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Encyclopedia > Sonnet

The term "sonnet" derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word "sonetto," both meaning "little song." By the thirteenth century, it had come to signify a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure. The conventions associated with the sonnet have evolved over its history. The writers of sonnets are sometimes referred to as "sonneteers," although the term can be used derisively. Many modern writers of sonnets choose simply to be called "sonnet writers." One of the most well known sonnet writers is Shakespeare, who wrote 154 sonnets. Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article is about the art form. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... A sonneteer is a poet that composes sonnets, though the individual may not necessarily write poetry exclusively in that particular poetic form. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ...


Traditionally, when writing sonnets, English poets usually employ iambic pentameter. In the Romance languages, the hendecasyllable and Alexandrine are the most widely used metres. Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Hendecasyllable verse (in Italian endecasillabo) is a kind of verse used mostly in Italian poetry, defined by its having the last stress on the tenth syllable. ... An alexandrine is a line of poetic meter. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ...

Contents

The Italian sonnet

The Italian sonnet was invented by Giacomo da Lentini, head of the Sicilian School under Frederick II.[1] Guittone d'Arezzo rediscovered it and brought it to Tuscany where he adapted it to his language when he founded the Neo-Sicilian School (12351294). He wrote almost 300 sonnets. Other Italian poets of the time, including Dante Alighieri (12651321) and Guido Cavalcanti (c. 12501300) wrote sonnets, but the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarca (known in English as Petrarch). Giacomo da Lentini (also known as Jacopo Da Lentini) was an Italian poet. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Guittone dArezzo (Arezzo, c. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Dante redirects here. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Cavalcanti and Dante Guido Cavalcanti (c. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... From the c. ...


The Italian sonnet comprises two parts. First, the octave (two quatrains), which describe a problem, followed by a sestet (two tercets), which gives the resolution to it. Typically, the ninth line creates a "turn" or volta which signals the move from proposition to resolution. Even in sonnets that don't strictly follow the problem/resolution structure, the ninth line still often marks a "turn" by signaling a change in the tone, mood, or stance of the poem. Two stanzas of iambic pentameter of the rhyme scheme abba abba. ... A quatrain is a poem or a stanza within a poem that consists of four lines. ... [[]]A Sestet is the name given to the second division of a sonnet, which must consist of an octave, of eight lines, succeeded by a sestet, of six lines. ... A tercet is three lines of poetry forming a stanza or complete poem. ...


In the sonnets of Giacomo da Lentini, the octave rhymed a-b-a-b, a-b-a-b; later, the a-b-b-a, a-b-b-a pattern became the standard for Italian sonnets. For the sestet there were two different possibilities, c-d-e-c-d-e and c-d-c-c-d-c. In time, other variants on this rhyming scheme were introduced such as c-d-c-d-c-d. Giacomo da Lentini (also known as Jacopo Da Lentini) was an Italian poet. ...


The first known sonnets in English, written by Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, used this Italian scheme, as did sonnets by later English poets including John Milton, Thomas Gray, William Wordsworth and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Early twentieth-century American poet, Edna St. Vincent Millay, also wrote most of her sonnets using the Italian form. Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – October 6, 1542) was a poet and Ambassador in the service of Henry VIII. He first entered Henrys service in 1516 as Sewer Extraordinary, and the same year he began studying at St Johns College of the University of Cambridge. ... Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517 – January 19, 1547) was an English aristocrat, and one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Thomas Gray (disambiguation). ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Elizabeth Barrett Browning (March 6, 1806 – June 29, 1861) was one of the most respected poets of the Victorian era. ...


This example, On His Blindness" by John Milton, gives a sense of the Italian form:

When I consider how my light is spent (a)
 Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, (b)
 And that one talent which death to hide, (b)
 Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent (a)
To serve therewith my Maker, and present (a)
 My true account, lest he returning chide; (b)
 "Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?" (b)
 I fondly ask; but Patience to prevent (a)
That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need (c)
 Either man's work or his own gifts; who best (d)
 Bear his mile yoke, they serve him best. His state (e)
Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed (c)
 And post o'er land and ocean without rest; (d)
 They olso serve who only stand and wait." (e)

The English sonnet

William Shakespeare, in the famous "Chandos" portrait. Artist and authenticity unconfirmed. National Portrait Gallery (UK).

Sonnets were introduced by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century. His sonnets and those of his contemporary the Earl of Surrey were chiefly translations from the Italian of Petrarch and the French of Ronsard and others. While Wyatt introduced the sonnet into English, it was Surrey who gave them the rhyme scheme, meter, and division into quatrains that now characterizes the English sonnet. Sir Philip Sidney's sequence Astrophil and Stella (1591) started a tremendous vogue for sonnet sequences: the next two decades saw sonnet sequences by William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Michael Drayton, Samuel Daniel, Fulke Greville, William Drummond of Hawthornden, and many others.These sonnets were all essentially inspired by the Petrarchan tradition, and generally treat of the poet's love for some woman; the exception is Shakespeare's sequence. In the 17th century, the sonnet was adapted to other purposes, with John Donne and George Herbert writing religious sonnets, and John Milton using the sonnet as a general meditative poem. Both the Shakespearean and Petrarchan rhyme schemes were popular throughout this period, as well as many variants. Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Chandos portrait, popularly believed to depict William Shakespeare (in a 20th century reproduction) The Chandos portrait is one of the most famous of the portraits that may depict William Shakespeare (1564–1616). ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in central London which was opened in 1856. ... Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – October 6, 1542) was a poet and Ambassador in the service of Henry VIII. He first entered Henrys service in 1516 as Sewer Extraordinary, and the same year he began studying at St Johns College of the University of Cambridge. ... Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517 – January 19, 1547) was an English aristocrat, and one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry. ... From the c. ... Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 - December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ... Philip Sidney. ... The 1591 text of Astrophel and Stella Likely composed in the 1580s by Philip Sidney, Astrophel and Stella is the first of the famous English sonnet sequences, and contains 108 sonnets and 11 songs. ... Year 1591 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A sonnet sequence is a group of sonnets thematically unified to create a long work, although generally, unlike the stanza, each sonnet so connected can also be read as a meaningful separate unit. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Drayton, 1628 Michael Drayton (1563 – December 23, 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. ... Samuel Daniel (1562 – October 14, 1619) was an English poet and historian. ... This article is about the Elizabethan author. ... This article is about the Scottish poet William Drummond. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... For other persons named George Herbert, see George Herbert (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ...


The fashion for the sonnet went out with the Restoration, and hardly any sonnets were written between 1670 and Wordsworth's time. However, sonnets came back strongly with the French Revolution. Wordsworth himself wrote several sonnets, of which the best-known are "The world is too much with us" and the sonnet to Milton; his sonnets were essentially modelled on Milton's. Keats and Shelley also wrote major sonnets; Keats's sonnets used formal and rhetorical patterns inspired partly by Shakespeare, and Shelley innovated radically, creating his own rhyme scheme for the sonnet "Ozymandias". Sonnets were written throughout the 19th century, but, apart from Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Sonnets from the Portuguese and the sonnets of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, there were few very successful traditional sonnets. Gerard Manley Hopkins wrote several major sonnets, often in sprung rhythm, of which the greatest is "The Windhover," and also several sonnet variants such as the 10-1/2 line curtal sonnet "Pied Beauty" and the 24-line caudate sonnet "That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire." By the end of the 19th century, the sonnet had been adapted into a general-purpose form of great flexibility. For other uses, see Restoration. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... THE WORLD IS TOO MUCH WITH US The world is too much with us; late and soon, Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers: Little we see in Nature that is ours; We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon! The Sea that bares her bosom to the... Keats redirects here. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... This article is about Shelleys poem. ... Elizabeth Barrett Browning (March 6, 1806 – June 29, 1861) was one of the most respected poets of the Victorian era. ... Sonnets from the Portuguese, written ca. ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 - April 10, 1882) was an English poet, painter and translator. ... The Best ideal is the true/ And other truth is none. ... Sprung rhythm is a poetic rhythm designed to imitate the rhythm of natural speech. ... The curtal sonnet is a form invented by Gerard Manley Hopkins, and used in three of his poems. ... A caudate sonnet is an expanded version of the sonnet. ...


This flexibility was extended even further in the 20th century. Among the major poets of the early Modernist period, Robert Frost, Edna St. Vincent Millay and E. E. Cummings all used the sonnet regularly. William Butler Yeats wrote the major sonnet Leda and the Swan, which used half rhymes. Wilfred Owen's sonnet Anthem for Doomed Youth was another sonnet of the early 20th century. W.H. Auden wrote two sonnet sequences and several other sonnets throughout his career, and widened the range of rhyme-schemes used considerably. Auden also wrote one of the first unrhymed sonnets in English, "The Secret Agent" (1928). Half-rhymed, unrhymed, and even unmetrical sonnets have been very popular since 1950; perhaps the best works in the genre are Seamus Heaney's Glanmore Sonnets and Clearances, both of which use half rhymes, and Geoffrey Hill's mid-period sequence 'An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England'. The 1990s saw something of a formalist revival, however, and several traditional sonnets have been written in the past decade. Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... Edna St. ... Cummings in 1953 Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), popularly known as E. E. Cummings, was an American poet, painter, essayist, and playwright. ... Yeats redirects here. ... Leda and the Swan is a motif from Greek mythology, in which Zeus came to Leda in the form of a swan. ... Half rhyme, sometimes called slant, sprung, lose or near rhyme, and less commonly eye rhyme (a term covering a broader phenomenon), is consonance on the final consonants of the words involved. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was a British poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Anthem for Doomed Youth Anthem for Doomed Youth is one of the best-known and most popular of Wilfred Owens poems. ... Christopher Isherwood and W.H. Auden, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Wystan Hugh Auden (February 21, 1907–September 29, 1973) was an English poet. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... for the British aeronautical engineer and professor, see Geoffrey T. R. Hill Geoffrey Hill (born June 18, 1932) is an English poet, professor of English Literature and religion, and co-director of the Editorial Institute at Boston University, Massachusetts, USA. // Geoffrey Hill was born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, England, in 1932. ...


Soon after the introduction of the Italian sonnet, English poets began to develop a fully native form. These poets included Sir Philip Sidney, Michael Drayton, Samuel Daniel, the Earl of Surrey's nephew Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford and William Shakespeare. The form is often named after Shakespeare, not because he was the first to write in this form but because he became its most famous practitioner. The form consists of three quatrains and a couplet. The third quatrain generally introduces an unexpected sharp thematic or imagistic "turn" called a volta. The usual rhyme scheme was a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g. In addition, sonnets are written in iambic pentameter, meaning that there are 10 or perhaps even 11 or 9 syllables per line, and that every other syllable is naturally accented. The sonnet must be 14 lines long, and the last two lines of the sonnet have rhyming endings (though there may be exceptions). Philip Sidney. ... Drayton, 1628 Michael Drayton (1563 – December 23, 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. ... Samuel Daniel (1562 – October 14, 1619) was an English poet and historian. ... The Earl of Oxford, from the 1914 publication English Travellers of the Renaissance by Clare Howard. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ...


This is the proper rhyme scheme for an English Sonnet (/ represents a new stanza): a-b-a-b / c-d-c-d / e-f-e-f / g-g


This example, Shakespeare's Sonnet 116, illustrates the form: Shakespeares sonnet 116, first published in 1609, is at once one of his most romantic pieces as well as one of his most profound works, often quoted at weddings. ...

Let me not to the marriage of true minds (a)
Admit impediments, love is not love (b)
Which alters when it alteration finds, (a)
Or bends with the remover to remove. (b)
O no, it is an ever fixed mark (c)
That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d)
It is the star to every wand'ring bark, (c)
Whose worth's unknown although his height be taken. (d)
Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e)
Within his bending sickle's compass come, (f)
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e)
But bears it out even to the edge of doom: (f)
If this be error and upon me proved, (g)
I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)

The Spencerian sonnet

A variant on the English form is the Spencerian sonnet, named after Edmund Spenser (c.15521599) in which the rhyme scheme is, abab, bcbc, cdcd, ee. In a Spencerian sonnet there does not appear to be a requirement that the initial octave set up a problem that the closing sestet answers, as is the case with a Petrarchan sonnet. Instead, the form is treated as three quatrains connected by the interlocking rhyme scheme and followed by a couplet. The linked rhymes of his quatrains suggest the linked rhymes of such Italian forms as terza rima. This example is taken from Amoretti This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Two stanzas of iambic pentameter of the rhyme scheme abba abba. ... [[]]A Sestet is the name given to the second division of a sonnet, which must consist of an octave, of eight lines, succeeded by a sestet, of six lines. ... Terza rima is a rhyming verse stanza form that was first used by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. ...

Happy ye leaves! whenas those lily hand

Happy ye leaves! whenas those lily hands, (a)
Which hold my life in their dead doing might, (b)
Shall handle you, and hold in love's soft bands, (a)
Like captives trembling at the victor's sight. (b)
And happy lines on which, with starry light, (b)
Those lamping eyes will deign sometimes to look,(c)
And read the sorrows of my dying sprite, (b)
Written with tears in heart's close bleeding book. (c)
And happy rhymes! bathed in the sacred brook (c)
Of Helicon, whence she derived is, (d)
When ye behold that angel's blessed look, (c)
My soul's long lacked food, my heaven's bliss. (d)
Leaves, lines, and rhymes seek her to please alone, (e)
Whom if ye please, I care for other none. (e)

The Modern Sonnet

With the advent of free verse, the sonnet came to be seen as somewhat old-fashioned and fell out of use for a time among some schools of poets. However, a number of 20th-century poets, including Wilfred Owen, John Berryman, Edwin Morgan, Robert Frost, Edna St. Vincent Millay, E.E. Cummings, Jorge Luis Borges, Pablo Neruda, Joan Brossa, Rainer Maria Rilke, and Seamus Heaney continued to use the form. The advent of the New Formalism movement in the United States has also contributed to contemporary interest in the sonnet. For the software company, see Freeverse. ... Twentieth century redirects here. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was a British poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... John Allyn Berryman (originally John Allyn Smith) (October 25, 1914 – January 7, 1972) was an American poet, born in McAlester, Oklahoma. ... Edwin Morgan (born April 27, 1920) is a Scottish poet and translator who is associated with the British Poetry Revival. ... Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... Edna St. ... Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 - September 3, 1962) was an American poet and writer. ... Borges redirects here. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Joan Brossa i Cuervo (Barcelona, 1919 - 1998). ... Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... New Formalism is a late-twentieth and early twenty-first century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse. ...


See also

Literature
Major forms

Epic · Romance · Novel
Tragedy · Comedy · Drama · Satire
For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...

Media

Performance · Book Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ...

Techniques

Prose · Poetry Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the art form. ...

History and lists

Basic topics · Literary terms
History · Modern history
Books · Writers
Literary awards · Poetry awards Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of literature. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of best-selling books List of... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that the section Literature from the article List of prizes, medals, and awards be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of awards that are, or have been, given out to writers of poetry, either for a specific poem, collection of poems, or body of work. ...

Discussion

Criticism · Theory · Magazines Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ...

A caudate sonnet is an expanded version of the sonnet. ... A crown of sonnets or sonnet corona is a sequence of sonnets, usually addressed to some one person, and/or concerned with a single theme. ... The curtal sonnet is a form invented by Gerard Manley Hopkins, and used in three of his poems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into iambic heptameter. ... Giacomo da Lentini (also known as Jacopo Da Lentini) was an Italian poet. ... Onegin stanza refers to the verse form used by Alexander Pushkin in his interpersonal epic Eugene Onegin. ... A quatorzain (from French quatorze, fourteen) is an anamorphic or abortive poem or sonnet. ... From the c. ... This article is about the art form. ... Prosody may mean several things: Prosody consists of distinctive variations of stress, tone, and timing in spoken language. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets Dedication page from The Sonnets Shakespeares sonnets, or simply The Sonnets, is a collection of poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... A group of sonnets, arranged to address a particular person or theme, and designed to be read both as a collection of fully-realized individual poems and as a single poetic work comprising all the individual sonnets. ... A sonnet sequence is a group of sonnets thematically unified to create a long work, although generally, unlike the stanza, each sonnet so connected can also be read as a meaningful separate unit. ... A sonneteer is a poet that composes sonnets, though the individual may not necessarily write poetry exclusively in that particular poetic form. ...

External links

References and further reading

  • I. Bell, et al. A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Blackwell Pub., 2006. ISBN 1405121556.
  • T. W. H. Crosland. The English Sonnet. Hesperides Press, 2006. ISBN 1406796913.
  • J. Fuller. The Oxford Book of Sonnets. Oxford Univ. Press, 2002. ISBN 0192803891.
  • J. Fuller. The Sonnet. (The Critical Idiom: #26). Methuen & Co., 1972. ISBN 0416656900.
  • J. Hollander. Sonnets: From Dante to the Present. Everyman's Library, 2001. ISBN 0375411771.
  • P. Levin. The Penguin Book of the Sonnet: 500 Years of a Classic Tradition in English. Penguin, 2001. ISBN 0140589295.
  • J. Phelan. The Nineteenth Century Sonnet. Palgrave-Macmillan, 2005. ISBN 1403938040.
  • S. Regan. The Sonnet. Oxford Univ. Press, 2006. ISBN 0192893076.
  • M. R. G. Spiller. The Development of the Sonnet: An Introduction. Routledge, 1992. ISBN 0415087414.
  • M. R. G. Spiller. The Sonnet Sequence: A Study of Its Strategies. Twayne Pub., 1997. ISBN 0805709703.
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The amazing web site of Shakespeare's Sonnets (1132 words)
All the sonnets are provided here, with descriptive commentary attached to each one, giving explanations of difficult and unfamiliar words and phrases, and with a full analysis of any special problems of interpretation which arise.
Sonnets by other Elizabethan poets are also included, Spenser, Sidney, Drayton and a few other minor authors.
Sonnets which were published and probably written before Shakespeare's, and influenced both the material he used and the arrangement of his sonnet sequence.
Sonnet - MSN Encarta (778 words)
The Petrarchan sonnet consists of an octave, or eight-line stanza, and a sestet, or six-line stanza.
Excellent examples of the Petrarchan sonnet in the English language are found in the sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella (1591) by Sir Philip Sidney, which established the form in England.
William Wordsworth is regarded as the finest sonnet writer of the period, although outstanding sonnets were also written by his contemporaries Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and John Keats.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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