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Encyclopedia > Sorbs
Sorbs

Sorbian national flag
Total population

50,000 - 60,000 Image File history File links Flag_of_Sorbs. ...

Regions with significant populations
Germany
Languages
German, Sorbian
Religions
Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Serbs, Poles, Czechs, Kashubians, Slovaks, and other Slavs, Germans (intermarriage for centuries)

The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). They are or were also known as Lusatians, Wends, Lusatian Serbs or Serbs of Luzice. This article or section should be merged with List of Sorbian languages The Sorbian languages are members of the West Slavic branch of languages spoken in eastern Germany. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Kashubians, Kassubians, or Cassubians (Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ...

Region where the Sorbs live in Germany
Region where the Sorbs live in Germany

Contents

Image File history File links Germany_sorbian_region. ... Image File history File links Germany_sorbian_region. ...

Demographic

Since ethnicity is not a legal category in Germany for German citizens, their number can only be guessed. The constitutions of both Brandenburg and Saxony explicitly declare any inquiry about ethnicity unconstitutional and illegal. But every citizen is free to view himself/herself as a Sorb and thus choose his/her ethnic identity, which must not be testified or examined by any state authority. Current estimates speak of 10,000 to 30,000 active speakers of Sorbian (almost all of them are bilingual) and about 60,000 people who subjectively consider themselves Sorbs.   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... The Sorbian languages are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. ...

National costume of Lusatian Sorbs as traditionally worn in the northern part of Lusatia
National costume of Lusatian Sorbs as traditionally worn in the northern part of Lusatia

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x1321, 297 KB) National costume of Lusatian Sorbs as is worn in the northern part of Lusatia (north of Cottbus). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x1321, 297 KB) National costume of Lusatian Sorbs as is worn in the northern part of Lusatia (north of Cottbus). ...

History

Historically, the Sorbs are the last remainder of the Polabian Slavic peoples living in most of what is now eastern Germany until the high Middle Ages. Their ancestors are the Milceni and Lusatians, not the Sorbs that were a tribe between Elbe and Saale, but in the 18th century they started to call themselves Sorbs. The Sorbs arrived in the area now known as Lusatia during the 5th century A.D. In the years since then, the Sorbs have often fallen under foreign rule. While they have predominantly been under German control, they were under Polish occupation in the 11th century and under Bohemian rule from the mid 14th century until the Peace of Prague (1635). Most Slavs in the area were Germanised or driven away during the German Ostsiedlung of the 12th and 13th centuries. Polabian Slavs is a collective term applied to a number of Slavic tribes living along the Elbe, between the Baltic Sea to the north, Solau to the west and Sudetes to the south. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Milceni or Milzeni (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ) were a West Slavic tribe in Upper Lusatia. ... The Peace of Prague of 30 May 1635 was a treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, and most of the Protestant states of the Empire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ...


At the end of the 19th century there were 150,000 Sorbian speakers in Lusatia, the majority of whom were monolingual. However, the Sorbs were quickly becoming Germanized on a mass-level, a phenomenon spurred on by industrialization. By the 1920s the majority of Sorbian speakers were bilingual. Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern...


The Sorbs were the victims of forced Germanization from 1933 to 1945, viewed by the Nazis as Sorbian-speaking Germans, rather than ethnic Slavs. With this distinction, the Nazis aimed to “re-Germanize” the Sorbs, a process which involved removing Sorbian from street signs and Germanizing Sorbian names in official documents. The Nazis also sought to eliminate the Slavic tendencies of the Sorbs by banning the Domowina in 1937 and banning the last remaining Sorbian-language newspaper, the Catholic paper Katolski Posol, in 1939. Sorbian teachers and priests were deported from the Reich, and those explicitly labeled as “Sorbian nationalists” were sent to concentration camps. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Domowina is a political independent league of the Sorbian and Wendish people (Sorbs) and umbrella organization of Sorbian societies in Lower and Upper Lusatia (in Germany). ...


After World War II

Following the end of the war, about five million Germans remaining in Silesia and the Sudetenland (out of a prewar total of about eight million) were expelled. Many of these people moved to Lusatia, where they were confronted with a Germany with clear Slavic colorings. The confusion of this ethnic and linguistic mix increased Sorbian-German tensions in the area. Even before this influx of Bohemian Germans, as a result of industrialization and Germanization, by the 1940s Sorbs were a minority in Lusatia. Their numbers were greatest in rural areas, where Sorbian speakers made up between 35% and 40% of the population. Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Sudetenland (German; Sudety in Czech and Polish) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern...


However, despite their minority status, in 1945 the Sorbs, driven by their experiences with Nazi oppression, sought to be recognized as an independent state and asked for Czechoslovak protection. The Lusatian Sorb National Council in Bautzen was the main force behind this movement, succeeding in convincing the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Prague to forward memoranda to Moscow, urging Czechoslovak military occupation of Lusatia. Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... Bautzen (pronounced , listen, until 1868: Budissin; Upper Sorbian: BudyÅ¡in; Lower Sorbian: BudyÅ¡yn; , listen; Polish: Budziszyn; Czech: Budyšín) is a city in eastern Saxony, Germany, and capital of the eponymous district. ... Nickname: City of a Hundred Spires Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area    - City 496 km²  (191. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ...


The Sorbs received no response to their petition; Sorbian independence did not align with Soviet socialist policy. The Soviets were also unwilling to cede Lusatia due to practical territorial concerns. Unluckily for the Sorbs, politics demanded that the Czechs choose the Soviets over their Slav sympathies in this period directly following World War II. While the Czechs were drawn to the Sorb cause, relating especially to the fate of a Slav minority persecuted by German occupiers, their allegiance lay with the Soviets. When Moscow declared that they would not aid the Sorb cause, the Czechs too withdrew their support. This ended any hope the Sorbs had for an independent Lusatia. [1]


Although they failed to receive Soviet support for an independent Sorbian state, the Sorbs were able to receive some gains in the postwar period. In 1945 the Domowina was re-licensed by the Soviets, followed in 1947 by the licensing of a Sorbian printing press. In 1948 the Sorbian grammar school opened in Bautzen. Bautzen (pronounced , listen, until 1868: Budissin; Upper Sorbian: Budyšin; Lower Sorbian: Budyšyn; , listen; Polish: Budziszyn; Czech: Budyšín) is a city in eastern Saxony, Germany, and capital of the eponymous district. ...


In the GDR the Sorbs were regaining identity. Erich Honecker discovered the people as a medium to praise their politics of minorities in the socialist country. Under GDR governance, Sorbic schools, publishers, theaters and many other cultural institutes were founded. An institute for Sorbic culture studies was founded in 1951 at the German Academy of Sciences Berlin as well as an institute for Sorbian studies[2] at the University of Leipzig.[3] In 1956, there were open protests against the massive industrialisation campaign in Lusatia, although these campaigns did not only affect the Sorbs or that region. On November 11, 1989, at the downfall of the socialist government, the Sorb National Assembly gathered, demanding the GDR authorities to establish a dialogue with the Sorbs and decisive changes in the state-run 'Domowina'. In 1991, 'Domowina' emerged as an independent organisation and Sorb People Foundation (Załožba za serbski lud) was established. [4] Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German Communist politician who led German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... The German Academy of Sciences Berlin was the most important academy in the GDR. It was founded in 1946 and continued the long tradition of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. ... The University of Leipzig (Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State and former Kingdom of Saxony, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ...


In today's Germany, they have certain minority rights, for example: the right to send their children to Sorbian-language schools, the right to use Sorbian in dealings with the local government and the right to bilingual road signs. Since 2005, the Sorbs have their own political party, the Wendische Volkspartei. On 26 March 2005 the SLS - Serbska Ludowa Strona (Wendische Volkspartei) was founded at Cottbus. ...


A recent paper on molecular genetics reports a very high 63% frequency of paternally inherited R1a1 Y-chromosome marker in the Sorb population[5], linking them genetically to other Slavic nations of similar haplotype distribution. In human genetics, Haplogroup R1a1 (M17) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup that is spread across Eurasia. ...


Sorbian communities overseas

During the mid 19th century many Protestant Sorbs emigrated to Texas and Australia. The town of Serbin in Lee County, Texas was founded by these Sorbian immigrants. There they established a church of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. Most of these Sorbian immigrants spread throughout central Texas and were subsequently assimilated into the German culture of the region. Ironically, the fear of assimilation into German culture and language is exactly why they left the old world. However, cultural identity remained important to some families and has led to the establishment of the Texas Wendish Heritage Society which since 1988 has hosted "Wendish Fest" in Serbin on the last Sunday in September. Wendish Fest activities include traditional Sorbian cultural pastimes such as egg painting, dancing, sausage-cooking, noodle-cooking, and beer drinking. Official language(s) English (de facto) See also languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Serbin is a community in southwestern Lee County, Texas, originally established by Wends in the mid 1850s. ... Location in the state of Texas Formed Seat Giddings Area  - Total  - Water 1,642 km² (634 mi²) 14 km² (6 mi²) 0. ... LCMS redirects here. ... Ukrainian Easter eggs Egg decorating is the art or craft of decorating eggs. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... Plate with German Wurst (liver-, blood- and hamsausage) A sausage consists of ground meat, animal fat, herbs and spices, and sometimes other ingredients, usually packed in a casing (historically the intestines of the animal, though now generally synthetic), and sometimes preserved in some way, often by curing or smoking. ... Look up Noodle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A glass of beer and different beer bottles. ...


In Australia, communities sprang up around the South Australian town of Kapunda (such as Peters Hill), and in the Barossa Valley region, as well as small areas of south-western Victoria. Like their counterparts in Texas, they were seen by the Anglo-Celtic population as another group of German immigrants, and eventually because of their small numbers, assimilated into that larger cultural group. Statue of Map Kernow The historic Kapunda copper mine Kapunda (population 3,000) is a town in South Australia, established when copper was discovered there in 1843. ... Tanunda is surrounded by vineyards showing Autumn colour. ... Capital Melbourne Government Const. ... Anglo-Celtic is a racial or cultural category, used primarily in Australia to describe people of British, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish and English descent. ...


Culture

The Sorbs are very well known for their Easter traditions:

Ukrainian pysanky Pisanka (plural: Pisankas, Pisanki) is an ancient Slavic art of egg decorating. ... Radibor is a community in the upper Lusatia in the federal state of Saxony in Germany. ... Bautzen (pronounced , listen, until 1868: Budissin; Upper Sorbian: Budyšin; Lower Sorbian: Budyšyn; , listen; Polish: Budziszyn; Czech: Budyšín) is a city in eastern Saxony, Germany, and capital of the eponymous district. ...

Toponyms

Road sign in German and Sorbian.
Road sign in German and Sorbian.

A number of toponyms in Eastern Germany are of Slavic origin, and some well-known cities in south-eastern Germany have names derived from the Sorbs, witnessing Sorbian ancestry in these territories (eg. Leipzig), Bautzen. Place names in Lusatia ending with -au or -ow (-owe-ouwe) may be of Sorbian etymology as well (see also German placename etymology). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1069x751, 127 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sorbs West Slavs Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1069x751, 127 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sorbs West Slavs Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Bautzen (pronounced , listen, until 1868: Budissin; Upper Sorbian: Budyšin; Lower Sorbian: Budyšyn; , listen; Polish: Budziszyn; Czech: Budyšín) is a city in eastern Saxony, Germany, and capital of the eponymous district. ... Placenames in the German language area can be classified by the language from which they originate, and by their age. ...


Examples

  • Zerbst
  • Zörbig
  • Schrenz (near Zörbig)

Many cities in German Lusatia have city signs with both German and the Sorbian names. Zerbst is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany and the capital of the Anhalt-Zerbst district. ... Zörbig is a town in the district of Bitterfeld, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ...


See also

Tradition on stamps
Tradition on stamps

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2238x931, 301 KB) Other versions unknown File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2238x931, 301 KB) Other versions unknown File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... At about a population of 60,000 (30,000 of which speak Sorbian), the Sorbs are the smallest Slavic-speaking group in Europe. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... The Sorbian languages are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Polabian Slavs is a collective term applied to a number of Slavic tribes living along the Elbe, between the Baltic Sea to the north, Solau to the west and Sudetes to the south. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ... The Milceni or Milzeni (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ) were a West Slavic tribe in Upper Lusatia. ...

Reference

  1. ^ Karel Kaplan: "The Short March: The Communist Takeover in Czechoslovakia 1945-1948", 1987, ISBN 0-312-72209-5, p. 24-25. See also extract on [1].
  2. ^ University of Leipzig:Institute for Sorbian Studies
  3. ^ (German) Der Spiegel: Von Dänen lernen heißt siegen lernen
  4. ^ Andrus Mölder Łužyca/Łužica ---- Horisont 2001-5, lk 48-49
  5. ^ Behar et al., 2003, Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 73, 768-779, 2003

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Literature

  • Gerald Stone: "Smallest Slavonic Nation: Sorbs of Lusatia", 1972, ISBN 0-485-11129-2

External links

An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Article about "Sorbs" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (338 words)
The Sorbs are a relatively small west Slavic people, living as a minority in the Region known as Lusatia in the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory).
The Sorbs have been a much-persecuted group of western Slavs, especially in Nazi Germany, which viewed Slavs as a people designed to be slaves for the Aryan race.
Sorbs is also the name of a commune in the Hérault département in France.
Informat.io on Sorbs (1232 words)
The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory).
The Lusatian Sorb National Council in Bautzen was the main force behind this movement, succeeding in convincing the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Prague to forward memoranda to Moscow, urging Czechoslovak military occupation of Lusatia.
On November 11, 1989, at the downfall of the socialist government, the Sorb National Assembly gathered, demanding the GDR authorities to establish a dialogue with the Sorbs and decisive changes in the state-run 'Domowina'.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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