphone) when a string of groundbreaking inventions in the field of electronics revolutionised sound recording and the young recording industry. These included sound transducers such as microphones and loudspeakers, and various electronic devices such as the mixing desk, designed for the amplification and modification of electrical sound signals. Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as, semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures, and vacuum tubes. ... A microphone with a cord A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... A loudspeaker is a device which converts an electrical signal into sound. ... BBC Local Radio Mark III radio mixing desk In professional audio, a mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ... Generally, amplification is a basic process sometimes seen in nature, and often used in processes which involve a signal which must be made stronger. ...


After the Edison phonograph itself, arguably the most significant advances in sound recording were the electronic systems invented by two American scientists between 1900 and 1924.


In 1906 Lee De Forest invented the "Audion" triode vacuum-tube, electronic valve, which could greatly amplify weak electrical signals, (one early use was to amplify long distance telephone in 1915) which became the basis of all subsequent electrical sound systems until the invention of the transistor. The valve was quickly followed by the invention of the Regenerative circuit, Super-Regenerative circuit and the Superheterodyne receiver circuit, all of which were invented and patented by the young electronics genius Edwin Armstrong between 1914 and 1922. Armstrong's inventions made higher fidelity electrical sound recording and reproduction a practical reality, facilitating the development of the electronic amplifier and many other devices; after 1925 these systems had become standard in the recording and radio industry. Armstrong's groundbreaking inventions (including FM radio) also made possible the broadcasting of long-range, high-quality radio transmissions of voice and music. The importance of Armstong's Superheterodyne circuit cannot be under-estimated -- it was the central component of almost all analog amplification and radio-frequency transmitter and receiver devices of the 20th century. Lee De Forest, (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor with over 300 patents to his credit. ... Simplified diagram of a triode. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier. ... The regenerative circuit (or self-regenerative circuit) allows a signal to be amplified many times by the same vacuum tube or other active component such as a field effect transistor. ... The superheterodyne receiver (or to give it its full name, the supersonic heterodyne receiver – usually these days shortened to superhet) was invented by Edwin Armstrong in 1918. ... Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ... Generally, an amplifier is any device that uses a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... The word receiver has a number of different meanings: In communications and information processing, a receiver is the recipient (observer) of a message (information), which is sent from a source (object). ...


Beginning during World War One, experiments were undertaken in the United States and Great Britain to reproduce among other things, the sound of a Submarine (u-boat) for training purposes. The acoustical recordings of that time proved entirely unable to reproduce the sounds, and other methods were actively sought. Radio had developed independently to this point, and now Bell Laboritories sought a marriage of the two disparate technologies, greater than the two separately. The first experiments were not very promising, but by 1920 greater sound fidelity was achieved using the electrical system than had ever been realized acoustically. One early recording made without fanfare or announcement was the dedication of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington Cemetery.


By early 1924 such dramatic progress had been made, that Bell Labs arranged a demonstration for the leading recording companies, Victor Talking Machine, and Columbia Phonograph Co's.


Columbia, always in financial straits, could not afford it, and Victor, essentially leaderless since the Mental collapse of Founder E. Johnson, left the demonstration without comment. English Columbia, by then a separate Company, got a hold of a test pressing from these sessions, and realized the immediate and urgent need to have the new system. Bell was only offering its method to United States Companies, and to circumvent this, Managing Director Jess Grainger of British Columbia, bought his once parent company, and signed up for electrical recording. When Victor Talking Machine was apprised of the Columbia deal, they too quickly signed. Columbia made its first electrical recordings on February 25, 1925 with Victor following a few weeks later. The two then agreed privately to "be quiet" until November 1925, by which time enough electrical repretory would be available.


Other recording formats

This period also saw several other historic developments including the introduction of the first practical magnetic sound recording system, the magnetic wire recorder, which was based on the work of Danish inventor Valdemar Poulsen. Magnetic wire recorders were effective, but the sound quality was poor, so between the wars they were primarily used for voice recording and marketed as business dictating machines. Wire recording is a type of analogue audio storage in which the recording is made onto thin steel or stainless steel wire. ... Valdemar Poulsen (1869 - 1942) was a Danish engineer. ...


In the 1930s radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi developed a system of magnetic sound recording using steel tape. This was the same material used to make razor blades, and not surprisingly the fearsome Marconi-Stille recorders were considered so dangerous that technicians had to operate them from another room for safety. Because of the high recording speeds required, they used enormous reels about one metre in diameter, and the thin tape frequently broke, sending jagged lengths of razor steel flying around the studio. Guglielmo Marconi, Marchese, GCVO (25 April 1874-20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ...


The other major invention in sound recording in this period was the optical sound-on-film system, also generally credited to Lee De Forest. Although famous early "Talkies" like The Jazz Singer used a sound-on-disc system, the film industry eventually adopted the optical sound-on-film system and it revolutionised the movie industry in the 1930s, ushering in the era of 'talking pictures'. Optical sound-on-film, based on the photoelectric cell, became the standard film audio system throughout the world until it was superseded in the 1960s. Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ... A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ... The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ...


Magnetic tape

The other major inventions of this period were magnetic tape and the tape recorder(Telegraphone). Paper-based tape was first used but was soon superseded by polyester and acetate backing due to dust drop and hiss. Acetate was more brittle than polyester and snapped easily. This technology, the basis for almost all commercial recording from the 1950s to the 1980s, was invented by German audio engineers in the 1930s, who also discovered the technique of AC biasing, which dramatically improved the frequency response of tape recordings. Tape recording was perfected just after the war by American audio engineer John T. Mullin, whose pioneering recorders were based on captured German recorders, and the Ampex company produced the first commercially available tape recorders in the late 1940s. Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Sony reel-to-reel tape recorder. ... Tape bias (also AC bias) is a high-frequency signal (generally from 40 to 150 kHz) added to the audio signal recorded on an analog tape recorder. ... John T. Jack Mullin (1913–1999) was an American pioneer in the field of electronic audio and video recording using magnetic tape. ... Ampex is based in Redwood City, California. ...


Magnetic tape brought about sweeping changes in both radio and the recording industry. Sound could be recorded, erased and re-recorded on the same tape many times, sounds could be duplicated from tape to tape with only minor loss of quality, and recordings could now be very precisely edited by physically cutting the tape and rejoining it.


Within a few years of the introduction of the first commercial tape recorder, the Ampex 200 model, launched in 1948, American musician-inventor Les Paul had invented the first multitrack tape recorder, bringing about another technical revolution in the recording industry. Tape made possible the first sound recordings totally created by electronic means, opening the way for the bold sonic experiments of the Musique Concrète school and avant garde composers like Karlheinz Stockhausen, which in turn led to the innovative pop music recordings of artists such as Frank Zappa, The Beatles and The Beach Boys. Les Paul (born Lester William Polsfuss on June 9, 1915) is an American jazz guitarist and inventor. ... It has been suggested that Multi-Track Vinyl be merged into this article or section. ... // Much like electroacoustic music, Musique concrète (French; literally, concrete music), has been subject to conflicting perceptions about its character. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century. ... For popular forms of music in general, see Popular music. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Tape enabled the radio industry for the first time to pre-record many sections of program content such as advertising, which formerly had to be presented live, and it also enabled the creation and duplication of complex, high-fidelity, long-duration recordings of entire programs. It also, for the first time, allowed broadcasters, regulators and other interested parties to undertake comprehensive logging of radio broadcasts. Innovations like multitracking and tape echo enabled radio programs and advertisements to be pre-produced to a level of complexity and sophistication that was previously unattainable and tape also led to significant changes to the pacing of program content, thanks to the introduction of the endless-loop tape cartridge. DDS tape drive. ...


The vinyl microgroove record was introduced in the late 1940s, and the two main vinyl formats -- the 7-inch single turning at 45 rpm and the 12-inch LP (long-playing) record turning at 33⅓ rpm -- had totally replaced the 78 rpm shellac disc by the end of the 1950s. Vinyl offered improved performance, both in stamping and in playback, and came to be generally played with polished diamond styli, and when played properly (precise tracking weight, etc.) offered longer life. Vinyl records were, over-optimistically, advertised as "unbreakable". They were not, but were much less brittle and breakable than shellac. Nearly all were tinted black, but some were colored, as red, swirled, translucent, etc. Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ... It has been suggested that Childrens gramophone records be merged into this article or section. ... Long Playing (LP), either 10 or 12-inch diameter, 33 rpm (actually 33â…“) vinyl gramophone records, first introduced in 1948, were the primary release format for recorded music for about 30 years, from the late 1950s until CDs effectively replaced them in the late 1980s. ... Look up shellac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Stereo and Hi-fi

Magnetic tape also enabled the development of the first practical commercial sound systems that could record and reproduce high-fidelity stereophonic sound. Experiments with stereo dated back to the 1880s and during the 1930s and 1940s there were many attempts to record in stereo using discs, but these were hampered by problems with synchronization. Label for 2. ...


The first major breakthrough in practical stereo sound was made by Bell Laboratories, who in 1937 demonstrated a practical system of two-channel stereo, using dual optical sound tracks on film. Major movie studios quickly developed three-track and four-track sound systems, and the first stereo sound recording in a commercial film was made by Judy Garland for the MGM movie Listen, Darling in 1938. The first commercially-released movie with a full stereo soundtrack was Walt Disney's Fantasia, released in 1940. Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Superscript text Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an Oscar-nominated American film actress, considered by many to be one of the greatest singing stars of Hollywoods Golden Era of musical film, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale from The... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... // To stop Pinkies mother Dottie from marrying a man they know she does not love, Pinkie and her friend Buzz kidnap her in the family trailer to live a life on the open road without worries about how to make ends meet. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture produced by Walt Disney. ...


German audio engineers working on magnetic tape are reported to have developed stereo recording by 1943, but it was not until the introduction of the first commercial two-track tape recorders by Ampex in the late 1940s that stereo tape recording became commercially feasible. However, despite the availability of multitrack tape, stereo did not become the standard system for commercial music recording for some years and it remained a specialist market during the 1950s. This changed after the late 1957 introduction of the "Westrex stereo phonograph disc". Ampex is based in Redwood City, California. ...


Most pop singles were mixed into monophonic sound until the mid 1960s, it was common for major pop releases to be issued in both mono and stereo until the early 1970s. Many Sixties pop albums now available only in stereo were originally intended to be released only in mono, and the so-called "stereo" version of these albums were created by simply separating the two tracks of the master tape. In the mid Sixties, as stereo became more popular, many mono recordings (such as The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds) were remastered using the so-called "fake stereo" method, which spread the sound across the stereo field by directing higher-frequency sound into one channel and lower-frequency sounds into the other. Pet Sounds is a 1966 album recorded by American pop group the Beach Boys. ...


The Fifties and beyond

Magnetic tape transformed the recording industry, and by the late-1950s the vast majority of commercial recordings were being mastered on tape. The electronics revolution that followed the invention of the transistor brought other radical changes, the most important of which was the introduction of the world first "personal music device", the miniaturized transistor radio, which became a major consumer luxury item in the 1960s, transforming radio broadcasting from a static group experience into a mobile, personal listening activity. Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier. ... Regency TR-1. ...


The first multitrack recording made using magnetic tape was "How High the Moon" by Les Paul, on which Paul played eight overdubbed guitar tracks. In the 1960s Brian Wilson of The Beach Boys, Frank Zappa and The Beatles (with producer George Martin) were among the first popular artists to explore the possibilities of multitrack techniques and effects on their landmark albums Pet Sounds, Freak Out! and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... How High the Moon is a song, now a jazz standard, by Nancy Hamilton (lyrics), Morgan Lewis (music). ... Les Paul (born Lester William Polsfuss on June 9, 1915) is an American jazz guitarist and inventor. ... Brian Douglas Wilson (born June 20, 1942 in Hawthorne, California), is an American pop musician, best known as the lead songwriter, bassist, and lead singer of the American rock band The Beach Boys. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. ... Sir George Henry Martin CBE (born 3 January 1926 in Highbury, London, England) is sometimes referred to as the fifth Beatle—a title that he owes to his work as producer of almost all of The Beatles records. ... Pet Sounds is a 1966 album recorded by American pop group the Beach Boys. ... Freak Out!, released June 27, 1966 on MGM/Verve Records, is the debut album of The Mothers of Invention, led by Frank Zappa. ... The Beatles U.S. chronology Revolver (1966) Sgt. ...


The next important innovation was the compact cassette, introduced by the Philips electronics company in 1964. The cassette became a major consumer audio format and advances in microelectronics eventually led to the development of the Sony Walkman, introduced in the 1970s, which gave a major boost to the mass distribution of music recordings. Cassettes became the first successful consumer recording/re-recording medium as opposed to the gramophone record, which was a pre-recorded playback medium. The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ... Sony Walkman Official Logo (2000 — current) Various products of the Walkman line Walkman is a popular Sony brand used to market its portable audio players, and is synonymously used to refer to the original Walkman portable personal stereo player and as a generic term for similar devices from other manufacturers. ...


A key advance in audio fidelity came with the Dolby A noise reduction system, invented by Ray Dolby and introduced in 1966. Dolby's noise reduction system, which greatly improved the sound of cassette tape recordings, also found wide application in the recording and film industries. Dolby A was crucial to the popularisation and commercial success of the compact cassette as a domestic recording and playback medium, and became a part of the booming "hi-fi" market of the 1970s and beyond. Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ... ` Dolby (left) is inducted into the NIHF Ray Dolby (born January 18, 1933) is the American inventor of the noise reduction system known as Dolby NR. He is the founder and chairman of Dolby Laboratories, and a billionaire. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


The multitrack audio cartridge was in wide use in the radio industry, from the late 1950s to the 1980s, but in the 1960s the pre-recorded 8-track cartridge was launched as a consumer audio format. Aimed particularly at the automotive market, they were the first practical, affordable car hi-fi systems, and they offered superior sound quality to the compact cassette. However the smaller size and greater durability -- augmented by the ability to create home-recorded music "compilations" -- saw the cassette become the dominant consumer format for portable audio devices in the 1970s and 1980s. The 8-track cartridge or Stereo 8 is a magnetic tape technology for audio storage, popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. ...


There had been experiments with multi-channel sound for many years -- usually for special musical or cultural events -- but the first commercial application of the concept came in the early 1970s with the introduction of Quadraphonic sound. This spin-off development from multitrack recording used four tracks (instead of the two used in stereo) and four speakers to create a 360-degree audio field around the listener. Following the release of the first consumer 4-channel hi-fi systems, a number of popular albums were released in the Quadraphonic format; among the best known are Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells and Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon. Quadraphonic sound was not a commercial success, and it eventually faded out in the late 1970s, although this early venture paved the way for the eventual introduction of domestic Surround Sound systems, which have gained enormous popularity since the introduction of the DVD. 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their avant-garde progressive rock music. ... The Dark Side of the Moon (titled in the 1993 CD release as Dark Side of the Moon) is a concept album by the British progressive rock band Pink Floyd, released in 1973. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


The replacement of the thermionic valve(vacuum tube) by the smaller, cooler and less power-hungry transistor also accelerated the sale of consumer high-fidelity "hi-fi" sound systems from the 1960s onward. In the 1950s most record players were monophonic and relatively low fidelity in sound quality, and few consumers could afford high-quality stereophonic sound systems. In the 1960s American manufacturers introduced a new generation of "modular" hi-fi components -- turntables, integrated amplifiers, tape recorders and other ancillary equipment (like the graphic equaliser), which could be connected together to create a complete home sound system. These developments were rapidly taken up by the Japanese electronics companies, which soon flooded the world market with relatively cheap, high-quality components. By the 1980s, corporations like Sony had become world leaders in the music recording and playback industry. High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... For information about computer bandwidth management, see Equalization (computing). ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $68. ...


Digital recording

The invention of digital sound recording and the compact disc in 1983 brought significant improvements in the durability of consumer recordings. The CD initiated another massive wave of change in the consumer music industry, with vinyl records effectively relegated to a small niche market by the mid-1990s. In digital recording, the analog signal of a motion-picture/sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure (chroma and luminace values in case of video) through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound. ... A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


The most recent and revolutionary developments have been in digital recording, with the invention of purely electronic consumer recording formats such as the WAV digital music file and the compressed file type, the MP3. This generated a new type of portable solid-state computerised digital audio player, the MP3 player. Another invention, by Sony, was the minidisc player, using ATRAC compression on small, cheap, re-writeable discs. This was in vogue in the 1990s, and is still popular, especially in a newer, longer playing and higher fidelity version. New technologies such as Super Audio CD, DVD-A, Blu ray Disc and HD DVD continue to set very high standard in evolution of digital audio storage. For LP MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular audio encoding format. ... Apple iPod, the most popular hard drive-based digital audio player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative Zen Vision:M), one of the many alternatives for the iPod An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) Some mobile phones can be used as digital audio players, such as the Nokia 6233. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... ATRAC (Adaptive TRansform Acoustic Coding) is a family of proprietary audio compression algorithms used to store information on MiniDiscs and other Sony-branded audio players. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... DVD is an optical disc storage media format that is used for playback of movies with high video and sound quality and for storing data. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data...


This technology spreads across various associated fields, from hi-fi to professional audio, internet radio and podcasting. High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... Professional audio, also pro audio, can be used a term to refer to both a type of audio equipment as well as a type of audio engineering application. ... Internet radio (aka e-Radio) is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ... Podcasting is the method of distributing multimedia files, such as audio or video programs, over the Internet using syndication feeds, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. ...


Technological developments in recording and editing have transformed the record, movie and television industries in recent decades. Audio editing became practicable with the invention of magnetic tape recording, but the use of computers has made editing operations faster and easier to execute, and the use of hard-drives for storage has made recording cheaper. We now divide the process of making a recording into tracking, mixing and mastering. Multitrack recording makes it possible to capture sound from several microphones, or from different 'takes' to tape or disc with maximum headroom and quality, allowing maximum flexibility in the mixing and mastering stages for editing, level balancing, compressing and limiting, and the addition of effects such as reverberation, equalisation, flanging and many more. The record industry is the part of the music industry that earns profit by selling sound recordings of music. ... The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... In Music, Audio editing is the process of taking recorded sound and changing it directly on the recording medium. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Audio mixing is used in sound recording, audio editing and sound systems to balance the relative volume and frequency content of a number of sound sources. ... ‹ The template below (Personalideas) has been proposed for deletion. ... The Tascam 85 16B analogue tape recorder can record 16 tracks of audio on 1 inch (2. ... Headroom (band) is the name of a band HeadRoom is the name of a headphone equipment company Headroom is a term used in signal processing (audio, data, etc) to refer to the maximum allowable signal level before compression or distortion. ... Audio level compression, also called dynamic range compression, volume compression, compression, limiting, or DRC (often seen in DVD player settings) is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. ... In electronics, a limiter is a circuit that allows signals below a set value to pass unaffected, as in a Class A amplifier, and clips off the peaks of stronger signals that exceed this set value, as in a Class C amplifier. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... This article is about audio effect. ... In audio processing, equalization (EQ) is the process of modifying the frequency envelope of a sound. ... Flanging is a time-based audio effect that occurs when two identical signals are mixed together, but with one signal time-delayed by a small and gradually changing amount, usually smaller than 20 ms (milliseconds). ...


In the 1920s, the first talkies came out, featuring the new sound-on-film technology which used photoelectric cells to record and reproduce sound signals that were optically recorded directly onto the movie film. The advent of talkies, spearheaded by The Jazz Singer in 1927, saw the rapid demise of live cinema musicians and orchestras, which were replaced with pre-recorded soundtracks, causing the loss of many jobs.[1] The American Federation of Musicians took out ads in newspapers, protesting the replacement of real musicians with mechanical playing devices, especially in theatres.[2] A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ... Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ... The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) is a labor union of professional musicians in the United States and Canada. ...


Voice to note

Voice-to-note refers to the capability of personal computers to be able to recognize notes that are sung, hummed, or whistled into a microphone. The pitch and duration of the notes are then calculated and converted into MIDI music files.[3][4] A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic (both IPA pronunciation: ), is an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... Pitch may refer to: Look up Pitch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...


See also

Generally, an amplifier is any device that uses a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... Acoustical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. ... In Music, Audio editing is the process of taking recorded sound and changing it directly on the recording medium. ... It has been suggested that Audio quality measurement be merged into this article or section. ... An audiophile, from Latin audire[1] to hear and Greek philos[2] loving, can be generally defined as a person dedicated to achieving high fidelity in the recording and playback of music . ... The Beatles influenced the way music was recorded in several ways. ... Clipstream is a proprietary streaming media software product from Destiny Media Technologies. ... CD redirects here; see Cd for other meanings of CD. Image of a compact disc (pencil included for scale) A compact disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ... In digital recording, the analog signal of a motion-picture/sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure (chroma and luminace values in case of video) through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound. ... Some modern video cameras allow the user to record direct to a hard disk instead of to a tape. ... DIY Audio means do it yourself audio. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... High-end audio is a term used to describe equipment that is purported by the manufacturers to be the best, regardless of the price. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... This is a list of audio formats, used for the distribution of recordings of music and other audio information. ... Live sound mixing is the art of combining and processing a number of audio signals together to create a mix that the audience or performers at a live show hear. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Magnetic storage is a term from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetised medium. ... Sony reel-to-reel tape recorder. ... A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic (both IPA pronunciation: ), is an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... A music centre (or center) is a type of integrated audio system for home use, used to play from a variety of media. ... Edison cylinder phonograph ca. ... An example of a typical high-end stereo preamplifier. ... Professional audio, also pro audio, can be used a term to refer to both a type of audio equipment as well as a type of audio engineering application. ... A record press is a tool used to form vinyl records from a pair of metal stampers, or master negatives. ... A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ... The SAE Institute (SAE in short, formerly also known as the School of Audio Engineering and the SAE Technology College) is a private college founded in 1976 by Sound Engineer/Record Producer Tom Misner. ... Stereo imaging is the audio jargon term used for that aspect of sound recording and reproduction concerning spatial locations of the performers, both laterally and in depth. ... Studio monitors, also called reference monitors are loudspeakers specifically designed for audio production applications such as recording, film, television and radio studios. ... Talkie-Tapes® are called by many names; Talkies, Talking Ribbons, Talking Strips, Talking Tapes, Talking Device, Talking Balloons and so on. ... Valve sound is the sound either from a valve amplifier or a specially designed transistor amplifier. ... Valve amplifier (British English) means the same as tube amplifier (American English). ... The Voyager Golden Record. ...

Notes

  1. ^ American Federation of Musicians. Cf. History - 1927, 1928. "1927 - With the release of the first 'talkie', The Jazz Singer, orchestras in movie theaters were displaced. The AFM had its first encounter with wholesale unemployment brought about by technology. Within three years, 22,000 theater jobs for musicians who accompanied silent movies were lost, while only a few hundred jobs for musicians performing on soundtracks were created by the new technology. 1928 - While continuing to protest the loss of jobs due to the use of 'canned music' with motion pictures, the AFM set minimum wage scales for Vitaphone, Movietone and phonograph record work. Because synchronizing music with pictures for the movies was particularly difficult, the AFM was able to set high prices for this work."
  2. ^ Canned Music on Trial, 1929 advertisement by the American Federation of Musicians - The statement from this 1929 advertisement in the Pittsburgh Press, a newspaper, said, in part:

    [picture of a can with a label saying 'Canned Music -- Big Noise Brand -- Guaranteed to produce no intellectual or emotional reaction whatever' ]
    Canned Music On Trial. This is the case of Art versus Mechanical Music in theatres. The defendant stands accused in front of the American people of attempted corruption of musical appreciation and discouragement of musical education. Theatres in many cities are offering synchronised mechanical music as a substitute for Real Music. If the theatre-going public accepts this vitiation of its entertainment program a deplorable decline in the Art of Music is inevitable. Musical authorities know that the soul of the Art is lost in mechanisation. It cannot be otherwise because the quality of music is dependent on the mood of the artist, upon the human contact, without which the essence of intellectual stimulation and emotional rapture is lost.
    Is Music Worth Saving? No great volume of evidence is required to answer this question. Music is a well-nigh universally beloved art. From the beginning of history, men have turned to musical expression to lighten the burdens of life, to make them happier. Aborigines, lowest in the scale of savagery, chant their song to tribal gods and play upon pipes and shark-skin drums. Musical development has kept pace with good taste and ethics throughout the ages, and has influenced the gentler nature of man more powerfully perhaps than any other factor. Has it remained for the Great Age of Science to snub the Art by setting up in its place a pale and feeble shadow of itself?
    American Federation of Musicians (Comprising 140,000 musicians in the United States and Canada), Joseph N. Weber, President. Broadway, New York City." Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pittsburgh Press, now defunct, was a major daily newspaper in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ...

  3. ^ Music Notation Software Review Terms and Definitions. Music Notation Software Review Online.
  4. ^ Music Master Works Product discussion page.

External links

Online lists and directories of audio engineering schools and programs

Other links of interest


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sound recording and reproduction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (318 words)
Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music.
The invention of the compact cassette in the 1960's, followed by the walkman, gave a major boost to the mass distribution of music recordings, and the invention of digital recording and the compact disc in 1983 brought massive improvements in ruggedness and quality.
Multitrack recording makes it possible to capture sound from several microphones, or from different 'takes' to tape or disc with maximum headroom and quality, allowing maximum flexibility in the mixing and mastering stages for editing, level balancing, compressing and limiting, and the addition of effects such as reverberation, equalisation, flanging and many more.
sound recording. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (686 words)
Generally, in recording, the sound waves impinge on a microphone and are converted into an electrical signal that is recorded by a tape recorder.
For stereophonic sound the stylus vibrates vertically, as well as from side to side, recording one sound channel in the left wall of the groove and one in the right.
The sound to be recorded is converted into an electrical signal that is used to modulate the intensity of a beam of light.
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