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Encyclopedia > Sorghum
Sorghum

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Sorghum
L.
Species

About 30 species, see text Image File history File links Sorghum. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. Species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of all continents in addition to Oceania and Australasia. Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugar cane). Sorghum is known as great millet and guinea corn in West Africa, kafir corn in South Africa, dura in Sudan, mtama in eastern Africa, jowar in India and kaoliang in China. [1] Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Subdivisions See text Panicoideae is a subfamily of the true grass family. ... Andropogoneae is a tribe of grasses (family Poaceae) widespread throughout tropical and temperate regions. ... Binomial name Vitman Big Bluestem is a bunch grass that is native to much of the prairie and Great Plains regions of North America. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


For more specific details on commercially exploited Sorghum see commercial sorghum. Commercial sorghum refers to the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum. ...

Contents

History

Most cultivated varieties of sorghum can be traced back to Africa, where they grow on savanna lands. In ancient times sorghum was also grown in India. During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, sorghum was planted extensively in parts of the Middle East, North Africa and Europe.[2] The name "sorghum" comes from Italian "sorgo", in turn from Latin "Syricum (granum)" meaning "grain of Syria". The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Tenth century records indicate that it was widely grown in Iraq, and became the principal food of Kirman in Persia. In addition to the eastern parts of the Muslim world, the crop was also grown in Egypt and later in Islamic Spain. From Islamic Spain it was introduced to Christian Spain and then France (by the twelfth century). In the Muslim world, sorghum was grown usually in areas where the soil was poor or the weather too hot and dry to grow other crops.[2] Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Kerman Kerman is full of history. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Al-Āndalus (Arabic الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim inhabitants; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750-929) and Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) and its taifa successor kingdoms specifically, and in general to territories under Muslim occupation (711-1492). ...


African slaves introduced sorghum into the U.S. in the early 17th century.[citation needed] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Cultivation and uses

Sorghum output in 2005.

Numerous Sorghum species are used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, as well as biofuels. Most species are drought tolerant and heat tolerant and are especially important in arid regions. They form an important component of pastures in many tropical regions. Sorghum species are an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia and is the "fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world".[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of sorghum output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 9,981,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of sorghum output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 9,981,000 tonnes). ... A jar of sweet sorghum Madhura sweet sorghum syrup sold in India Sweet sorghum is any of the many varieties of sorghum, a cane-like plant with a high sugar content. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... Booze redirects here. ... A xerophyte or xerophytic organism (xero meaning dry, phyte meaning plant) is a plant which is able to survive in an ecosystem with little available water or moisture, usually in environments where potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation for all or part of the growing season. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Grain redirects here. ...


In Arab cuisine, the unmilled grain is often cooked to make cous-cous, porridges, soups, and cakes. Many poor use it, along with other flours or starches, to make bread. The seeds and stalks are fed to cattle and poultry. Some varieties have been used for thatch, fencing, baskets, brushes and brooms, and stalks have been used as fuel. Medieval Islamic texts list medical uses for the plant.[4] Arab cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab countries. ...


A sorghum species, Johnson Grass, is classified as a noxious weed. Binomial name Pers. ...


The reclaimed stalks of the sorghum plant are used to make a decorative millwork material marketed as Kirei board.


Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plant's growth. Stressed plants, even at later stages of growth, can also contain toxic levels of cyanide. R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Hordenine is a potent phenylethylamine alkaloid with antibacterial and antibiotic properties produced in nature by several varieties of plants in the family Cactacea. ...


Species

  • Sorghum almum
  • Sorghum amplum
  • Sorghum angustum
  • Sorghum arundinaceum
  • Sorghum bicolor (primary cultivated species)
  • Sorghum brachypodum
  • Sorghum bulbosum
  • Sorghum burmahicum
  • Sorghum controversum
  • Sorghum drummondii
  • Sorghum ecarinatum
  • Sorghum exstans
  • Sorghum grande
  • Sorghum halepense
  • Sorghum interjectum
  • Sorghum intrans
  • Sorghum laxiflorum
  • Sorghum leiocladum
  • Sorghum macrospermum
  • Sorghum matarankense
  • Sorghum miliaceum
  • Sorghum nigrum
  • Sorghum nitidum
  • Sorghum plumosum
  • Sorghum propinquum
  • Sorghum purpureosericeum
  • Sorghum stipoideum
  • Sorghum timorense
  • Sorghum trichocladum
  • Sorghum versicolor
  • Sorghum virgatum
  • Sorghum vulgare

Binomial name Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Sorghum bicolor is the primary Sorghum species grown for grain for human consumption and for animal feed. ... Binomial name Pers. ...

Hybrids

  • Sorghum × almum
  • Sorghum × drummondii

Footnotes

  1. ^ United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization: Sorghum and millets in human nutrition
  2. ^ a b Watson, p. 12–14.
  3. ^ Sorghum, U.S. Grains Council.
  4. ^ Watson, p. 9.

References

  • Watson, Andrew M. Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 052124711X.

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Grain redirects here. ... // “Grain” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf Synonyms Paspalum exile Kippist Syntherisma exilis (Kippist) Newbold White fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most important of a diverse group of wild and domesticated Digitaria species that are harvested in the savannas of west Africa. ... Binomial name Coix lacryma-jobi L. Synonyms Coix agrestis Lour. ... Binomial name Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen Kañiwa is a species of goosefoot, similar in character and uses to the closely related to quinoa. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Willd. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Commercial sorghum refers to the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum. ... This article is about the wheat species. ... Triticale Triticale (x Triticosecale) is an artificial or man-made hybrid of rye and wheat first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century. ... Binomial name Eragrostis tef (Zucc. ... Species Zizania aquatica Zizania latifolia Zizania palustris Zizania texana Zizania aquatica L. Hitchc. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sorghum - MSN Encarta (381 words)
Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture.
Grain sorghums, also known as millet or Guinea corn, include milo, kafir, durra, feterita, and kaoliang, and are among the most drought-tolerant of cereals, becoming dormant under drought and heat stress and then resuming growth when conditions improve.
Grassy sorghums, including Sudan grass and hybrids of this grass and sweet or grain sorghums, are widely grown for fodder and pasture.
Sorghum (658 words)
In 1992, sorghum was planted on approximately 5.4 million hectares in the United States with an average yield of 4,566 kg/ha and a farm value of over $1.7 billion.
Sorghum starch is manufactured in the U.S. by a wet-milling process similar to that used for corn starch, then made into dextrose for use in foods.
Sorghum is ground, cracked, steam flaked, and/or roasted, to enhance the nutritional value 12 to 14 percent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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