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Encyclopedia > Sonoma Creek
Waterfall at Sugarloaf Mountain headwaters of Sonoma Creek
Waterfall at Sugarloaf Mountain headwaters of Sonoma Creek

Sonoma Creek is one of two principal drainages of Southern Sonoma County, California, with headwaters rising in the rugged hills of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park and discharge to San Pablo Bay, the northern arm of San Francisco Bay. The watershed drained by Sonoma Creek is roughly tantamount to the famed wine region of Sonoma Valley, an area of about 170 square miles. The State of California has designated the Sonoma Creek watershed as a “Critical Coastal Water Resource”.[1] To the east of this generally rectangular watershed is the Napa River watershed, and to the west is the Petaluma River watershed. . Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 1088 KB) Summary author releases rights Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 1088 KB) Summary author releases rights Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hopetoun Falls near Otway National Park, Victoria, Australia A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water, often in the form of a stream, flowing over an erosion-resistant rock formation that forms a sudden break in elevation. ... The headwaters of a river are small streams that create it. ... Sonoma County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... San Pablo Bay is a shallow tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in northern California in the United States. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate The San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining of approximately forty percent of California, flowing in Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... Today in a town we like to call sonoma valley about 17 minutes away from santa rosa Sean virrtoes was cought with his pants down and know we have reason to believe that sean is not straight but might be gay we have reached a new world change, ALSo just... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq. ... The Napa River, approximately 50 mi (80 km) long, is a river in northern California in the United States. ... The Petaluma River is a river in Sonoma County, California. ...


This south flowing river drains the western slopes of the Mayacamas Range, the southern slopes of Annadel State Park and the eastern slope of Sonoma Mountain with intermittent winter flows. As the tributaries and headwaters reach the valley floor, a perennial stream cuts through scenic and valuable vineyards of Kenwood. Sonoma Creek veers west at Kenwood and cuts a gorge running parallel to Warm Springs Road, where it turns south to historic Glen Ellen, passing within one mile of Jack London’s Wolf House and thence southward paralleling Arnold Drive. In the city of Sonoma, California it is an urban creek which emerges into agricultural areas to the south. Finally Sonoma Creek discharges to the vast Napa-Sonoma Marsh at the northern tip of San Pablo Bay. , Annadel State Park Annadel State Park is located 60 miles (97 km) north of San Francisco on the eastern edge of Santa Rosa, CA and offers many recreational activities. ... A vineyard Vineyard with bird netting Wine grapes with netting as protection against birds A vineyard (vignoble in French, vigna or vigneto in Italian, vinha in Portuguese, viña or viñedo in Spanish, Weinberg in German) is a place where grapes are grown for making wine, raisins, or table... Kenwood, California is a town along State Route 12 in Sonoma County. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... Glen Ellen is the name of several places in the United States of America: Glen Ellen, California Glen Ellen, Maryland There are also places named Glen Allen and Glen Ellyn, Illinois. ... Photograph of Jack London. ... Sonoma City Hall in the town plaza Sonoma is a historically significant town located in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, USA. Sonoma is centered around its historic town plaza, a remnant of the towns Spanish colonial past. ... Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... San Pablo Bay is a shallow tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in northern California in the United States. ...

Contents


Ecology

The endangered California Clapper Rail occurs in the marshy mouth of Sonoma Creek
The endangered California Clapper Rail occurs in the marshy mouth of Sonoma Creek

A diversity of aquatic and terrestrial organisms populate Sonoma Creek and its riparian zone. Winter-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsawytscha), Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) and steelhead (Onchorhynchus gairdrerii) are the most prominent fishes, while a variety of salamanders, snakes and frogs are also present. The endangered species California red-legged frog is present in the northern reach draining the south slopes of Annadel State Park. Other endangered species (mostly associated with the marshy discharge area) are California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), California brown pelican (Pelicanus occudentalis), California freshwater shrimp (Syncaris pacifica), Salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris ), Sacramento splittail (Pogonichtys macrolepidotus). The above are endangered species with the exception of the splittail, steelhead and black rail, which species are federally designated as Threatened. Image File history File links Raildumbartrazorback. ... Image File history File links Raildumbartrazorback. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... Trinomial name Rallus longirostris obsoletus Ridgway, 1874 The California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) is an endangered subspecies of the Clapper Rail (. It is found principally in Californias San Francisco Bay, and also in Monterey Bay and Morro Bay. ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... Look up aquatic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Terrestrial literally means of the earth and is used in a variety of contexts: In biology and in the general sense, terrestrial means indicates ground-dwelling (compare aquatic). ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole. ... A well maintained Riparian strip on a tributary to Lake Erie. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792) The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (derived from Russian чавыча), is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Delta smelt are slender-bodied fish, about 5. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), also called steelhead trout, is a single species of trout native to the Pacific Ocean and in North American rivers and lakes west of the Rocky Mountains. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: one of the most abundant species of fish in the world. ... Suborders Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 amphibian vertebrates with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails (order Caudata or Urodela). ... Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae Snakes (from Old English snaca, and ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European base snag- or sneg-, to crawl), also known as ophidians, are cold blooded... Genera See text. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... Annadel State Park Annadel State Park is located 60 miles (97 km) north of San Francisco on the eastern edge of Santa Rosa, CA and offers many recreational activities. ... Trinomial name Rallus longirostris obsoletus Ridgway, 1874 The California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) is an endangered subspecies of the Clapper Rail (. It is found principally in Californias San Francisco Bay, and also in Monterey Bay and Morro Bay. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis †) is the smallest (42-54) member of the seven species of the pelican family. ... Binomial name Reithrodontomys raviventris Dixon, 1908 The salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), also known as the red-bellied harvest mouse, is an endangered rodent endemic to the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ...


Upland ecosystems drained include mixed oak forest, chaparral and savannah woodland, In these upland reaches one finds plentiful deer, coyote, skunk, raccoon, opossum, wild turkey, turkey vulture, red-tailed hawk and occasionally bobcat and mountain lion. Prominent higher elevation trees include: Coast live oak, Garry Oak, Pacific madrone, California Buckeye, Douglas fir, whereas Valley oak is prevalent on the valley floor. Chaparral is a shrubland biome found primarily in California, USA, that is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire. ... Savannah may refer to the following articles… Four cities in the United States: Savannah, Georgia, the city known for its historic district Savannah River, which flows past the Georgia city Savannah River Site, a nuclear facility near Augusta, Georgia, upriver from Savannah Savannah, Missouri Savannah, New York Savannah, Tennessee Other... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is differentiated from a forest. ... Subfamilies Capreolinae Cervinae Hydropotinae Muntiacinae A deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 The coyote (Canis latrans, meaning barking dog, also prairie wolf [2]) is a member of the Canidae (dog) family and a relative of the domestic dog. ... Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Wild Turkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758) The Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura, is the most common North American vulture. ... Binomial name Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a large hawk which breeds from western Alaska and northern Canada to Panama and the West Indies. ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) The puma (Puma concolor) is a type of large cat found in North, Central and South America. ... Binomial name Quercus agrifolia The Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, also called the California live oak, is an evergeen oak, highly variable and often shrubby, found in the coastal regions of southwestern North America from Mendocino County, California south to northern Baja California in Mexico. ... Binomial name Quercus garryana The Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana), also known as Garry Oak, has a range from northern California to British Columbia. ... ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Quercus lobata Nee The Valley oak is the largest of North american oaks and arguably the most majestic of its genus. ...


Headwaters

Headwaters rise on the west facing slopes of the inner coast Mayacamas Range, where the highest peak is Bald Mountain, elevation 2729 feet, from which one can view the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra Nevada Range. The headwaters cut through gorge and meadow of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park]], which boasts 25 miles of self-guided trails and the Robert Ferguson Observatory. There is also a 25 foot high waterfall, present only when fed by the winter rains but can persist until late May for high rainfall years such as 2006. In the 100 foot deep gorge into which the waterfall spills is a moist mixed forest habitat including California bay laurel, Coast redwood, Douglas fir, Big leaf maple, , Cherry holly, Coffeeberry, and even Tanbark Oak. The understory features abundant ferns and boulder laden mosses. A prominent landform in this upper reach created by Sonoma Creek is Adobe Canyon. Locally part of this upper reach flow is sometimes called Adobe Creek. Tributaries near the headwaters include Mount Hood Creek and Graywood Creek.[2] Lysa Hora or Bald Mountain (Ukrainian: Лиса гора, Lysa hora, pl. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... A country trail, formed by wheels of vehicles. ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Rhamnus californica Eschsch. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern, or pteridophyte, is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the Division Pteridophyta, formerly known as Filicophyta. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Moss gametophyte generation plants with a single sporophyte. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ...


History of the creek

Typical upland drainage area with stands of Garry oaks.
Enlarge
Typical upland drainage area with stands of Garry oaks.

Up until about 1850 Sonoma Creek operated in a virtual prehistoric fashion. Adverse erosion and bank cutting were at sustainable levels and did not add enough turbidity to the creek system to discourage aquatic species. Flooding in the downstream reaches did not realize the modern frequencies since all the creek reaches could absorb more excess water from peak rainfall events. The Kenwood area existed in the form of a large marsh effectively blocked by a natural earthen dam from penetrating the course of the creek as it flows west out of Kenwood toward Glen Ellen. Binomial name Quercus garryana The Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana), also known as Garry Oak, has a range from northern California to British Columbia. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and other particles) by the agents of wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity, or living organisms (in the case of bioerosion). ... Turbidity standards of 10, 100, and 1000 NTU Turbidity is a cloudiness or haziness of water (or other liquid) caused by individual particles that are too small to be seen without magnification, thus being much like smoke in air. ... Creek can be: A native American tribe, see Creek (people) The language of that tribe, see Creek language In US and Australian usage, a waterflow, smaller than a river, see Creek (stream) In UK usage, a tidal watercourse, usually drying to little or no flow at low tide, see Creek... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ...


With the advent of more intensive farming of Sonoma Valley in the latter half of the nineteenth century, the Kenwood Marsh was drained in favor of grazing, vineyards and other agricultural uses. This action removed the largest upstream buffer that assisted flood control in the lower reaches of Sonoma Creek. Consequently the frequency and severity of modern floods (1980s onward) has been exacerbated by these interventions of humans. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ...


Wine production

Because Sonoma Creek is the sole drainage flow of the Sonoma Valley Wine Country, it is a vital resource for aquifer recharge. Proportionally a greater percent of Sonoma Creek feeds recharge than its neighbors, the Napa and Petaluma Rivers. This outcome derives from the presence of pervious valley floor alluvial soils and the gentle stream gradients along the valley floor, where most of the reaches occur. The valley itself is part of the Franciscan Complex, which includes crumpled, uplifted terranes that have resulted from the subduction of the former oceanic Farallon Plate under the North American continent. The area is attended by volcanism and sediments, deposited in the lagoons behind its island arcs), which resulted from geological events dating from 140 to 42 million years. Recharge for the Sonoma Valley is critical because local rainfall is only about 29 inches per annum. Grape growing and wine production require considerable groundwater extraction. Some of the principal upper reach wineries in Kenwood are Saint Francis Winery, Kunde Winery, Kenwood Winery, Chateau Saint Jean, Mayo Winery, Remick Ridge Vineyards and VJB Winery. Wineries in the middle reach include: B.J. Cohn, Valley of the Moon Winery, Imagery and Sebastiani. In the lower reach one finds Gloria Ferrer, Carneros and Ravenswood wineries. Today in a town we like to call sonoma valley about 17 minutes away from santa rosa Sean virrtoes was cought with his pants down and know we have reason to believe that sean is not straight but might be gay we have reached a new world change, ALSo just... Wine Country is a region of Northern California in the United States, known as a wine-growing region since 1838. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, or permeable mixtures of unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) (see also groundwater). ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... A terrane in paleogeography is an accretion that has collided with a continental nucleus, or craton but can be recognized by the foreign origin of its rock strata. ... Subduction zones mark sites of convective downwelling of the Earths lithosphere. ... The Farallon Plate is an ancient tectonic plate which began subducting as Pangaea broke apart during the Jurassic period. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Wine Barrels A winery is a facility where fruit, usually grapes, is processed into wine. ... Remick Ridge Vineyards is a California-based vineyard owned and operated by the Smothers Brothers. ...


Discharge to San Pablo Bay

This large marsh area has been reduced considerably from its historic dimensions due to construction of multiple levee systems and encroachment by agriculture and other forms of development. This Napa-Sonoma Marsh has been formed largely by sedimentary deposits over the last two million years. The basement depositional layer is the Alameda group. Higher are Old bay mud and Young bay mud, between which there are intermediate deposits of the Alameda formation, which consists of alluvial and swamp origins. The entire marsh area is considered subject to liquefaction in the case of a major seismic event.[3] The marsh is subject to diurnal tidal variations of approximately 5.5 feet. A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial embankment or dike, usually earthen, which parallels the course of a river. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. ... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... Diurnal may mean: in biology, a diurnal animal is an animal that is active in the daytime. ... This article is about tides in the ocean. ...


Historically the marsh supported an extremely diverse wetlands ecosystem, with a variety of primary productivity plants including pickleweed, eelgrass and Giant bulrush (Scirpus californiens). There has also been historically significant fish, mammal, amphibian and avafauna. The marsh is a significant element within the Pacific Flyway providing resting and feeding areas for migratory birds. As of 2006 this ecosystem has been significantly compromised by fill, levee formation, dredging and other development; estimates generally state that 75 percent of the original biological productivity of the marsh has been destroyed. However, it remains a significant habitat and is subject to meaningful wetland restoration activity, that is being actively evaluated as of the 2000-2006 timeframe.[4] A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a combination of all the living and non-living elements of an area. ... Subclasses and Orders Order Temnospondyli- extinct Subclass Lepospondyli- extinct Subclass Lissamphibia   Anura   Caudata   Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia) are a taxon of animals that include all tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs. ... The Pacific Flyway is one of the four major migration route for waterfowl in the United States, Canada and Mexico. ... Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. ...


Recent developments

Because of the recognition of impacts of land development and land use practices, which began in the mid 19th century and have continued until 2006, certain actions are being considered[5] by the Board of Supervisors of Sonoma County. Most notably a special parcel tax may be submitted to voters to assess landowners adjacent to Sonoma Creek. These funds could be used in flood control, stream conservation work, including erosion control and wildlife conservation. Other current activities include considerable research in public and private sectors including work by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sonoma County and various private conservation groups. Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ...


See also

Today in a town we like to call sonoma valley about 17 minutes away from santa rosa Sean virrtoes was cought with his pants down and know we have reason to believe that sean is not straight but might be gay we have reached a new world change, ALSo just... Kenwood, California is a town along State Route 12 in Sonoma County. ... Sonoma is a town located in Sonoma County, California, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 9,128. ...

References

  1. ^ Critical Coastal Waters Draft Strategic Plan, State of California (2002)
  2. ^ Environmental Impact Report Sonoma Country Inn, County of Sonoma Permit and Resource Management Agency, November, 2004
  3. ^ Napa-Sonoma Marsh Restoration Project, California Department of Fish and Game
  4. ^ Sonoma Creek and Tributaries Feasibility Report, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
  5. ^ Kenwood Press, Kenwood, Ca., New tax considered for Sonoma Creek flood projects, Page 1, volume XVII, no. 10, June 1, 2006

External links

  • Napa Sonoma Marsh Restoration Project
  • Southern Sonoma County Resource Conservation District Watershed Overview
  • Sugarloaf Ridge State Park
  • Tidal Variations at Mouth of Sonoma Creek

 
 

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