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Encyclopedia > Soul food

Soul food is an American cuisine, a selection of foods, typically associated with African Americans of the Southern United States. In the mid-1960s, when the Civil Rights Movement was just beginning, "soul" was a common adjective used to describe African American culture, and thus the name "soul food" was derived. Soul food may refer to: Soul food, a type of cuisine in the southern United States Soul Food (album), the 1995 debut album of Goodie Mob Soul Food (film), a 1997 film by George Tillman, Jr. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Historically, various popular movements struggling for social justice and democratic rights since the Second World War were known as civil rights movement, most famously the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which struggled for equal rights for African-Americans. ...

Contents

Origins

A southern African-American family on a fishing and hunting outing in the late 1800s. Note the catfish and waterfowl suspended from the side of the boat.
A southern African-American family on a fishing and hunting outing in the late 1800s. Note the catfish and waterfowl suspended from the side of the boat.

The term soul food became popular in the 1960s, when the word soul became used in connection with most things African American. The origins of soul food, however, are much older and can be traced back to Africa. Many culinary historians believe that in the beginning of the 14th century, around the time of early African exploration, European explorers brought their own food supplies and introduced them into the African diet. Foods such as turnips from Morocco and cabbage from Spain would play an important part in the history of African American cuisine. Image File history File links Black_family_subsistence_fishing. ... Image File history File links Black_family_subsistence_fishing. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


When slave trading began in the early 1400s, the diet of newly enslaved Africans changed on the long journeys from their homeland. It was during this time that some of the indigenous crops of Africa began showing up in the slaves' new home in the Americas. Tall tales of seeds from watermelons, okra and sesame being transported in the slave's ears, hair or clothing is more likely being true being that cross-pollination is known to occur in such cases. Some traditional African foods became commercially raised crops in America. Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris; Family Cucurbitaceae) is the fruit and plant of a vine-like (climber and trailer) herb originally from southern Africa. ... Binomial name (L.) Moench Okra (American English: , British English ), also known as ladys finger[1], bhindi and gumbo, is a flowering plant valued for its edible green fruits. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ...


As slaves, African Americans would "make do" with the ingredients at hand. The fresh vegetables found in Africa were replaced by the throwaway foods from the plantation house. Their vegetables were the tops of turnips and beets and dandelions. Soon they were cooking with new types of greens: collards, kale, cress, mustard, and pokeweed. African American slaves also developed recipes which used discarded meat from the plantation, such as pig’s feet, beef tongue or tail, ham hocks, chitterlings (pig small intestines), pig ears, hog jowls, tripe and skin. Cooks added onions, garlic, thyme, and bay leaf to enhance the flavors. Many African Americans depended on catching their own meat, and wild game such as raccoon, possum, turtle, and rabbit was, until the 1950s, very popular fare on the African American table. Binomial name Brassica rapa L. Subsp. ... A beet (called beetroot in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, as well as table beet, garden beet, blood turnip or red beet) is a plant of the genus Beta of which both the leaves and root are edible. ... Species Taraxacum officinale Taraxacum japonicum Taraxacum albidum and a few others. ... Cultivar Group Brassica oleracea Acephala Group Collard greens (also called collards or borekale) are a group of loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea Acephala Group, grown for their large, dark-colored greens and as a garden ornamental, mainly in Brazil, Portugal, the Southern United States, and in many parts of... Kale or Borecole is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. ... Cress can refer to several edible members of the family Brassicaceae used as leaf vegetables including watercress land cress (also known as Belle Isle cress, Early yellowrocket, American cress, dryland cress, upland cress, cassabully, creasy salad, Early winter cress, American cress and American watercress). ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Species About 35, including: (Southeast Asia) P. americana (North America) (China) P. dioica (South America) P. decandra (East Asia) (Mexico) P. icosandra (South America) (New Zealand) For the Hawaiian fish salad, see Poke (food). ... Chitlins in broth. ... Diagram showing the small intestine In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine (colon). ... Tripe in an Italian market Look up tripe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the parody newspaper, see The Onion. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ...


The slave diet began to evolve when slaves entered the plantation houses as cooks. Suddenly, southern cooking took on new meaning. Fried chicken began to appear on the tables; sweet potatoes sat next to boiled white potatoes. Regional foods such as apples, peaches, berries, nuts, and grains soon became puddings and pies; thus, soul cooking began to influence Southern food.


There was no waste in the traditional African American kitchen. Leftover fish became croquettes (by adding an egg, cornmeal or flour, seasonings which were breaded and deep-fried). Stale bread became bread pudding, and each part of the pig had its own special dish. Even the liquid from cooked greens, called potlikker, was consumed as a type of gravy, or drunk. Cylindrical croquettes. ... Collard liquor, also known as pot liquor, sometimes spelled potlikker[1] or pot likker[2] is the liquid that is left behind after boiling greens (collard greens, mustard greens, turnip greens). ...


After long hours of labor, the evening meal was a time for families to get together, and the tradition of communal meals was the perfect environment for conversation and the reciting of oral history and storytelling. Another tradition was the potluck dinner, with each family member bringing a different dish to the dinner. When it was their families' turn for a visit by the preacher, it was also common practice for black women to hold up Sunday lunches or dinners until he arrived. If the minister frequently graced one's family table, then that conferred upon the family a degree of prestige in the eyes of the congregation. The tradition of extended family, friends and neighbors gathering at one woman's household at Christmas and Thanksgiving because of her status as a cook also began with the preacher's approval.


After slavery in the United States came to an end, many poor African Americans could afford only the least expensive cuts of meat and offal. Subsistence farming yielded fresh vegetables, and fishing and hunting provided fish and wild game, such as possum, rabbit, squirrel, and sometimes waterfowl. Scrapple sandwich at the Delaware state fair Offal is the entrails and internal organs of a butchered animal. ... Genera Several; see text Opossum fur is quite soft. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ...


While soul food originated in the South, soul food restaurants—from fried chicken and fish "shacks" to upscale dining establishments—exist in virtually every African American community in the USA, especially in cities with large African American populations, such as Charleston, Atlanta, Chicago, Kansas City, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Florida, Houston, Detroit, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, New Orleans, Memphis,Los Angeles, Miami, Birmingham, Sacramento, St. Louis and Washington, D.C. Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... The Indianapolis skyline Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... Houston redirects here. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... New York, New York redirects here. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... NOLA redirects here. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Miami redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State County Jefferson, Shelby Government  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area  - City  151. ... Sacramento is a Spanish- and Portuguese-language word meaning sacrament; it is a common toponym in parts of the world where those tongues were or are spoken. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... ...


Soul food being the mother of Southern cooking

Impoverished whites and blacks in the South prepared many of the same dishes stemming from the soul tradition, but styles of preparation sometimes varied. African American soul food generally tends to be more intensely spiced than European American cuisine[citation needed].


Many people in the south debate over what the difference is between soul food and Southern cooking. Before the 1870s, the south was made up of a predominately Anglo and black population. Many blacks were cooks on plantations and may have taught the poor whites in the area their culinary traditions. Soul food is the first of the southern cuisines to arise, along with Creole cuisine (a similar cuisine that was isolated in the French Louisiana territory). During the 1870s, Irish, German, Czech immigrants started to come into the south bringing their own traditions coupled with soul food. This is when the larger, broad category of Southern cooking developed.


It is also important to note the Native American influence on soul cooking. Natives had been cultivating beans, strawberries, maize (a type of corn, being that any small grain can be called a corn), and chile peppers. For years Natives prepared hominy (also the source of hominy grits), hotwater cornbread and strawberry bread, which recipe Europeans appropriated as strawberry shortcake. Hominy or nixtamal is dried, treated maize (corn) kernels. ... This article is about the corn-based Southern U.S. food. ...


Cookbooks

Since it was illegal in many states for enslaved Africans to learn to read or write, soul food recipes and cooking techniques tended to be passed along orally, until after slavery. The first soul food cookbook is attributed to Abby Fisher, entitled What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Old Southern Cooking and published in 1881. Good Things to Eat was published in 1911; the author, Rufus Estes, was a former slave who worked for the Pullman railway car service. Many other cookbooks were written by African Americans during that time, but as they were not widely distributed, most are now lost.


Since the mid-20th century, many cookbooks highlighting soul food and African American foodways compiled by African Americans have been published and well received. Vertamae Grosvenor's Vibration Cooking, or the Travel Notes of a Geechee Girl, originally published in 1970, focused on South Carolina "lowcountry", Geechee, or Gullah, cooking. Its focus on spontaneity in the kitchen—cooking by "vibration" rather than precisely measuring ingredients, as well as "making do" with ingredients on hand—captured the essence of traditional African American cooking techniques. The simple, healthful, basic ingredients of lowcountry cuisine, like shrimp, oysters, crab, fresh produce, rice and sweet potatoes, made it a bestseller. Vertamae Grosvenor is a food writer and broadcaster, raised in the South Carolina lowcountry. ... Gullah is the name of both an ethnic group and its English-African creole language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


At the center of African American food celebrations is the value of sharing. Likewise, African American cookbooks often have a common theme of family and family gatherings. Usher boards and Women's Day committees of various religious congregations large and small, and even public service and social welfare organizations such as the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) have produced cookbooks to fund their operations and for charitable enterprises. The NCNW produced its first cookbook, The Historical Cookbook of the American Negro, in 1958, and revived the practice in 1993, producing a popular series of cookbooks featuring recipes by well-known and celebrity African Americans, among them: The Black Family Reunion Cookbook (1993), Celebrating Our Mothers' Kitchens: Treasured Memories and Tested Recipes (1994), and Mother Africa's Table: A Chronicle of Celebration (1998). The NCNW also recently reissued The Historical Cookbook. The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune, child of slave parents, distinguished educator and government consultant. ... Jan. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Celebrated traditional Southern chef and author Edna Lewis wrote a series of books between 1972 and 2003, including A Taste of Country Cooking (Alfred A. Knopf, 1976) where she weaves stories of her childhood in Freetown, Virginia into her recipes for "real Southern food". Edna Lewis (April 13, 1916 – February 13, 2006) was an African-American chef and author best known for her books on traditional Southern cuisine, including: The Edna Lewis Cookbook (1972) The Taste of Country Cooking(1976) In Pursuit of Flavor (1988) The Gift of Southern Cooking (2003), co-authored with...


Another organization, the Chicago-based Real Men Charities, in existence since the 1980s, sponsors food-based charitable and educational programs and activities around the nation. As its primary annual, celebrity-studded fundraiser, Real Men Charities sponsors "Real Men Cook" events and programs in fifteen cities nationwide, where African American men gather to present their best recipes—some original, others handed down for generations—for charity. The event is timed to coincide roughly with Juneteenth and Father's Day and is promoted with the slogan "Every day is Family Day When Real Men Cook." In 2004, Real Men rolled out its Sweet Potato Pound Cake Mix in select food retail establishments in several cities, and published a cookbook in 2005 titled Real Men Cook: Rites, Rituals and Recipes for Living. Proceeds from these events and from the cookbook help fund the organization's varied operations and activities. Juneteenth celebration in Austin, Texas on 19 June 1900 Juneteenth, also known as Freedom Day or Emancipation Day, is an annual holiday in fourteen states of the United States. ... For other uses, see Fathers Day (disambiguation). ...


Soul food and health

Soul food was developed by enslaved Africans who lived under the difficult and impoverished conditions of grinding physical labor. The history of soul food does not begin with the roots of slavery, but with traditions stretching back to Africa. It is humble, hearty fare, traditionally cooked and seasoned with pork products and often fried in lard. For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fat. ...


Formerly, an important aspect of the preparation of soul food was the reuse of cooking lard. Because many cooks were too poor to throw out shortening that had already been used, they would pour the cooled liquid grease into a container. After cooling completely, the grease resolidified and could be used again the next time the cook required lard. Used cooking lard was no more "unhealthy" than new shortening or grease, nor would more of it be required in a recipe; it was simply a way to reuse an ingredient.


Frequent consumption of these ingredients without significant exercise or activity can contribute to disproportionately high occurrences of obesity, hypertension, cardiac/circulatory problems, and/or diabetes, conditions which often result in shortened lifespan. Additionally, trans fat, which is used not only in soul food, but in many baked goods, is a known contributor to cardiovascular disease. For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...


The importance of frying as a cooking technique is in large part responsible for soul food's reputation as greasy and unhealthy. However, when done correctly, deep fat frying at high temperatures can allow less oil into the food than pan frying with small amounts of oil. When foods are deep fried, the water in the food boils out. This outward force of steam is greater than the inward force of the oil, so very little oil ends up in the food. However, heavy breading, insufficient oil, or too low a temperature can result in oily, generally unhealthy food.


As a result, some African-Americans may use methods of cooking soul food different from those employed by their grandparents, including using more healthful alternatives for frying (liquid vegetable oil or canola oil) and cooking and stewing using smoked turkey instead of pork. Changes in hog farming techniques have also resulted in drastically leaner pork. Critics have argued that the attempt to make soul food healthier has the undesirable effect of not being as flavorful as the traditional recipes.[1] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... For the figure in Celtic mythology see agriculture, canola are certain varieties of plants from which we get rapeseed oil, or the oil produced from those varieties. ...


Certain staples of a soul food diet have pronounced health benefits. Collard greens are an excellent source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, and C, manganese, iron, omega 3 fatty acids, calcium, folic acid, and fiber. They also contain a number of phytonutrients which are thought to play a role in the prevention of ovarian and breast cancer.[2] Peas, rice, and legumes are excellent, inexpensive sources of protein which also contain important vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of beta carotene and trace minerals as well, and have come to be classified as an "anti-diabetic" food. Recent animal studies have shown that sweet potatoes can stabilize blood sugar levels and lower insulin resistance.[3] Collards, also called collard greens or borekale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), are various loose-leafed cultivars of the cabbage plant. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ...


Soul food is often labor-intensive and meant for feeding a large family; therefore, it doesn't pose as much of a direct threat to health as fast or processed foods, which typically are eaten quickly and in large portions.


Dishes and ingredients

Soul food uses a great variety of dishes and ingredients, some unique and some shared with other cuisines.


Meats

Country-fried steak, with baked beans and mashed potatoes with white gravy
Country-fried steak, with baked beans and mashed potatoes with white gravy
  • Chicken gizzards, batter-fried
  • Chicken livers, batter-fried
  • Chitterlings ("chitlins") (the cleaned and prepared intestines of hogs, slow cooked and often eaten with vinegar and hot sauce; sometimes parboiled, then battered and fried)
  • Country fried steak, also known as "chicken fried steak" (beef deep-fried with a crisp flour or batter coating, usually served with white gravy)
  • Cracklins (commonly known as pork rinds and sometimes added to cornbread batter)
  • Fatback (fatty, cured, salted pork; used to season meats and vegetables)
  • Fried chicken (fried in pure lard with seasoned flour)
  • Fried fish (any of several varieties of fish—especially catfish, but also whiting, porgies, bluegills—dredged in seasoned cornmeal and deep fried
  • Ham hocks (smoked, used to flavor vegetables and legumes)
  • Hoghead cheese (made primarily from pig snouts, lips, and ears, and frequently referred to as "souse meat" or simply "souse")
  • Hog maws (hog jowls, sliced and usually cooked with chitterlings)
  • Meatloaf (typically with a brown gravy)
  • Neckbones (beef neck bones seasoned and slow cooked)
  • Oxtail soup (a soup or stew made from beef tails)
  • Pigs feet (slow cooked like chitterlings, sometimes pickled and, like chitterlings, often eaten with vinegar and hot sauce)
  • Ribs (usually pork, but can also be beef ribs)

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1070x684, 228 KB) Summary Taken in October of 2005; I release it under the license below. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1070x684, 228 KB) Summary Taken in October of 2005; I release it under the license below. ... The gizzard is an adapted stomach that is found in birds, earthworms, and other animals. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Chitlins in broth. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... For the streetball player, see Philip Champion. ... Parboil is an action which refers to partially boiling food in water before finishing cooking it by another method. ... Batter is a thick or thin liquid mixture, usually based on flour, water or milk, and egg. ... Chicken fried steak or country fried steak is a food preparation associated with soul food and Southern U.S. cuisine, particularly Texas. ... for the guitarist, see Dave Felton Gravy is a type of sauce, usually made from the juices that naturally run from meat or vegetables during cooking. ... Pork rind is the cooked skin of a pig. ... Cornbread or Johnny cake is a generic name for any number of quick breads (a bread leavened chemically, rather than by yeast) containing cornmeal. ... Fatback is the layer of fat along the back of a pig, used as a cut of meat. ... KFCs Fried chicken with french fries. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Merlangius merlangus É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1767 Many types of fish have been given the common name whiting. ... Genera Many, see text Wikispecies has information related to: Sparidae The Sparidae is a family of fish, included in the order Perciformes. ... Binomial name Rafinesque, 1819 The Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is a species of freshwater fish sometimes referred to as bream, brim, or coppernose. ... Ham hocks are essential ingredients in soul food and other forms of Southern country cooking. ... Head cheese is in fact not a cheese, but rather a terrine made of meat taken from the head of a calf or pig (sometimes a sheep or cow) that would not otherwise be considered appealing. ... Hog maw is a Pennsylvania Dutch dish. ... This article is about the meat dish. ... Oxtail soup is made with beef tails. ... Pickled pigs feet is a food preparation associated with soul food and Southern country, cuisine, as well as German and Irish cuisine. ... Beef rib, French style, served with potatoes, French style. ...

Vegetables

  • Black-eyed peas (cooked separately, or with rice as Hoppin' John)
  • Cabbage, usually boiled and seasoned with vinegar, salt and ham hocks or fatback. More recently, smoked poultry (turkey or chicken) is also used as a seasoning.
  • Greens (usually cooked with ham hocks; especially collard greens, mustard greens, turnip greens, or a combination thereof, also known as poke salad)
  • Lima beans (see also butter beans)
  • Butter beans (immature lima beans, usually cooked in butter or combined with multiple regional sausages)
  • Field peas (seasoned with pork)
  • Okra (African vegetable eaten fried in cornmeal and flour or stewed, often with tomatoes, corn, onions and hot peppers; the Bantu word for okra is ngombo, from which the Creole/soul food dish gumbo derives its name)
  • Red beans served alone or in chili
  • Succotash (originally a Native American dish of yellow corn, tomatoes, and butter beans, usually cooked in butter)
  • Sweet potatoes (often parboiled, sliced and then baked, using sugar, lard, cinnamon, nutmeg and butter, commonly called "candied yams"; also boiled, then pureed, seasoned and baked into pies—similar in taste and texture to pumpkin pie)

Trinomial name Vigna unguiculata unguiculata The black-eyed pea, also called black-eyed bean, blackeye, lobiya, rongi, feijão-frade, Alasandee (Kannada name) or chawli/chawle, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown for its medium-sized edible bean, which mutates easily giving rise to a number of varieties, the... Hoppin John is a traditional dish in the cuisine of the Southern United States consisting of crowder peas (black-eyed peas) and rice, often seasoned with a combination of; ham hock or fatback, onions, green peppers, vinegar and spices. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Leaf vegetables, also called greens or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Collards, also called collard greens or borekale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), are various loose-leafed cultivars of the cabbage plant. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phaseolus lunatus L. The lima bean or butter bean, (Phaseolus lunatus, Fabaceae) is grown as a vegetable for its mature and immature beans. ... Binomial name Phaseolus lunatus L. The Lima bean or butter bean or Liam and Alec (Phaseolus lunatus, Fabaceae) is grown as a vegetable for its mature and immature beans. ... Binomial name (L.) Moench Okra (American English: , British English ), also known as ladys finger[1], bhindi and gumbo, is a flowering plant valued for its edible green fruits. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. ... A bowl of shrimp gumbo Gumbo is a spicy, hearty stew or soup, found typically in the states on the Gulf of Mexico in the United States, and very common in the southern part of Louisiana and the Lowcountry around Charleston, South Carolina. ... Dry kidney beans The kidney bean is a medium-sized variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with dark red skin. ... Succotash (from the Native American Narraganset language, msikwatash) is a food dish consisting primarily of lima beans and corn (maize), possibly including pieces of cured meat. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Pumpkin pie Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Pumpkin Pie Pumpkin pie is a traditional North American dessert usually made in the late fall and early winter, especially for Halloween, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. ...

Breads

Biscuits with honey
Biscuits with honey
  • Biscuits (a shortbread similar to scones, commonly served with butter, jam, jelly, sorghum or cane syrup, or gravy; used to wipe up, or "sop," liquids from a dish)
  • Cornbread (a shortbread often baked in a skillet, commonly seasoned with bacon fat); a Native American contribution.
  • Hoecakes (a type of cornbread made of cornmeal, salt and water, which is very thin in texture, and fried in cooking oil in a skillet. It became known as "hoecake" because field hands often cooked it on a shovel or hoe held to an open flame)
  • "Hot water" cornbread (cornmeal mixed with hot water and fried)
  • Hushpuppies (balls of cornmeal deep-fried with salt and diced onions; slaves used them to "hush" their dogs yelping for food in their yards.
  • Johnny cakes (fried cornmeal pancakes, usually salted and buttered)
  • Milk and bread (a "po' folks' dessert-in-a-glass" of slightly crumbled cornbread, buttermilk and sugar)
  • Sweet bread (bread with a certain sweetness, presumably from molasses)

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... For other uses, see Biscuit (disambiguation). ... Scones with honey. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Cornbread or Johnny cake is a generic name for any number of quick breads (a bread leavened chemically, rather than by yeast) containing cornmeal. ... Hoecake is a type of cornbread made of cornmeal, salt and water, which is very thin in texture, and fried in cooking oil in a skillet. ... Hushpuppies are a small cornmeal pastry that are small and either round or finger shaped. ... Johnny Cakes is the 73rd episode of the HBO original series, The Sopranos. ...

Other items

  • Chow-chow (a spicy, homemade pickle relish sometimes made with okra, corn, cabbage, hot peppers, green tomatoes and other vegetables; commonly used to top black-eyed peas and otherwise as a condiment and side dish)
  • Grits (or "hominy grits", made from processed, dried, ground corn kernels and usually eaten as a breakfast food the consistency of porridge; also served with fish and meat at dinnertime, similar to polenta)
  • Hot sauce (a condiment of cayenne peppers, vinegar, salt, garlic and other spices often used on chitterlings, fried chicken and fish including homemade or Texas Pete, Tabasco, or Louisiana brand)
  • Macaroni and cheese casserole (from a box, or cooked from scratch with cheddar cheese, milk, flour, seasonings including dry mustard, etc.)
  • Rice pudding, with rice and corn-based vanilla pudding
  • Watermelon
  • Rice (served with red beans, black beans and/or black-eyed peas, as "rice and gravy" with fried chicken, fried pork chops, etc., or cooked into purloo (pilaf) or "bog" with chicken, pork, tomatoes, okra, onions, sausage, etc.)
  • Sorghum syrup (from sorghum, or "Guinea corn," a sweet grain indigenous to Africa introduced into the U.S. by African slaves in the early 17th century; see biscuits); frequently referred to as "sorghum molasses"
  • Sweet tea, inexpensive orange pekoe (black tea, often Lipton, Tetley, or Luzianne brands) boiled, sweetened with cane sugar, and chilled, served with lemon. The tea is sometimes steeped in the sun instead of boiled; this is referred to as "sun tea."

Chow Chow, or Chow, is a breed of dog originating from China[1], where it is referred to as Songshi Quan (Pinyin: sōngshī quǎn 松狮犬), which literally means puffy-lion dog. ... This article is about the corn-based Southern U.S. food. ... Hominy or nixtamal is dried, treated maize (corn) kernels. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Fried polenta (left), with chicken and potatoes Polenta is a cornmeal dish popular in Italian, Savoyard, Swiss, Austrian, Croatian, Slovenian, Serbian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Corsican, Argentine, Brazilian, and Mexican cuisine, and it is a traditional staple food throughout much of northern Italy. ... For the streetball player, see Philip Champion. ... Macaroni and cheese with a breadcrumb topping. ... Rice pudding being served during the traditional Scandinavian Christmas meal, in Denmark Rice pudding (Arroz Doce) in a typical Christmas meal, in Portugal Pulut hitam served in a Malaysian restaurant Rice pudding is a dessert enjoyed by people of different cultures all over the world, originating in Japan. ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A biscuit is a type of food. ... A glass of sweet tea Sweet tea is a form of iced tea in which sugar or some other form of sweetener is added to the hot water before brewing, while brewing the tea, or post-brewing, but before the beverage is chilled and served. ... Orange pekoe is a term mainly used to describe a grade found in the grading system of the same name used for sorting Black teas [1] [2]. The system is based solely upon the size of the processed and dried black tea leaves. ... For people named Lipton, see Lipton (surname). ... U.K. logo The Tetley Group was an Indian tea company. ... Luzianne (a regional pronunciation of the word Louisiana) is the brand name of many Cajun culinary products, such as chili, hot sauces, and perhaps most famously, iced tea and dark roasted coffees. ...

Traditions

It is a long-standing tradition in African American families to indulge in a family or communal New Year's Day dinner featuring cabbage or greens, which symbolize greenbacks, and black-eyed peas, which symbolize coins. Supermarkets that cater to African Americans often have these items, canned and fresh, in greater amounts and on prominent display at the end of the year to accommodate increased demand.


See also

The cuisine of the Southern United States is defined as the regional culinary form of states generally south of the Mason-Dixon Line easterly to the state of Texas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Edna Lewis (April 13, 1916 – February 13, 2006) was an African-American chef and author best known for her books on traditional Southern cuisine, including: The Edna Lewis Cookbook (1972) The Taste of Country Cooking(1976) In Pursuit of Flavor (1988) The Gift of Southern Cooking (2003), co-authored with...

External links

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Jonsson, Patrick (February 6, 2006). Backstory: Southern discomfort food. The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Publishing Society. Retrieved on 2006-11-09.
  2. ^ http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=138
  3. ^ http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=64

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Christain Science Plaza in Boston, Massachusetts The First Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science Center in common reference) is the mother church and administrative headquarters of the Christian Science Church and is located in the Back Bay neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Huges, Marvalene H. Soul, Black Women, and Food. Ed. Carole Counihan and Penny van Esterik. New York: Routledge, 1997.
  • Bowser, Pearl and Jean Eckstein, A Pinch of Soul, Avon, New York, 1970
  • Counihan, Carol and Penny Van Esterik editors, Food and Culture, A Reader, Routledge, New York, 1997
  • Harris, Jessica, The Welcome Table – African American Heritage Cooking, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1996
  • Root, Waverley and Richard de Rochemont, Eating in America, A History, William Morrow, New York, 1976
  • Glenn, Gwendolyn, "American Visions," Southern Secrets From Edna Lewis, February-March, 1997
  • Puckett, Susan, "Restaurant and Institutions", Soul Food Revival, February 1, 1997

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