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Encyclopedia > Sonoluminescence
Long exposure image of multi-bubble sonoluminescence created by a high intensity ultrasonic horn immersed in a beaker of liquid.

Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound. Image of high intensity ultrasonic horn in a beaker of liquid producing multi-bubble sonoluminescence. ... Image of high intensity ultrasonic horn in a beaker of liquid producing multi-bubble sonoluminescence. ... Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, approximately 20 kilohertz. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength [citation needed]. The elementary particle that defines light is the photon. ... In an explosion (top), force radiates away from a source. ... Soap bubbles Bubble may refer to: Soap bubble, spherical liquid film, also possibly of bubble gum Cavitation, pocket of air caught in a liquid Bubble (economics), where speculation causes prices to rise to unsustainable levels a (normally) transparent dome Light bulb, in theater lighting terminology [1] in poker tournaments, the... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ...

The effect was first discovered at the University of Cologne in 1934 as a result of work on sonar. H. Frenzel and H. Schultes put an ultrasound transducer in a tank of photographic developer fluid. They hoped to speed up the development process. Instead, they noticed tiny dots on the film after developing, and realized that the bubbles in the fluid were emitting light with the ultrasound turned on. It was too difficult to analyze the effect in early experiments because of the complex environment of a large number of short-lived bubbles. (This experiment is also ascribed to N. Marinesco and J.J. Trillat in 1933). This phenomenon is now referred to as multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL). The University of Cologne (German UniversitÃ¤t zu KÃ¶ln) is one of the oldest universities in Europe and, with over 44. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... // The F70 type frigates (here, La Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C tugged sonars SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) â€” or sonar â€” (the British used Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee (ASDIC) until 1948) is a technique that uses sound propagation under water to navigate... A baby in its mothers womb, viewed in a sonogram A baby, aged 29 weeks, in a 3D ultrasound Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ... A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an image created by focusing light onto material having a light-sensitive coating. ... In film developing, photographic developer (or just developer) is a chemical that makes the image on the film or print visible. ...

More than 50 years later, in 1989, a major advancement in research was introduced by Felipe Gaitan and Lawrence Crum, who were able to produce single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). In SBSL, a single bubble, trapped in an acoustic standing wave, emits a pulse of light with each compression of the bubble within the standing wave. This technique allowed a more systematic study of the phenomenon, because it isolated the complex effects into one stable, predictable bubble. It was realized that the temperature inside the bubble was hot enough to melt steel. Interest in sonoluminescence was renewed when an inner temperature of such a bubble well above one megakelvin was postulated. This temperature is thus far not conclusively demonstrated, though recent experiments conducted by the Suslick Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign deduced the temperature at about 20,000 kelvins. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave that remains in a constant position. ... System (from the Latin (systÄ“ma), and this from the Greek (sustÄ“ma)) is an assemblage of entity/objects, real or abstract, comprising a whole with each and every component/element interacting or related to another one. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, particularly something special (literally something that can be seen, derived from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... The old Steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is sometimes described as a sea of electrons. ... [[Image:Translational motion. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zeroâ€”the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substanceâ€”is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also known as UIUC and the U of I (the officially preferred abbreviation), is the flagship campus in the University of Illinois system. ...

## Properties

Sonoluminescence may or may not occur whenever a sound wave of sufficient intensity induces a gaseous cavity within a liquid to quickly collapse. This cavity may take the form of a pre-existing bubble, or may be generated through a process known as cavitation. Sonoluminescence in the laboratory can be made to be stable, so that a single bubble will expand and collapse over and over again in a periodic fashion, emitting a burst of light each time it collapses. For this to occur, a standing acoustic wave is set up within a liquid, and the bubble will sit at a pressure anti-node of the standing wave. The frequencies of resonance depend on the shape and size of the container in which the bubble is contained. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A standing wave. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge (shown twisting) in Washington collapsed spectacularly, under moderate wind, in part because of resonance. ... Containers in the port of Kotka (Finland) on the Baltic Sea. ...

• The light flashes from the bubbles are extremely short—between 35 and a few hundred picoseconds long, with peak intensities of the order of 1-10 mW.
• The bubbles are very small when they emit the light—about 1 micrometre in diameter depending on the ambient fluid (e.g. water) and the gas content of the bubble (e.g. atmospheric air).
• Single-bubble sonoluminescence pulses can have very stable periods and positions. In fact, the frequency of light flashes can be more stable than the rated frequency stability of the oscillator making the sound waves driving them. However, the stability analysis of the bubble show that the bubble itself undergoes significant geometric instabilities, due to, for example, the Bjerknes forces and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.
• The addition of a small amount of noble gas (such as helium, argon, or xenon) to the gas in the bubble increases the intensity of the emitted light.

The wavelength of emitted light is very short; the spectrum can reach into the ultraviolet. Light of shorter wavelengths has higher energy, and the measured spectrum of emitted light seems to indicate a temperature in the bubble of at least 20,000 kelvins, up to a possible temperature in excess of one megakelvin. The veracity of these estimates is hindered by the fact that water, for example, absorbs nearly all wavelengths below 200 nm. This has led to differing estimates on the temperatures in the bubble, since they are extrapolated from the emission spectra taken during collapse, or estimated using a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation (see below). Some estimates put the inside of the bubble at one gigakelvin [1]. These estimates are based on models which cannot be verified at present, and may include too many unsupported assumptions. Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength [citation needed]. The elementary particle that defines light is the photon. ... A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10-12 of a second. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol Âµm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the size of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Water is a tasteless, odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... RT fingers evident in the Crab Nebula Hydrodynamics simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability [1] The Rayleigh-Taylor instability, or RT instability, occurs any time a dense, heavy fluid is being accelerated by light fluid. ... For the musical band, see Noble Gas (band) The noble gases are the chemical elements in group 18 (old-style Group 0) of the periodic table. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... The visible spectrum is the portion of the optical spectrum (light or electromagnetic spectrum) that is visible to the human eye. ... Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zeroâ€”the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substanceâ€”is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ...

Temperatures this high make the study of sonoluminescence especially interesting for the possibility that it might produce a method for achieving thermonuclear fusion. If the bubble is hot enough, and the pressure in it is high enough, fusion reactions like those that occur in the Sun and other stars could be produced within these tiny bubbles. This possibility is sometimes referred to as bubble fusion. In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ...

On January 27, 2006, researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute claimed to have produced fusion reactions by sonoluminescence, without an external neutron source, according to a paper published in Physical Review Letters [2] [3]. To date, these results have not been reproduced by other members of the scientific community. January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a coeducational private university in Troy, New York, near Albany, founded in 1824 by Stephen Van Rensselaer. ... Physical Review Letters is one of the most prestigious journals in physics. ...

Recent experiments (2002, 2005) of R. P. Taleyarkhan, et.al., using deuterated acetone, show measurements of tritium and neutron output consistent with fusion, but these measurements have not been reproduced outside of the Taleyarkhan lab and remain controversial. Brian Naranjo of the University of California, Los Angeles, has recently completed an analysis of the Taleyarkhan results claiming that Taleyarkhan had most likely misinterpreted the radioactive decay of standard lab materials for the byproducts of nuclear fusion. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and Î²-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Writing in Nature, chemists http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/suslick David J. Flannigan and Kenneth S. Suslick] study argon bubbles in sulfuric acid and show that ionized oxygen $mbox{O}_2^+$, sulfur monoxide, and atomic argon populating high-energy excited states are present implying that the bubble has a hot plasma core. They point out that the ionization and excitation energy of dioxygenyl cation is 18 electronvolts, and thus cannot be formed thermally; they suggested it was produced by high-energy electron impact from the hot opaque plasma at the center of the bubble (Nature 434, 52 - 55 (03 March 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03361). First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... In chemistry, Sulfur monoxide (formula: SO) is an unstable species that forms when monatomic oxygen O reacts with sulfur S2. ... ... Excitation is the amount of energy (energy in a general sense, not energy as defined in physics) that Curtis has. ... Ozonide is an unstable, reactive polyatomic anion O3-, derived from ozone, or an organic compound similar to organic peroxide formed by a reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV, or, rarely and incorrectly, ev) is a unit of energy. ... The Electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries an electric charge. ...

## Fluid Mechanics

The dynamics of the motion of the bubble is characterized to a first approximation by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation

$Rddot{R}+frac{3}{2}dot{R}^{2}=frac{1}{rho}left(p_g-P_0-P(t)-4etafrac{dot{R}}{R}- frac{2gamma}{R}right).$

This is an approximate equation that is derived from the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and describes the motion of the radius of the bubble R as a function of time t. Here, η is the viscosity, p the pressure, and γ the surface tension. This equation, though approximate, has been shown to give good estimates on the motion of the bubble under the acoustically driven pressure collapse of the bubble. The Navier-Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, are a set of equations that describe the motion of fluid substances such as liquids and gases. ... Two distinct views exist on the meaning of time. ... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ... In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound, mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids. ...

## Mechanism of phenomenon

The mechanism of the phenomenon of sonoluminescence remains unclear, though many theories have been shown to have greater or lesser degrees of robustness. These include: hotspot, bremsstrahlung radiation, collision induced radiation and corona discharges, non-classical light, proton tunneling, electrodynamic jets, fractoluminescent jets (now largely discredited due to contrary experimental evidence), and so forth. (helpÂ· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor, which occurs when the potential gradient exceeds a certain value, in situations where sparking (also known as arcing) is not favoured. ... Quantum tunnelling (or tunneling) is the quantum-mechanical effect of transitioning through a classically-forbidden energy state. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Look up jet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In the case of SBSL, a recent theoretical explanation (ca. 2000) is the following (see Brenner, Hilgenfeldt, Lohse, 2002, in Reference section). During the collapse, water vapour molecules in the bubble dissociate into atoms at such high temperatures and dissolve in water. Only noble gas atoms remain in the bubble. At the end of the collapse, the noble gas is subjected to enormous pressure. (this explanation is uncomplete, see original paper). Light is also emitted.

From left to right : apparition of bubble, slow expansion, quick and sudden contraction, emission of light

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1571x267, 93 KB) Sonoluminescence is the emission of light by bubbles in a liquid excited by sound. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1571x267, 93 KB) Sonoluminescence is the emission of light by bubbles in a liquid excited by sound. ...

## Exotic proposals

An unusually exotic theory of sonoluminescence, which has received much popular attention, yet is considered to have a marginal effect on the mechanism of SBSL by the scientific community at large, is the Casimir energy theory proposed by Claudia Eberlein, a physicist at the University of Sussex. In 1996, it was suggested that the light in sonoluminescence is generated by the vacuum around the bubble in a process similar to Hawking radiation, the radiation generated by the edges of black holes. Quantum theory holds that a vacuum is filled with virtual particles, and the rapidly moving interface between water and air converts virtual photons into real photons. This is related to the Unruh effect or the Casimir effect. If true, sonoluminescence may be the first observable example of quantum vacuum radiation. It is, however, argued that the mechanism leading to the above effects do not occur on the proper time scales to describe the observed spectrum of SBSL, which is thought to likely obey a classical cavitation collapse; and thus the Casimir model has been largely relegated to the position of an ancillary remnant of the field at large. The University of Sussex is an English campus university located near the East Sussex village of Falmer, near Brighton and Hove. ... In physics, Hawking radiation is thermal radiation thought to be emitted by black holes due to quantum effects. ... A black hole is an object predicted by general relativity[1] with a gravitational field so strong that nothing can escape it â€” not even light. ... In physics, a virtual particle is a particle-like abstraction used in some models of quantum field theory. ... The Unruh effect, discovered in 1976 by Bill Unruh of the University of British Columbia, is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe black-body radiation where an inertial observer would observe none, that is, the accelerating observer will find themselves in a warm background. ... In physics, the Casimir effect is a physical force exerted between separate objects, which is due to neither charge, gravity, nor the exchange of particles, but instead is due to resonance of all-pervasive energy fields in the intervening space between the objects. ... In quantum field theory, the vacuum state, usually denoted , is the element of the Hilbert space with the lowest possible energy, and therefore containing no physical particles. ...

## Shrimpoluminescence

Pistol shrimp (also called snapping shrimp) produce a type of sonoluminescence from a collapsing bubble caused by quickly snapping a specialized claw. The light produced is of lower intensity than the light produced by typical sonoluminescence, and is not visible to the naked eye. It most likely has no biological significance, and is merely a byproduct of the shock wave, which these shrimp use to stun or kill prey. However, it is the first known instance of an animal producing light by this effect, and was whimsically dubbed "shrimpoluminescence" upon its discovery in October of 2001. [4] Binomial name Alpheus bellulus , Tiger pistol shrimp (Alpheus bellulus) is a type of shrimp, also called Symbiosis Shrimp, or Snapping Shrimp. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...

## Cultural references

Sonoluminescence was featured in the movie Chain Reaction, starring Keanu Reeves and Morgan Freeman. Chain Reaction is a 1996 film starring Keanu Reeves, Rachel Weisz, Morgan Freeman and Fred Ward. ... Keanu Charles Reeves (born September 2, 1964 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a Canadian actor. ... Freeman in Batman Begins, 2005 Morgan Freeman (born June 1, 1937) is an Academy Award-winning American actor and film director. ...

Sonoluminescence made its first cultural appearance in 1980 as the basis for the mutant powers of the rollerskating singer and superheroine, Dazzler, who converts sound into blinding light and energy beams which she uses to immobilize her enemies. Dazzler (Alison Blaire) is a Marvel Comics superhero, associated with the X-Men. ...

## References

• Putterman, S. J. "Sonoluminescence: Sound into Light," Scientific American, Feb. 1995, p.46. (Available Online)
• H. Frenzel and H. Schultes, Z. Phys. Chem. B27, 421 (1934)
• D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, R. A. Roy, and C. C. Church, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166 (1992)
• M. Brenner, S. Hilgenfeldt, and D. Lohse, "Single bubble sonoluminescence", Rev. Mod. Phys., April (2002).
• R. P. Taleyarkhan, C. D. West, J. S. Cho, R. T. Lahey, Jr. R. Nigmatulin, and R. C. Block, "Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation," Science 295, 1868 (2002). (see bubble fusion article for direct link)
• "Tiny Bubbles Implode With the Heat of a Star", New York Times article, registration and small fee may be required

Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ...

Charles Bennett examines three cold fusion tests cells at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA Cold fusion cell at the US Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, CA (2005) Cold fusion is a theoretical fusion reaction that occurs near room temperature and pressure using relatively simple devices. ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ... This page is a list of sources of light. ...

Results from FactBites:

 What is Sonoluminescence? (466 words) Sonoluminescence is a mysterious phenomenon caused when ultrasound waves excite a liquid, creating tiny bubbles which emit light when they collapse. Researchers from the lab of Purdue scientist R. Taleyarkhan claimed that, under sonoluminescence, an acetone-filled vessel emitted neutrons at a statistically significant level, the characteristic footprint of fusion. The effect of sonoluminescence was first discovered by German scientists H. Frenzel and H. Schultes at the University of Cologne in 1934.
 Sonoluminescence Summary (1945 words) Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound. Sonoluminescence in the laboratory can be made to be stable, so that a single bubble will expand and collapse over and over again in a periodic fashion, emitting a burst of light each time it collapses. In 1996, it was suggested that the light in sonoluminescence is generated by the vacuum around the bubble in a process similar to Hawking radiation, the radiation generated by the edges of fl holes.
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