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Encyclopedia > Sophism

Sophism can mean two very different things: In the modern definition, a sophism is a confusing or illogical argument used for deceiving someone. In Ancient Greece, the sophists were a group of teachers of philosophy and rhetoric. The Sophist (Greek: Σοφιστής) is one of the late Dialogues of Plato, which was written much more lately than the Parmenides and the Theaetetus, probably in 360 BC.After he criticized his own Theory of Forms in the Parmenides, Plato proceeds in the Sophist with a new conception of the Forms... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


The term sophism originated from Greek sophistes, meaning "wise-ist", one who "does" wisdom, one who makes a business out of wisdom (sophós means "wise man").

Contents

Sophists of Ancient Greece

The Greek words sophos or sophia had the meaning of "wise" or "wisdom" since the time of the poet Homer, and originally connoted anyone with expertise in a specific domain of knowledge or craft. Thus a charioteer, a sculptor, a warrior could be sophoi in their occupation. Gradually the word came to denote general wisdom and especially wisdom about human affairs (in, for example, politics, ethics, or household management). This was the term given to the Greek Seven Sages of 7th and 6th Century BCE (like Solon and Thales), and this was the meaning that appeared in the histories of Herodotus. At about the same time, the term sophistes was a synonym for "poet", and (by association with the traditional role of poets as the teachers of society) a synonym for one who teaches, in particular through the performance of prose works or speeches that impart practical knowledge. Richard Martin refers to the seven sages as "performers of political poetry."1 Sophos is a developer and vendor of security software and hardware, including anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-spam and Network Access Control for desktops, servers, email systems and other network gateways. ... Look up Sophia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... The Seven Sages of Greece (c. ... The Sophist (Greek: Σοφιστής) is one of the late Dialogues of Plato, which was written much later than the Parmenides and the Theaetetus, probably in 360 BC. After he criticized his own Theory of Forms in the Parmenides, Plato proceeds in the Sophist with a new conception of the Forms, more...


In the second half of the 5th century BCE, particularly at Athens, "sophist" came to denote a class of itinerant intellectuals who taught courses in "excellence" or "virtue," speculated about the nature of language and culture and employed rhetoric to achieve their purposes, generally to persuade or convince others. Sophists claimed that they could find the answers to all questions. Most of these sophists are known today primarily through the writings of their opponents (specifically Plato and Aristotle), which makes it difficult to assemble an unbiased view of their practices and beliefs. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Many of them taught their skills for a price. Due to the importance of such skills in the litigious social life of Athens, practitioners often commanded very high fees. The practice of taking fees, along with the sophists practice of questioning the existence and roles of traditional deities (this was done to make "the weaker argument appear the stronger") and investigating into the nature of the heavens and the earth prompted a popular reaction against them. Their attacks against Socrates (in fictional prosecution speeches) prompted a vigorous condemnation from his followers, including Plato and Xenophon, as there was a popular view of Socrates as a sophist. Their attitude, coupled with the wealth garnered by many of the sophists, eventually led to popular resentment against sophist practitioners and the ideas and writings associated with sophism. This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ...


Protagoras is generally regarded as the first of the sophists. Others included Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus. Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Gorgias (in Greek Γοργἰας, circa 483-376 BC) // Introduction Due to his ushering in of rhetorical innovations involving structure and ornamentation and his introduction of paradoxologia – the idea of paradoxical thought and paradoxical expression – Gorgias of Leontini has been labeled the ‘father of sophistry’ (Wardy 6). ... Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος Pródikos, born c. ... Hippias can also refer to a son of Pisistratus and a tyrant of Athens. ... Thrasymachus (Θρασύμαχος) (ca. ... Lycophron was a Greek poet and grammarian. ... Callicles (Greek: Καλλικλης) is a character in Plato’s dialogue Gorgias. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, dating to ca. ...


In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead adopting a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning (i.e. the Socratic method, however. Diogenes Laertius wrote that Protagoras invented the “Socratic” method [1][2]). His attitude towards the Sophists was by no means oppositional; in one dialogue Socrates even stated that the Sophists were better educators than he was [3], which he validated by sending one of his students to study under a sophist [4]. W. K. C. Guthrie associated Socrates with the Sophists in his History of Greek Philosophy. [4] Socratic Method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate) is a dialectic method of inquiry, largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts and first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... William Keith Chambers Guthrie (1906 – 1981) was a Scottish classical scholar. ...


Plato, the most illustrious student of Socrates, depicts Socrates as refuting the sophists in several Dialogues. These texts depict the sophists in an unflattering light, and it is unclear how accurate or fair Plato's representation of them may be; however, it is also suggested that such criticism was often ironic. Another contemporary, the comic playwright Aristophanes, criticizes the sophists as hairsplitting wordsmiths, yet suggests that Socrates was one of their number. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 5-4th century BC dramatist. ...


Plato is largely responsible for the modern view of the "sophist" as a greedy instructor who uses rhetorical sleight-of-hand and ambiguities of language in order to deceive, or to support fallacious reasoning. In this view, the sophist is not concerned with truth and justice, but instead seeks power. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle all challenged the philosophical foundations of sophism. Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


It seems that some of the sophists held a relativistic view on cognition and knowledge. Their philosophy contains criticism of religion, law and ethics. Though many sophists were apparently as religious as their contemporaries, some held atheistic or agnostic views (see Protagoras or Diagoras of Melos). For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Atheist redirects here. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Diagoras the Atheist of Melos was a Greek poet and sophist of the 5th century BC. He became an atheist after an incident that happened against him went unpunished by the gods. ...


In some cases, such as Gorgias, there are original rhetorical works that are fortunately extant, allowing the author to be judged on his own terms. In most cases, however, knowledge of sophist thought comes from fragmentary quotations that lack context. Many of these quotations come from Aristotle, who seems to have held the sophists in slight regard, notwithstanding his other disagreements with Plato. Gorgias (in Greek Γοργἰας, circa 483-376 BC) // Introduction Due to his ushering in of rhetorical innovations involving structure and ornamentation and his introduction of paradoxologia – the idea of paradoxical thought and paradoxical expression – Gorgias of Leontini has been labeled the ‘father of sophistry’ (Wardy 6). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


Owing largely to the influence of Plato and Aristotle, philosophy came to be regarded as distinct from sophistry, the latter being regarded as rhetoric, a practical discipline. Thus, by the time of the Roman Empire, a sophist was simply a teacher of rhetoric and a popular public speaker. For instance, Libanius, Himerius, Aelius Aristides and Fronto were sophists in this sense. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Libanius (Greek Libanios) (ca 314 AD - ca 394) was a Greek-speaking teacher of rhetoric of the later Roman Empire, an educated pagan of the Sophist school in an Empire that was turning aggressively Christian and publicly burned its own heritage and closed the academies. ... Himerius (c. ... Aelius Aristides (AD 117 - 181) was a Greek orator during the Roman Empire, son of a wealthy land-owner, and considered an example of the Second Sophistic. ... Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. ...


Sophists and Democracy

The sophists’ rhetorical techniques were extremely useful for any young nobleman looking for public office. In addition to the individual benefits that Sophistic-style teaching conferred, the societal roles that the Sophists’ filled had important ramifications for the Athenian political system at large. The historical context in which the Sophists operated provides evidence for their considerable influence, as Athens became more and more democratic during the period in which the Sophists were most active [5].


The Sophists certainly were not directly responsible for Athenian democracy, but their cultural and psychological contributions played an important role in its growth. They contributed to the new democracy in part by subjectifying truth, which allowed and perhaps required a tolerance of the beliefs of others. This liberal attitude would naturally have precipitated into the Athenian assembly as Sophists acquired increasingly high-powered clients [6]. Contiguous rhetorical training gave the citizens of Athens “the ability to create accounts of communal possibilities through persuasive speech” [7]. This was extremely important for the democracy, as it gave disparate and sometimes superficially unattractive views a chance to be heard in the Athenian assembly. Subjectified truths and communicatively enabled individuals were wonderful for the burgeoning democracy, and, in a sense, they were democracy itself.


It is also necessary to state the importance of the Sophists for the Law, as we have it today, since the sophists were the first lawyers in the world, due their extremely developed argumentation skill.


1. Martin, Richard. "Seven Sages as Performers of Wisdom." Cutural Poetics in Archaic Greece. New York: Oxford, 1988. 108-130.


The Persecution of the Sophists

After a crescent influence in the Greek politics, the sophists started to suffer of menace, persecution and even assassination. Such behavior against the old sophist masters were certainly influenced by the philosophers due the democratic relativism of the Sophists.


It is necessary to understand that the Greek democracy was applicable in the politic arena only, and not necessarily in the ideas sphere. So, when a group of masters preached the relativism (there's no absolute truth - or that two points of view can be acceptable at the same time), criticizing even the myth of the "Greek superiority" or the "wisdom of the gods", that was taken as a threat to the Greek states. Even Aristotle (taken by many as sophist master) rejected the sophist school (to avoid being killed).


Even with the sudden "disappearance" of the sophists (there are speculations that secret societies were created, or that they migrated to the East, where they helped in the creation and propagation of many religions), the persecutions continued, but in a written manner, since any reference written about the sophists were made in a very negative approach. These "facts" that were copied without analysis by many modern philosophers occurred without reflexion, and continued to portray the sophists as enemies of philosophy.


Presently, there is a historical revision tendency about the sophists role, that are now understood as an "ultra-democrat" group in a Greek age where democracy was applicable to politics, but not necessarily to ideas.


In the modern times, the acceptance of the different points of view (religion, way of life, etc), is the founding stone of any democracy.[neutrality disputed]


Modern usage

In modern usage, sophism, sophist, and sophistry are derogatory terms, due the influence of many philosophers in the past (sophistry and philosophy were enemy schools).


A sophism is taken as a specious argument used for deceiving someone. It might be crafted to seem logical while actually being wrong, or it might use difficult words and complicated sentences to intimidate the audience into agreeing, or it might appeal to the audience's prejudices and emotions rather than logic, i.e. raising doubts towards the one asserting, rather than his assertion. The goal of a sophism is often to make the audience believe the writer or speaker to be smarter than he or she actually is, e.g., accusing another of sophistry for using persuasion techniques. An argument Ad Hominem is an example of Sophistry. Look up ad hominem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A good example of a sophist argument can be found in Plato's Euthydemus: Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ...

Dionysodorus, a sophist: So you say that you wish Cleinias to become wise?
Socrates: Undoubtedly.
Dionysodorus: And he is not wise as yet?
Socrates: At least his modesty will not allow him to say that he is.
Dionysodorus: You wish him to become wise and not to be ignorant?
Socrates: That we do.
Dionysodorus: [...] You wish him no longer to be what he is, which can only mean that you wish him to perish. Pretty lovers and friends they must be who want their favourite not to be, or to perish!

A sophist is a user of sophisms, i.e., an insincere person trying to confuse or deceive people. Sophists will try to persuade the audience while paying little attention to whether their argument is logical and factual.


Sophistry means making heavy use of sophisms. The word can be applied to a particular text or speech riddled with sophisms.


References

  • Blackwell, Christopher. Demos: Classical Athenian Democracy. 28 February 2003. The Stoa: a Consortium for Scholarly Publication in the Humanities. 25 April 2007.
  • Guthrie, W. K. C. Vol. 3 of History of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969
  • Jarratt, Susan C. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.
  • Kerferd, G.B., The Sophistic Movement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1981 (ISBN 0-521-28357-4).
  • Rosen, Stanley, Plato's 'Sophist', The Drama of Original and Image, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1983.
  • Sprague, Rosamond Kent, The Older Sophists, Hackett Publishing Company (ISBN 0-87220-556-8).

Notes

  1. ^ Jarratt, Susan C. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991., p. 83
  2. ^ Sprague, Rosamond Kent, The Older Sophists, Hackett Publishing Company (ISBN 0-87220-556-8)., p. 5
  3. ^ Guthrie, W. K. C. Vol. 3 of History of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969, p. 399
  4. ^ a b Guthrie, W. K. C. Vol. 3 of History of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969, p. 401
  5. ^ Blackwell, Christopher. Demos: Classical Athenian Democracy. 28 February 2003. The Stoa: a Consortium for Scholarly Publication in the Humanities. 25 April 2007.
  6. ^ Sprague, Rosamond Kent, The Older Sophists, Hackett Publishing Company (ISBN 0-87220-556-8), p. 32
  7. ^ Jarratt, Susan C. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991, p. 98

See also

1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... German pragmatist very like William James. ... The Second Sophistic is a literary-historical term referring to the Greek showpiece orators who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. ... The current version of the article or section reads like a magazine article instead of the formal tones expected of an encyclopedia. ... The Sophist (Greek: Σοφιστής) is one of the late Dialogues of Plato, which was written much more lately than the Parmenides and the Theaetetus, probably in 360 BC.After he criticized his own Theory of Forms in the Parmenides, Plato proceeds in the Sophist with a new conception of the Forms... The Clouds (Nephelae,Νεφέλαι) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes lampooning the sophists and the intellectual trends of late fifth-century Athens. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Stephen Colbert announces that The Wørd of the night is truthiness, during the premiere episode of The Colbert Report. ... Victor J. Vitanza is a professor at Clemson University (South Carolina), Department of English since 2005. ... A weasel word is a word intended to soften the force of a statement and/or make an assertion as though one is just conveying some others opinion. ...

External links

Look up sophistry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Ethnic religions may include officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy, but they are characterized in that adherents generally are defined by their ethnicity, and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation to the people in question. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Numina (presence, singular numen) conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Orthopraxy is a term derived from Greek () meaning correct practice (as orthodoxy means correct teaching), referring to emphasis on religious ritual as opposed to faith or grace etc. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In traditional societies, myth and ritual are two central components of religious practice. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... Animal worship covers religious and ritual practices including the worship of a living animal considered as a deity incarnate, animal sacrifice as well as the respect for the bones of a slain animal. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... Hero cult was one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... A belief in magic as a means of influencing the world seems to have been common in all cultures. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... For Baltic mythology, see Estonian mythology, related to Finnish mythology Latvian mythology Lithuanian mythology Categories: Mythology by culture ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... The Etruscans were a race of unknown origin from North Italy who were eventually integrated into Rome. ... Anglo-Saxon polytheism refers to the Migration Period Germanic pagans practiced by the Anglo-Saxons in 5th to 7th century England. ... Norse paganism is a term used to describe the religious traditions which were common amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries prior to and during the process of the Christianization in Northern Europe. ... Continental Germanic mythology is a subset of Germanic mythology, going back to South Germanic polytheism as practiced in parts of Central Europe before gradual Christianization during the 6th to 8th centuries, and continued as legends, folklore, fairy tales, and Middle High German epics during the Middle Ages. ... Orphism or (more rarely) Orphicism seems to have been a mystery religion in the ancient Greek world. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Double-faced Mithraic relief. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Canaanite religion was the group of Ancient Semitic religions, belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and Iron Age. ... Ancient Semitic religion spans the polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East. ... Assyrian demon Pazuzu. ... Ethnic religions may include officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy, but they are characterized in that adherents generally are defined by their ethnicity, and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation to the people in question. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... Yoruba legends redirects here. ... // The religion of the San people, or Bushmen, of southern Africa consists of a spirit world and our material world. ... Native American spirituality includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological. ... Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of the Caribbean Islands and Latin America, as well as parts of the southern United States. ... Folk Christianity refers to a mix of animism and Christian beliefs, Roman Catholic, Protestant or both. ... Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism [1]. It is inhabited by many different people. ... The mythologies and religions of the Turco-Mongol peoples (Turkic and Mongolian peoples, both groups speakers of Altaic languages) are related and have exerted strong influence on one another. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions. ... For other uses, see Cargo cult (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Neopagan movements and organizations. ... The Baltic countries were the last part of Europe to be Christianized, and vestiges of paganism blend into a neopaganism movement that is largely independent of Western Asatru. ... A group of Neo-druids from the Sylvan Grove of the OBOD at Stonehenge on the morning of the summer solstice 2005. ... Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (CR) is a polytheistic, animistic, religious and cultural movement. ... The Church of All Worlds (CAW) is a religious group whose stated mission is to evolve a network of information, mythology, and experience that provides a context and stimulus for re-awakening Gaia, and re_uniting her children through tribal community dedicated to responsible stewardship and evolving consciousness. ... Feraferia is a Nevada City, California based Neopagan community, practicing Hellenic-inspired Goddess worship. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mjolnir, the hammer of Thor, is one of the major symbols of Ásatrú. This article is about the reconstruction of Norse paganism in particular. ... Theodism, or Þēodisc GelÄ“afa (Old English: tribal belief) is a North American variant of Germanic Neopaganism which seeks to reconstruct the beliefs and practices of several historic Northern European tribes. ... Werner von Bülows World-Rune-Clock, illustrating the correspondences between Lists Armanen runes, the signs of the zodiac and the gods of the months Armanism and Ariosophy are the names of ideological systems of an esoteric nature, pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Kemetism (from , the native name of Ancient Egypt) is a term for neopagan revivals of Ancient Egyptian religion which developed in the United States from the 1970s. ... A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... The flag of Nova Roma, based on the colours and symbols of the Roman Empire. ... Slavic neo-pagans, heathens or reconstructionists are religious groups or individuals who consider themselves to be the legitimate continuation of pre-Christian Slavic religion. ... Ways of the Strega published in 1994, described Raven Grimassis view of Stregheria and popularized Italian-based witchcraft. ... The Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) is an Independent Affiliate of the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA). ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Early Christianity developed in Roman Judea and in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries leading an underground existence as an illicit mystery religion, in the 4th century undergoing syncretism with Roman imperial cult and Hellenistic philosophy, a process completed by AD 391 with the ban... One aspect of Christianisation was the Christianisation of sites that had been pagan. ... The historicity of several saints has often been treated skeptically by most academics, either because there is a paucity of historical evidence for them, or due to striking resemblances that they have to pre-Christian deities. ... The term Christianised calendar refers to feast days which are Christianised survivals from pre-Christian times. ... Christianised rituals were among the cultural features of the Mediterranean world that were adapted by the Early Christians, as part of the thorough-going Christianization of culture, which included the landscape (see Christianised sites) and the calendar (see Christianised calendar). ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. ... Hellenistic religion refers to any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the Eurasian peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (ca. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... In the Roman empire, the legal status of religio licita (tolerated religion) meant that adherents of a certain religion enjoyed privileges such as collecting taxes, exemption from military service, and exemption from the official Imperial cult. ... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... Virtuous paganism is a concept of Christian theology parallel to the Righteous Among the Nations in Judaism. ...

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Introduction (441 words)
Sophism is a form of eclectic paganism, drawing material from a wide range of religions and philosophies, including New Age religions and the path of Hermeticism.
Sophism maintains a spiritual eclecticism, exploring and assimilating what is compatible and valuable from the Traditions with which it comes into contact, and sharing its own insights with other Traditions, to maintain a sense of unity between different religions.
Sophism, unlike many religions, is an evolving religion, like science it changes as new evidence is brought forward, in the quest to bring the ultimate truths to its followers.
Welcome to Sophism (165 words)
Sophism is a modern spiritual, philosophical, and magical religion based on the combination of ancient wisdom and new science.
Gaia – Mother Earth, the goddess of Sophism.
Beliefs of Sophism – These are the morals and beliefs followed by Sophists.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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