FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sook Ching massacre
This article is part of
the History of Singapore series

Early history of Singapore (pre-1819)
Founding of modern Singapore (1819-1826)
Straits Settlements (1826-1867)
Crown colony (1867-1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Japanese Occupation (1942-1945)
Sook Ching massacre (1942-1945)
Post-war period (1945 - 1955)
First Legislative Council (1948-1951)
Maria Hertogh riots (1950)
Second Legislative Council (1951-1955)
Internal self-government (1955–1962)
Hock Lee bus riots (1955)
Chinese middle schools riots (1956)
Merger with Malaysia (1962–1965)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962-1966)
Merger referendum, 1962
Operation Coldstore (1963)
Race Riots of 1964
MacDonald House bombing (1965)
Republic of Singapore (1965-Present)
East Asian financial crisis (1997)
Embassies attack plot (2001)
See also: Timeline of Singaporean history
[edit this box]


The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended to include Chinese Malayans. The massacre took place from February 18 to March 4 1942 at various places. The history of Singapore began as early as the 3rd Century when a Chinese account described the island at the tip of the Malay peninsula. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... ... The founding of modern Singapore in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles paved the way for Singapore to become a modern port and established its status as a gateway between the Western and Eastern markets. ... Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca. ... Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... Post-war Singapore refers to a period in the history of Singapore from 1945 when the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Allies at the end of World War II till 1955 when Singapore gained partial internal self-governance. ... The history of Singapore began as early as the 3rd Century when a Chinese account described the island at the tip of the Malay peninsula. ... Maria Hertogh and Che Aminah binte Mohamed The Maria Hertogh riots, which started on 11 December 1950 in Singapore, consisted of outraged Muslims who resented the court decision to give the custody of Maria Hertogh, then 13, to her biological Dutch Catholic parents after she had been raised as a... The history of Singapore began as early as the 3rd Century when a Chinese account described the island at the tip of the Malay peninsula. ... The self-governance of Singapore was carried out in several stages. ... Rioters throwing stones at police The Hock Lee bus riots occurred on May 12, 1955, in Singapore. ... The Chinese middle schools riots were a series of riots that broke out in the Singaporean Chinese community in Singapore in 1956, resulting in 13 people killed and more than 100 injured. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... The Singapore national referendum of 1962, or also commonly referred to as the Merger Referendum of Singapore was the first and only referendum to date held in Singapore on September 1, 1962. ... In February 1963, the government of Singapore conducted a security operation, named Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store), and arrested at least 107 left-wing politicians and trade unionists. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... MacDonald House bombing occured on 10 March 1965, at the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank building (known as MacDonald House) along Orchard Road, Singapore. ... The East Asian financial crisis was a period of economic unrest that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... The Singapore embassies attack plot was a plan by the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Jemaah Islamiyah to bomb the diplomatic missions and attack personnel of the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Israel in Singapore and several other targets in Singapore. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Singapore. ... Extermination is the act of killing with the intention of eradicating demographics within a population. ... Chinatown was an enclave for the early Chinese immigrants in Singapore in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The term Sook Ching (肃清) is a Chinese word meaning "a purge through cleansing". Ironically, the Japanese also described the incident as such, although term Daikenshō (大検証), lit. "great inspection" is also used. Although the term "Sook Ching" appeared as early as 1946, it was not commonly used in the Chinese press or other publications until the 1980s. 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A selection of newspapers A newspaper is a publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...

Contents

The massacre

When the Japanese occupied Singapore, the Japanese military authorities became concerned about the local Chinese population. The Imperial Japanese Army had become aware that the ethnic Chinese had strong loyalties to either the United Kingdom or China, with wealthy Chinese financing Chiang Kai-Shek's effort in the Second Sino-Japanese War, after Japan had invaded China on July 1937, with other charity drives. The military authorities, led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita, decided on a policy of "eliminating" the anti-Japanese elements. The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro Strength 5,600,000 4,100,000 (including 900... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Army during the World War II era. ... Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ...


The Japanese military authorities defined the following as "undesirables":

  • Persons who had been active in the China Relief Fund.
  • Rich men who had given most generously to the Relief Fund.
  • Adherents of Tan Kah Kee, leader of the Nanyang National Salvation Movement.
  • Hainanese, who were believed to be communists.
  • China-born Chinese who came to Malaya after the 1937 Sino-Japanese War.
  • Men with tattoo marks, who were believed to be members of secret societies, specifically Triads.
  • Persons who fought for the British as volunteers against the Japanese.
  • Government servants and men who were likely to have pro-British sympathies, such as Justices of the Peace, and members of the Legislative Council.
  • Persons who possessed arms and tried to disturb public safety.

Yamashita instructed the Syonan garrison to cooperate with the Syonan Kempeitai, the Japanese military police, and carry out "severe punishment of hostile Chinese." Tan Kah Kee Tan Kah Kee (Traditional Chinese: 陳嘉庚; Simplified Chinese: 陈嘉庚; pinyin: Chén Jiāgēng, Hokkien: Tân Kah-kiⁿ) (October 21, 1874 - August 12, 1961) was a prominent businessman, community leader, and philanthropist in colonial Singapore, and eventually a respectable Communist leader in the Peoples Republic of... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A secret society is an organization that conceals its activities from outsiders. ... For other meanings of Triad, see Triad (disambiguation) Triad (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Triad Society) or (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Black Society, a general term for criminal organizations) is a term that describes many branches of Chinese underground society and/or organizations based in... A Justice of the Peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) is the Japanese word for a gendarmerie, especially, the Imperial Japanese Gendarmerie from 1881 to 1945. ... It has been suggested that Gendarmerie be merged into this article or section. ...


Soon after the fall of Singapore, Lieutenant Colonel Masayuki Oishi, commander of No. 2 Field Kempeitai, set up his headquarters at the YMCA Building in Stamford Road, which also served as the East District Branch. The Kempeitai jail was in Outram with branches in Stamford Road, Chinatown, the Central Police Station. A residence at the intersection of Smith Street and New Bridge Road formed the Kempeitai West District Branch. Under Colonel Oishi were 200 regular Kempeitai officers and another 1,000 auxiliaries who were mostly young, rough peasant soldiers. Singapore was broken up into sectors, each placed under the control of a Kempeitai officer. The Japanese set up designated "screening centres" all over the colony to gather and screen all Chinese males between 18 to 50 years old, eliminating those thought to be anti-Japanese. Sometimes, women and children were sent for inspection. In reality, the screening was arbitrary and non-selective, and could involve as little as walking past a Japanese officer. Most of these victims were innocent people and were just killed brutally without reason. Stamford Road Stamford Road (Chinese: 史丹福路) is a one-way road in Singapore within the planning areas of Downtown Core and Museum. ... Outram is a district in Singapore, within the Central Area, relatively near the prominent city centre and financial districts, but is nearer the border of the Central Area, and outside the Downtown Core. ... For other uses, see Chinatown (disambiguation). ... Situated on South Bridge Road in Chinatown, Singapore, are national monuments such as Jamae Mosque (the green building to the right) and Sri Mariamman Temple (with the gopuram further down the road). ... Smith Street Smith Street, at the junction with Trengganu Street, showing the alfresco food street. ... New Bridge Road, within Chinatown, Singapore. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ...


The ones who passed the "screening" would receive a piece of paper with "Examined" written on it, or have a square ink mark on their arms and shirts. Those who did not pass the "screening" would be stamped with triangular marks. There were trucks near these screening centers to send those who failed to their deaths. The Japanese Army chose remote sites such as Changi, Punggol, Blakang Mati and Bedok to perform the executions, with the victims thrown overboard off boats, killed with a bayonet or be machine-gunned to death off the harbour. The driver of this DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer truck prepares to offload Škoda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For other articles with similar names, see Lorry (disambiguation) and truck (disambiguation). ... Changi International Airport Sunset at Changi Beach Changi is an area to the east of Singapore. ... Punggol New Town The Punggol West LRT is located in relatively undeveloped surroundings. ... Sentosa, which means tranquillity in Malay, is a popular island resort in Singapore, visited by some two million people a year. ... Bedok at Night Bedok Town is a neighbourhood in the eastern part of Singapore. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S Bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon. ...


At the behest of Lieutenant Colonel Tsuji Masanobu, who had played a key role in the organisation of the Singapore operation, Sook Ching was extended to the rest of Malaya, particularly Penang. However, in these rural areas the Japanese did not have the luxury of working with a concentrated population, so the army did not have sufficient time nor manpower to fully interrogate the entire Chinese population. Therefore, widespread indiscriminate killing of the Chinese population occurred, even though the Japanese made a show of screening the civilians and identifying the guerrillas. This does not cite its references or sources. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Dr Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by Kedah to British 11 August 1786   - Japanese occupation 1942... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After the Japanese military realized that they could not kill off as many as 50,000 Chinese, and that Japan's resources were being stretched with advances in other parts of Southeast Asia, the head of the authorities called off the killing on 3 March. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ...


The Sook Ching Massacre cost the Japanese military administrators any chance of cooperation with local Singaporeans, especially the Chinese community. Unlike many other places in Southeast Asia Japan occupied during the war, Singaporeans did not view the Japanese army as liberators of European imperialism in Asia. Even though Singapore did not have a nationalist movement like other places in Asia because of the diverse demographics, the Japanese army was unable to exploit ethnic differences to their advantage. Western imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ...


Massacres at beaches

There were several sites for the killings, the most notable ones are Changi Beach Park, Punggol Beach and Sentosa (or Pulau Blakang Mati). The Punggol Beach Massacre cost the lives of 300 to 400 Chinese, who were shot at Punggol Beach on February 28 1942 by the Hojo Kempei firing squad, the auxiliary Japanese military police responsible for all killings that took place in the massacre. The victims were some of the 1,000 Chinese males detained by the Japanese after a door-to-door search along Upper Serangoon Road. Several of these men had tattoos, a sign that they could be triad members, with the Japanese assuming that such individuals were anti-Japanese. Changi Beach Park The Changi Beach Park (Chinese: 樟宜海滨公园) is a beach park located at the northeastern tip of Singapore. ... The big Merlion statue on Sentosa Central Business District from the Carlsberg Sky Tower. ... Sentosa, which means tranquility in Malay, is a popular island resort in Singapore, visited by some two million people a year. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Auxiliary may mean: a backup system an auxiliary verb In sailing, the term is used for the motor, if a sailboat has one, or can be used to describe a motorized sailboat, as in an auxiliary sailboat. Auxiliary police Armed Forces auxiliary This is a disambiguation page, a list of... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... Serangoon is a district situated in the central part of the city-state of Singapore, within the North-East Region. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other meanings of Triad, see Triad (disambiguation) Triad (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Triad Society) or (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Black Society, a general term for criminal organizations) is a term that describes many branches of Chinese underground society and/or organizations based in...


The current site of the popular Changi Beach Park was the site of one of the most brutal killings in Singapore's history. On 20 February 1942, 66 Chinese males were lined up along the edge of the sea and shot by the military police. The beach was the first of the killing sites of the Sook Ching massacre, with another one at Tanah Merah. Another site was at Sentosa Beach (now the Serapong Golf Course after land reclamation was done). British gunners buried some 300 bullet-ridden corpses washed-up on the shore of Sentosa. They were civilians who were transported from the docks at Tanjong Pagar to be killed at sea nearby. Changi Beach Park The Changi Beach Park (Chinese: 樟宜海滨公园) is a beach park located at the northeastern tip of Singapore. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tanah Merah is a district and town in Kelantan, Malaysia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gunner refers to a rank in the Royal Artillery, or can refer to anyone whose main job is to operate a gun. ... .357 Magnum cartridges, containing bullets A bullet is a solid projectile propelled by a firearm and is normally made from metal (usually lead). ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... A dock is an area of water between two piers or alongside a pier, forming a chamber used for building or repairing one ship. ... Tanjong Pagar Road The characteristic spiral staircases at the back of shophouses in Tanjong Pagar. ... Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Death toll

Due to the lack of records, it is impossible to definitively tally up the total number of Chinese killed in the Sook Ching Massacre. There are varying figures regarding the death toll—the range goes from the official Japanese figures of less than 5,000 to a total of 100,000 by the Singaporean Chinese community. Postwar trial testimonies, though, strongly suggest a total between 25,000 and 50,000.


Aftermath

The Sook Ching Centre site memorial stands at Hong Lim Complex in Chinatown.
The Sook Ching Centre site memorial stands at Hong Lim Complex in Chinatown.

In 1947, the British Colonial authorities in Singapore held a war crimes trial to bring the perpetrators of the Sook Ching Massacre to justice. Seven officers, namely Lieutenant General Takuma Nishimura, Lieutenant General Saburo Kawamura, Lieutenant Colonel Masayuki Oishi, Lieutenant Colonel Yoshitaka Yokata, Major Tomotatsu Jo, Major Satoru Onishi and Captain Haruji Hisamatsu were charged with carrying out the massacre. While Kawamura and Oishi received the death penalty, the other five received life sentences (Nishimura was later convicted for his part in the Parit Sulong massacre by an Australian Military Court and hanged). The court accepted the Nuremberg Trials defence of “just following orders." The death sentences were carried out on 26 June 1947. Even though the Chinese community urged the British authorities to stage the executions of Kawamura and Oishi in public to ease the anger in the Chinese community, the British allowed only six members of the victims' family association to witness the execution. After the trial the British colonial government in Singapore considered the matter closed, and only demanded war reparations from Japan for damage caused to British property, much to the dismay of the Chinese community. However, with Singapore gaining independence from British colonial rule, the Chinese community began a new wave of anti-Japanese resentment and demanded reparations and an apology from Japan. The Foreign Ministry of Japan denied Singapore's request in 1963, stating the San Francisco Treaty of 1951 settled the issue of reparation with Britain, and therefore, the colony of Singapore. However, then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew responded by saying that the British colonial government did not represent the voice of the people of Singapore. The Chinese staged a boycott of Japanese goods in September 1963, though it only lasted seven days. With Singapore's independence from Malaysia on 9 August 1965, the Government of Singapore made another request to Japan for reparation and an apology. In 25 October 1966, Japan agreed to pay $50 million in compensation, half as a grant and the other half as a loan. However, the compensation package did not come with an official apology. Bones of the Sook Ching victims have continued to be unearthed by locals decades after the massacre. The most recent finding was late in 1997, by a man looking for earthworms to use for bait. He found a skull, two gold teeth, an arm and a leg; his attention was drawn to these remains by the gold glinting in the sun. The massacre sites of Sentosa, Changi and Punggol were marked heritage sites in 1995 to commemorate the end of World War II.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sook Ching Centre site. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sook Ching Centre site. ... The Chinatown Heritage Centre at Pagoda Street occupies three shophouses in Chinatown, newly restored to house memories and untold stories of Singapore’s early forefathers. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Takuma Nishimura (1899–1951) was a soldier of the Empire of Japan. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan is the politician responsible for Japanese foreign policy. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the head of government of the Republic of Singapore (and prior to 9 August 1965, the State of Singapore). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 李 (Li). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The politics of Singapore takes place in a framework of a parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Look up apology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Criodrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the largest members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ... Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

References

  • Akashi, Yoji. "Japanese policy towards the Malayan Chinese, 1941-1945". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 1, 2 (September 1970): 61-89.
  • Blackburn, Kevin. "The Collective Memory of the Sook Ching Massacre and the Creation of the Civilian War Memorial of Singapore". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 73, 2 (December 2000), 71-90.
  • Kang, Jew Koon. "Chinese in Singapore during the Japanese occupation, 1942-1945." Academic exercise - Dept. of History, National University of Singapore, 1981.
  • Turnbull, C. M. A History of Singapore: 1819-1988. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1989, Chapter 5.
  • National Heritage Board (2002), Singapore's 100 Historic Places, National Heritage Board and Archipelago Press, ISBN 981-4068-23-3
  1. ^ http://ourstory.asia1.com.sg/war/headline/slaugther.html

For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The history of Singapore began as early as the 3rd Century when a Chinese account described the island at the tip of the Malay peninsula. ... During the Second World War, Japanese soldiers have carried out human exprimentations on the Chinese on different parts of the conquered lands. ... The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Combatants China (from 1937) United States (1941) U.K. (1941) Australia (from 1941) Free France (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (1945) Japan (from 1937)  Germany (1941) Thailand (from 1942) Manchukuo Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill John Curtin Fumimaro Konoe Hideki Tojo... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

External links

  • National Archives of Singapore's account on the Sook Ching Massacre.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Sook Ching massacre (1675 words)
The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military administration during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II.
Although the term "Sook Ching" appeared as early as 1946, it was not commonly used in the Chinese press or other publications until the 1980s.
The Punggol Beach Massacre took away 300 to 400 lives of the Chinese people, who were shot at Punggol Beach on February 28 1942 by the Hojo Kempei firing squad, the auxiliary Japanese military police responsible for all killings of the massacre.
Sook Ching massacre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1251 words)
The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among ethnic Chinese Singaporeans by the Japanese military administration during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II.
Sook Ching was later extended to include Chinese Malayans.
Although the term "Sook Ching" appeared as early as 1946, it was not commonly used in the Chinese press or other publications until the 1980s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m