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Encyclopedia > Sorna

Sorna (Persian سورنا, سُرنا sornā, also سورنای, سُرنای sornāy, also Surna and Surnay) is an ancient Iranian woodwind instrument. Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ« ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Iranian musical instruments can be broadly classified into three categories, namely classical, western and folk. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word Sorna is a Pahlavi derivative of Sūrnāy (meaning Strong Flute), which is a compand of 'sūr-' (strong) and '-nāy' (flute).[1] Possibly it was called "strong flute" due to its double-reed-construction rather than usual Nāy, which was made of single-reed. Also it is suggested that the first part of word of Sorna, is from sūr- again from Pahlavi and New-Persian, meaning the "banquet, meal and feast", thus the "banquet-flute".[2] Middle Persian or Pahlavi is the Iranian language spoken during Sassanian times. ... Woman playing the ney in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 The ney (also nai, nye, nay) is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ« ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Historical Background

Its' history dates back to the Achaemenid dynasty (550-330 B.C.E.), and was used to play at the end of the day from the city gate or from the local administration building. This custom persisted in England until the 19th century, the town waits playing shawms to mark the hours. The instrument was mainly played in outdoors in regional music of Iran in the festive ceremonies (the famous Persian poet Molana Rumi has mentioned sorna and dohol in his poems). Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Woman playing a bass shawm, (Tobias Stimmer ca. ... Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was...


The Achaemenid Sorna was large-Trumpet-like instrument, but in later dates was reduced in size, and became more like (shrill oboe), or dozale (double oboe), which is characterized by a turned wood body of simple shape, with a heavily flared bell. The earlier was categorized as a trumpet, but this was a mistaken idea based on the bell of the oboe and the freeblowing embouchure that often gives a superficial resemblance to a brass embouchure, particularly if the oboe is fitted as so many are with a lip ring.[3] The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium and tuba. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ...


According Shahnameh it was King Jamshid who devised the Sornā.[4] Except the literary evidences, there are also number of artefacts from Sasanian dynasty (224-651 CE), depicting Sorna, such a silver dish, currently in Hermitage Museum.[5] Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... Jamshid (in Persian: ‎) is a common Persian male first name. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... The State Hermitage Museum (Государственный Эрмитаж) in St. ...


Function

A small amount of air is being forced under pressure through a small metal tube called the staple which serves to hold the reed and match it to the bore. This requires the player to make sure, as in oboe playing, that one also empties the lungs of stale air when taking a new breath.


Often Sornas were played in pairs, with a melody and a drone player. This drone may move to different notes during a piece of music, changing at prescribed places in the composition.


Other names such as dohol, davul, tavel and so on have been applied to Sorna. Since dohol is a double-faced drum sometimes it is called do-rūyeh in Persian language, in contrast to ghaval and daf, which are yek-rūyeh (one-faced).


There are some Persian proverbs about Sorna. The most famous proverb that many poets have been used in their works is: "آواز دهل شنیدن از دور خوش است" (Āvāz-e-dohol shenidan az dur khosh ast)", which literally means Sorna/Dohol sounds pleasant from a distance.


References

  1. ^ MacKenzie D. N., A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, London (1971), p.78 - ISBN:0 0-19-713559-5.
  2. ^ MacKenzie D. N., A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, London (1971), p.78 - ISBN:0 0-19-713559-5.
  3. ^ Pope U., An Outline History of Persian Music and Musical Theory, in Survey of Persian Art, Vol. VI, pp. 2783-2804.
  4. ^ Pope U., An Outline History of Persian Music and Musical Theory, in Survey of Persian Art, Vol. VI, p. 2784.
  5. ^ Farmer, Studies in Oriental Musical Instruments, 2nd ser., London (1926), pp69-86.
Iranian Musical Instruments
String Instruments (Sāzhāy-e Zehī)
Bowed instruments: Ghazhak | Kamāncheh | Robāb
Plucked instruments: Barbat | Chang | Dotār | Qānūn | Robāb | Sallāneh | Sāz | Setār | Tanbūr | Tār | Ūd
Struck instruments: Santur
Woodwind instruments (Sāzhāy-e Bādī):
Exposed: Darāy | Sornā | Karnay
End-blown: Haft Band | Nāy (Ney) | Sheypur
Percussion instrument (Sāzhāy-e Kūbeheyī/Zarbī)
Auxiliary Percussion: Daf | Dohol | Dāvūl | Dāyereh Zangī | Naqāreh | Tonbak (Dombak) | Kūs | Sanj

  Results from FactBites:
 
State v. Haskell, part 2 (1754 words)
Further, SORNA is not retributive because it does not affix culpability for prior criminal conduct.
Nevertheless, the fact that SORNA's requirements are triggered by a criminal conviction is common to all regulatory disabilities that result from a prior conviction, i.e., the loss of the right to vote in some jurisdictions.
The court also found that the defendant had not "shown that the notification program is punitive (the record indicates that it was used in the interests of public safety), or that the punitive purpose or effect of the notification was so great as to negate the remedial intent of the policy." Id. (citations omitted).
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