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Encyclopedia > Soot

Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the lack of sufficient oxygen. The combustion is thus incomplete. Lampblack is sometimes used only to refer to carbon deposited from incomplete burning of liquid hydrocarbons, while carbon black may be used to refer to carbon deposited from incomplete burning or pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbons such as natural gas. For the workstation, see SGI Fuel. ... Amorphous carbon is the name used for carbon that does not have any crystalline structure. ... A chimney is a system for venting hot gases and smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. ... An automobile is a wheeled vehicle that carries its own motor. ... A muffler (USA name) or silencer (name in the United Kingdom and other areas) is a device for reducing the amount of noise emitted by a machine such as an internal combustion engine or a gun. ... Smoke from a wildfire Smoke is a suspension in air (aerosol) of small particles resulting from incomplete combustion of a fuel. ... Combustion or burning is a chemical process, an exothermic reaction between a substance (the fuel) and a gas (the oxidizer), usually O2, to release heat. ... Organic material or organic matter is any material which originated as a living organism and therefore contains carbon. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents. ... Natural gas, commonly referred to as gas, is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ...


Lampblack has been used as the black pigment in paints and inks since prehistoric times, and is still widely used in printing inks, toners for xerography, laser printers, and in the chemical industry. It is also used as food coloring, e.g. in liquorice sweets. The black color of rubber tires is due to the use of lampblack as an ingredient in their vulcanisation; this use accounts for around 85% of the market use of carbon black. Black is a color with several subtle differences in meaning. ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... It has been suggested that Dutch process paint be merged into this article or section. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for colouring a surface to render an image or text. ... The folder of newspaper web offset printing press Printing is a process for production of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. ... Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers which forms the text and images on the printed paper. ... Chester F. Carlson Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... Laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that produces high quality printing, and is able to produce both text and graphics. ... Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ... A food coloring is any substance that is added to food to change its color. ... Binomial name Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Liquorice (Br. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ... Firestone tire A tire (U.S. spelling) or tyre (UK spelling) is a roughly toroidal shaped piece of synthetic rubber which covers the circumference of a wheel. ... Vulcanization is the process of cross-linking elastomer molecules to make the bulk material harder, less soluble and more durable. ...


Lampblack is easily produced experimentally by passing some noncombustible surface, such as a tin can lid or glass, closely through a candle flame. Lampblack produced in this way is among the darkest and least reflective substances known. A collection of lit candles on ornate candlesticks A close-up image of a candle showing the wick and the various regions of the flame. ...


Lampblack is also used to coat aluminum foil that has been previously attached to a recording drum for use in a recording barograph or other instrument. The surface is scratched clear by a pointed stylus. In this case, the sooty smoke is produced by burning a small amount of camphor. After recording the image is fixed by spraying the surface with a clear lacquer. Similar coatings were used in direct recording pendulum seismometers. While not a sensitive instrument these were capable of directly recording the direction of significant horizontal shocks upon a smoked glass plate. Aluminium foil (aluminum foil in North American English) is aluminium prepared in thin sheets (on the order of . ... A barograph is a recording aneroid barometer. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or colored coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Simple gravity pendulum assumes no air resistance and no friction of/at the nail/screw. ... Seismometer (in Greek seismos = earthquake and metero = measure) are used by seismologists to measure and record seismic waves. ...


Soot is in the general category of airborne particulate matter, and as such is considered hazardous to the lungs and general health when the particles are less than 5 micrometres in diameter, as such particles are not filtered out by the upper respiratory tract. Smoke from diesel engines, while composed mostly of carbon soot, is considered especially dangerous owing to both its particulate size and the many other chemical compounds present. http://visibleearth. ... Diesel or Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ...


Soot production

Soot production can be complex. The production of soot can depend not only on the oxygen supply but the existing wind or uplift, as well as convection. They can also be reoxidised during production, depending on where the soot in is sent. Soot tends to rise to the top of a general flame, such as in a candle in normal gravity conditions, making it yellow. In microgravity or zero gravity, such as an environment in outer space, convection no longer occurs, and such flames tend to become more blue and more efficient, producing much less soot. [1] Experiments by NASA in microgravity reveal that diffusion flames in microgravity allow more soot to be completely oxidised after they are produced than diffusion flames on Earth, because of a series of mechanisms that behaved differently in microgravity when compared to normal gravity conditions. [2] Wind is the roughly horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earths surface. ... Convection is the transfer of heat by currents within a fluid. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA) Outer space, also called just space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A nearly-turbulent diffusion flame. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Soot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (558 words)
Soot, also called lampfl, Pigment Black 7, carbon fl or fl carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the lack of sufficient oxygen.
Soot is in the general category of airborne particulate matter, and as such is considered hazardous to the lungs and general health when the particles are less than 5 micrometres in diameter, as such particles are not filtered out by the upper respiratory tract.
Soot tends to rise to the top of a general flame, such as in a candle in normal gravity conditions, making it yellow.
soot - definition of soot in Encyclopedia (393 words)
Soot, also called lampfl or carbon fl, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the lack of sufficient oxygen.
Soot is in the general category of air-born particulate matter, and such are considered hazardous to the lungs and general health when the particles are less than 5 micrometers in diameter, as such particles are not filtered out by the upper respiratory tract.
Smoke from diesel engines, while composed mostly of carbon soot, is considered especially dangerous owning to both its particulate size and the many other chemical compounds present.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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