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Encyclopedia > Song Dynasty

Song

960 – 1279
Northern Song in 1111
Capital Bianjing (汴京)
(960–1127)

Lin'an (臨安)
(1127–1276)
Language(s) Chinese
Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 960–976 Emperor Taizu
 - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong
 - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong
 - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing
History
 - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960, 960
 - Jingkang Incident 1127
 - Surrender of Lin'an 1276
 - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279, 1279
Population
 - 1041 est. 100,000,000a[›] 
Currency Jiaozi, Huizi, copper coins etc.

The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao) was a ruling dynasty in China between 960–1279 CE; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money,b[›] and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy.c[›] The Song Dynasty (宋朝, previous spelling Sung) (420-479) was first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, followed by the Qi Dynasty. ... The Later Zhou Dynasty (後周) was the last a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Created and copyright (2004) by Yu Ninjie. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Taoism (or Daoism) refers to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This is a list of emperors during the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279) of China. ... Emperor Taizu (March 21, 927 - November 14, 976, Chinese 太祖), born Zhao Kuangyin (Chinese 趙匡胤), was the founder of the Song Dynasty of China, reigning from 960 to 976. ... Emperor Qinzong (May 23, 1100 – June 14, 1161) was the ninth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the last emperor of the Northern Song. ... Emperor Gaozong (June 12, 1107 – November 9, 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. ... Emperor Bing (Chinese: ) (1271 – March 19, 1279) was the last emperor of Southern Song Dynasty of China who died a boy. ... Emperor Taizu (March 21, 927 - November 14, 976), born Zhao Kuangyin, was the founder of the Song Dynasty of China, reigning from 960 to 976. ... The Later Zhou Dynasty (後周) was the last a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty. ... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... The Jingkang Incident (Traditional Chinese: 靖康事變, 靖康之變; Simplified Chinese: 靖康事变, 靖康之变) or the Humiliation of Jingkang (靖康之恥) took place in 1127 when invading Jin soldiers sacked Kaifeng (開封, 开封), the capital of Song China, and abducted Emperor Qinzong, his father Emperor Emeritus Huizong, along with many members of the imperial court. ... Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For other uses, see Jiaozi (disambiguation). ... It is the official banknote of Song Dynasty issued in 1160. ... It has been suggested that Exergue be merged into this article or section. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China: For a summary table of the dynasties in Chinese history and their dates, check here. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ...


The population of China doubled in size during the 10th and 11th centuries. This growth came through expanded rice cultivation in central and southern China, the use of early-ripening rice from southeast and southern Asia, and the production of abundant food surpluses.[1][2] Within its borders, the Northern Song Dynasty had a population of some 100 million people.d[›][1] This dramatic increase of population fomented and fueled an economic revolution in premodern China. The expansion of the population was partially the cause for the gradual withdrawal of the central government from heavily regulating the market economy. A much larger populace also increased the importance of the lower gentry's role in grassroots administration and maintaining local affairs, while the appointed officials in county and provincial centers relied upon these scholarly gentry for their services, sponsorship, and local supervision. Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ...


The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song. During the Northern Song (Chinese: 北宋, 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of inner China. The Southern Song (Chinese: 南宋, 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song contained 60 percent of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land.[3] The Southern Song Dynasty considerably bolstered naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin (and then the Mongols), the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder.e[›] In 1234, the Jin Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who subsequently took control of northern China and maintained uneasy relations with the Southern Song. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging a city in Chongqing. His successor Kublai Khan was perceived both as the new Great Khan of the Mongols and by 1271 as the Emperor of China.[4] After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song Dynasty in 1279. China was once again unified, under the Yuan Dynasty, which was a division of the vast Mongol Empire. Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Location of Jin Capital Huining (1122-1153) Zhongdu (1153-1214) Kaifeng (1214-1233) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu  - 1234 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1115  - Ended Liaos rule 1125  - Captured Bianliang January 9, 1127  - Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Manchu: Aisin... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Naval redirects here. ... The Clipper Ship Flying Cloud off the Needles, Isle of Wight, off the southern English coast. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ...


Social life during the Song was vibrant; social elites gathered to view and trade precious artworks, the populace intermingled at public festivals and private clubs and cities had lively entertainment quarters. The spread of literature and knowledge was enhanced by the earlier innovation of woodblock printing and the 11th century innovation of movable type printing. There were numerous intellectual pursuits, while pre-modern technology, science, philosophy, mathematics, and engineering flourished in the Song. Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, and emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism. Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui Dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period, and was a leading factor in the shift of an aristocratic elite to a bureaucratic elite. Although exam-drafted scholar-officials scorned any emphasis or favor shown to the growing merchant class and those of petty commercial vocations, commercialism was nonetheless heavily embedded into Song culture and society. Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... Cheng Yi (Wade-Giles: Cheng I; also known as Cheng Yichuan [Cheng I-chuan]; courtesy name: Zhengshu; 1033-1107) was a philosopher in China who worked with his older brother Cheng Hao. ... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province, China – died April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ...


Key industries were controlled by the government under strict monopolies, while private industry and businesses produced goods and services not officially monopolized by the state. The Song court received tributary missions from foreign countries while scholar-officials, tenant landlords, merchants, and other wealthy individuals invested money in the booming overseas trade and shipbuilding industry. Independent, state-sponsored, and state-employed architects, engineers, carpenters, and craftsmen erected thousands of bridges, pagoda towers, temple halls, palace halls, ancestral shrines, shops and storefronts, and other buildings throughout the empire. This article is about the economic term. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... The Chinese Pagoda is a landmark in Birmingham. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ...

History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BC
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BC
Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BC
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn Period
    Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BC–206 BC
Han Dynasty 206 BC–220 AD
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–618
Tang Dynasty 618–907
  ( Second Zhou 690–705 )
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia Dyn.
  Southern Song Jin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China
1949–present

   1949-1976
   1976-1989
   1989-2002
   2002-present Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Warring States redirects here. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China The history of the Peoples Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the Mao era and the post-Mao era. The Mao era lasted from the founding of the Peoples Republic... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ...

Republic of China
(on Taiwan)
1945-present
National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...

Dynasties in Chinese History
Economic History of China
Historiography of China
History of Chinese Art
History of Education in China
History of Science and Technology in China
Legal History of China
Linguistic History of China
Military History of China
Naval History of China
Timeline of Chinese History
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Contents

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The origin of the current law of the Peoples Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: Hànyǔ; 华语/華語, Huáyǔ; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ...

History

Further information: List of Song Emperors

The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960-1279) of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century. ... This is a list of emperors during the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279) of China. ...

Northern Song

Emperor Taizu of Song (r. 960–976) unified China through military conquest during his reign, ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. In Kaifeng, he established a strong central government over the empire. He ensured administrative stability by promoting the civil service examination system of drafting state bureaucrats by skill and merit (instead of aristocratic or martial status) and promoted projects that ensured efficiency in communication throughout the empire. One such project was the creation by cartographers of detailed maps of each province and city which were then collected in a large atlas.[5] He also promoted groundbreaking science and technological innovations by supporting such works as the astronomical clock tower designed and built by the engineer Zhang Sixun.[6] Emperor Taizu (March 21, 927 - November 14, 976, Chinese 太祖), born Zhao Kuangyin (Chinese 趙匡胤), was the founder of the Song Dynasty of China, reigning from 960 to 976. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8,000 years - nobody knows exactly, but longer than written words). ... A political and physical map of the world For other uses, see Atlas (disambiguation). ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... Clocktower at Geelong Grammar School, Victoria, Australia A clock tower is a tower built with one or more (often four) clock faces. ... An artists interpretation of the astronomical clock tower of Su Song (1020-1101) Zhang Sixun (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chang ssu hsün) was a 10th century Chinese astronomer and engineer during the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). ...


The Song court upheld foreign relations with Chola India, Fatimid Egypt, Srivijayan Malaysia, and other countries that were also maritime trade partners.[7][8][9] However, it was China's closest neighboring states who would have the biggest impact upon its domestic and foreign policy. From its inception with the first emperor Taizu, the Song Dynasty alternated between warfare and diplomacy with the ethnic Khitans of the Liao Dynasty in the northeast and with the Tanguts of the Western Xia Dynasty in the northwest. The Song Dynasty used military force in an attempt to quell the Liao Dynasty and recapture the Sixteen Prefectures, a territory under Khitan control that was traditionally considered to be part of the Chinese domain.[10] However, Song forces were repulsed by the Liao forces who engaged in aggressive yearly campaigns into northern Song territory until 1005 when the signing of the Shanyuan Treaty ended these northern frontier border clashes. The Chinese were forced to pay heavy tribute to the Khitans, although the paying of this tribute did little damage to the overall Song economy since the Khitans were heavily dependent upon importing massive amounts of goods from the Song Dynasty.[11] More significantly, the Song state recognized the Liao state as its diplomatic equal.[12] The Song Dynasty managed to win several military victories over the Tanguts in the early 11th century, culminating in a campaign led by the polymath scientist, general, and statesman Shen Kuo (1031–1095).[13] However, this campaign was ultimately a failure due to a rival military officer of Shen disobeying direct orders, and the territory gained from the Western Xia was eventually lost.[14] Chola redirects here. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The extent of Srivijayan Empire around 10th to 11th century. ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ... See Xia for other meanings of the Chinese character 夏 xià. ... The Sixteen Prefectures are a region in northern China stretching from present-day Beijing westward to Datong. ... Overview The conclusion of the Shanyuan Treaty (1004) was the pivotal point in relation between the Northern Song (960-1127) and the Liao (916-1125) Dynasties. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ...

Pillow, sandstone with white and brown slip black, incised decoration, Northern Song Dynasty, 12th century
Pillow, sandstone with white and brown slip black, incised decoration, Northern Song Dynasty, 12th century

During the 11th century, political rivalries thoroughly divided members of the court due to the ministers' differing approaches, opinions, and policies regarding the handling of the Song's complex society and thriving economy. The idealist Chancellor Fan Zhongyan (989–1052) was the first to receive a heated political backlash when he attempted to make such reforms as improving the recruitment system of officials, increasing the salaries for minor officials, and establishing sponsorship programs to allow a wider range of people to be well educated and eligible for state service.[15] After Fan was forced to step down from his office, Wang Anshi (1021–1086) became chancellor of the imperial court. With the backing of Emperor Shenzong of Song (1067–1085), Wang Anshi severely criticized the educational system and state bureaucracy. Seeking to resolve what he saw as state corruption and negligence, Wang implemented a series of reforms called the New Policies. These involved land tax reform, the establishment of several government monopolies, the support of local militias, and the creation of higher standards for the Imperial examination to make it more practical for men skilled in statecraft to pass.[16] The reforms created political factions in the court with Wang Anshi's New Policies Group (Xin Fa), or the 'Reformers' in one camp, opposed by the ministers in the 'Conservative' faction led by the historian and Chancellor Sima Guang (1019–1086) in the other.[17] As one faction supplanted another in the majority position of the court ministers, it would demote rival officials and exile them to govern remote frontier regions of the empire.[16] One of the prominent victims of the political rivalry, the famous poet and statesman Su Shi (1037–1101), was jailed and eventually exiled for criticizing Wang's reforms.[16] Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... Fan Zhongyan (Chinese: 范仲淹) (989 - 1052), was a prominent politician and literary figure in Song dynasty China. ... Wáng Ānshí (王安石) (1021 - 1086) was a Chinese economist, statesman and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted some controversial, major socio-economic reforms. ... Emperor Shenzong (May 25, 1048 – April 1, 1085) was the sixth emperor of Song Dynasty China. ... Land Value Taxation (LVT) is the policy of raising state revenues by charging each landholder a portion of the assessed site-only value of the unimproved land. ... This article is about economic monopoly. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Sima Guang (Chinese:司马光; Wade-Giles:Szuma Kuang, 1019-1086) was a Chinese historian, scholar and statesman of the Song Dynasty. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ...

A Liao Dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue of Guan Yin, Shanxi Province, China, (907–1125)
A Liao Dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue of Guan Yin, Shanxi Province, China, (907–1125)

While the central Song court remained politically divided and focused upon its internal affairs, alarming new events to the north in the Liao state finally came to its attention. The Jurchen, a subject tribe within the Liao empire, rebelled against the Liao and formed their own state, the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234).[18] The Song official Tong Guan (1054–1126) advised the reigning Emperor Huizong of Song (1100–1125) to form an alliance with the Jurchens and their joint military campaign toppled and completely conquered the Liao Dynasty by 1125. However, the poor performance and military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchens, who immediately broke the alliance with the Song and launched an invasion into Song territory in 1125 and another in 1127 when the Jurchens managed to capture not only the Song capital at Kaifeng, but the retired emperor Huizong and the succeeding Emperor Qinzong of Song as well as most of his court.[18] This took place in the year of Jingkang (Chinese 靖康) and it is known as the Humiliation of Jingkang (Chinese 靖康之恥). The remaining Song forces rallied under the self appointed Emperor Gaozong of Song (1127–1162), fleeing south of the Yangtze River to establish the Song Dynasty's new capital at Lin'an (in modern Hangzhou). This Jurchen conquest of northern China and shift of capitals from Kaifeng to Lin'an marks the period of division between the Northern Song Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bodhisattva Guan Yin Sculpture Song Dynasty... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 445 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bodhisattva Guan Yin Sculpture Song Dynasty... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. ... For the Chen Dynasty empress whose Buddhist nun name was Guanyin, see Empress Shen Wuhua. ... Not to be confused with the neighboring province of Shaanxi Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: Shānxī; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... Location of Jin Capital Huining (1122-1153) Zhongdu (1153-1214) Kaifeng (1214-1233) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu  - 1234 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1115  - Ended Liaos rule 1125  - Captured Bianliang January 9, 1127  - Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Manchu: Aisin... Tong Guan is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication and art but ending in tragedy. ... Emperor Qinzong (May 23, 1100 – June 14, 1161) was the ninth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the last emperor of the Northern Song. ... The Jingkang Incident or the Humiliation of Jingkang took place in 1127 when invading Jurchen soldiers from the Jin Dynasty besieged and sacked Bianliang (Kaifeng), the capital of the Song Dynasty. ... Emperor Gaozong (June 12, 1107 – November 9, 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ...


Southern Song

Southern Song in 1142
Southern Song in 1142

Although weakened and pushed south along the Huai River, the Southern Song found new ways to bolster their already strong economy and defend their state against the Jin Dynasty. They had able military officers such as Yue Fei and Han Shizhong. The government sponsored massive shipbuilding and harbor improvement projects, and the construction of beacons and seaport warehouses in order to support maritime trade abroad and the major international seaports, including Quanzhou, Guangzhou, and Xiamen that were sustaining China's commerce.[19][20][21] To protect and support the multitudes of ships sailing for maritime interests into the waters of the East China Sea and Yellow Sea (to Korea and Japan), Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea, it was a necessity to establish an official standing navy.[22] The Song Dynasty therefore established China's first permanent navy in 1132,[21] with the admiral's main headquarter stationed at Dinghai.[23] With a permanent navy, the Song were prepared to face the naval forces of the Jin on the Yangtze River in 1161, in the Battle of Tangdao and the Battle of Caishi. During these battles the Song navy employed swift paddle wheel driven naval crafts armed with trebuchet catapults aboard the decks that launched gunpowder bombs.[23] Although the Jin forces boasted 70,000 men on 600 warships, and the Song forces only 3,000 men on 120 warships,[24] the Song Dynasty forces were victorious in both battles due to the destructive power of the bombs and the rapid assaults by paddle wheel ships.[25] The strength of the navy was heavily emphasized after that. A century after the navy was founded it had grown in size to 52,000 fighting marines.[23] The Song government confiscated portions of land owned by the landed gentry in order to raise revenue for these projects, an act which caused dissension and loss of loyalty amongst leading members of Song society but did not stop the Song's defensive preparations.[26][27] Financial matters were made worse by the fact that many wealthy, land-owning families—some which had officials working for the government—used their social connections with those in office in order to obtain tax-exempt status.[28] Image File history File linksMetadata China_11b. ... Image File history File linksMetadata China_11b. ... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... Statue of Yue Fei, from the Yue Fei Mausoleum in Hangzhou. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... This page discusses beacons, fires designed to attract attention. ... Old warehouses in Amsterdam Inside Green Logistics Co. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see East Sea (Chinese mythology). ... ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Naval redirects here. ... Combatants Jurchen Jin Southern Song Commanders Su Baoheng and Wanyan Zhengjianu Li Bao Strength 600 warships and 70,000 troops 120 warships and 3000 troops The naval Battle of Tangdao took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China on the East China Sea. ... Combatants Jurchen Jin Southern Song Commanders Hailingwang Unknown The naval Battle of Caishi took place in 1161 and was the result of an attempt by forces of the Jurchen Jin to cross the Yangtze River, thus beginning an invasion of Southern Song China. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ...

A seated wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)
A seated wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)

Although the Song Dynasty was able to hold back the Jin, a new considerable foe came to power over the steppe, deserts, and plains north of the Jin Dynasty. The Mongols, led by Genghis Khan (r. 1206–1227), initially invaded the Jin Dynasty in 1205 and 1209, engaging in large raids across its borders, and in 1211 an enormous Mongol army was assembled to invade the Jin.[29] The Jin Dynasty was forced to submit and pay tribute to the Mongols as vassals; when the Jin suddenly moved their capital city from Beijing to Kaifeng, the Mongols saw this as a revolt.[30] Under the leadership of Ögedei Khan (r.1229–1241), both the Jin Dynasty and Western Xia Dynasty were conquered by Mongol forces.[31][30] The Mongols also invaded and conquered Korea, the Abbasid Caliphate of the Middle East, and Kievan Rus' of Russia. The Mongols were at one time allied with the Song, but this alliance was broken when the Song recaptured the former imperial capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang, and Chang'an at the collapse of the Jin Dynasty. The Mongol leader Möngke Khan led a campaign against the Song in 1259, but died on August 11 during the Battle of Fishing Town in Chongqing.[32] Mongke's death and succession crisis prompted Hulagu Khan to pull the bulk of Mongol forces out of the Middle East where they were poised to fight the Egyptian Mamluks (who defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut). Although Hulagu was allied with Kublai Khan, his forces were unable to help in the assault against the Song, due to Hulagu's war with the Golden Horde.[33] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article is about the person. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Peking redirects here. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... Fishing town or Fishing City(Simplified Chinese: 钓鱼城; Traditional Chinese: 釣鱼城;Pingyin: diaoyucheng), be called “oriental Mecca” also be called “the Place Breaking off the Gods Whip”, is one of the three ancient battlefields in China. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ...


Although Mongke died, Kublai continued the assault against the Song, gaining a temporary foothold on the southern banks of the Yangzi.[34] Kublai made preparations to take Ezhou, but a pending civil war with his brother Ariq Böke — a rival claimant to the Mongol Khaganate — forced Kublai to move with the bulk of his forces back north.[35] In Kublai's absence, the Song forces were ordered by Chancellor Jia Sidao to make an opportune assault, and succeeded in pushing the Mongol forces back to the northern banks of the Yangzi.[36] There were minor border skirmishes until 1265, when Kublai won a significant battle in Sichuan.[37] From 1268 to 1273, Kublai blockaded the Yangzi River with his navy and besieged Xiangyang, the last obstacle in his way to invading the rich Yangzi River basin.[37] In 1271, Kublai officially declared the creation of the Yuan Dynasty. In 1275, a Song force of 130,000 troops under Chancellor Jia Sidao was defeated by Kublai's newly-appointed commander-in-chief, the Turkic general Bayan.[38] By 1276, most of the Song Chinese territory had been captured by Yuan forces.[31] In the Battle of Yamen on the Pearl River Delta in 1279 the Yuan army led by the Chinese general Zhang Hongfan finally crushed the Song resistance, and the last remaining ruler, the child emperor Bing, committed suicide along with the official Lu Xiufu.[39] On Kublai's orders carried out by his commander Bayan, the rest of the former imperial family of Song were unharmed; the deposed Emperor Gong was given the title 'Duke of Ying' but was eventually exiled to Tibet where he took up a monastic life.[40] Ezhou (simplified Chinese: é„‚å·ž; pinyin: Èzhōu) is a prefecture-level city in Chinas Hubei province. ... Ariq Boke or Arigh Bukha (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Lü Wenhuan Li Tingzhi Liu Zheng, Ashu, Shi Tianzhe, Guo Kan Strength unknown 100,000+ Cavalry 5,000 ships 100+ trebuchet 20+ counterweight trebuchet Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Xiangyang (襄陽之戰) was a six-year battle between invading Mongol armies and Southern Song Chinese... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... Map of Pearl River Delta (details) The Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) in China occupies the low-lying areas alongside the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl river flows into the South China Sea. ... Emperor Bing (Chinese: ) (1271 – March 19, 1279) was the last emperor of Southern Song Dynasty of China who died a boy. ... Emperor Gongdi 宋恭帝(1271-1323), also known as Zhào XiÇŽn ( 趙顯 ), was the 16th Emperor of Song Dynasty. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Society and culture

The White Jasmine Branch, 12th century painting; small paintings in the style of round-albums that captured realistic scenes of nature were widely popular in the Southern Song period.
The White Jasmine Branch, 12th century painting; small paintings in the style of round-albums that captured realistic scenes of nature were widely popular in the Southern Song period.

The Song Dynasty was an era of administrative sophistication and complex social organization. Some of the largest cities in the world were found in China during this period (Kaifeng and Hangzhou had boasted populations of over a million).[3][41] People enjoyed various social clubs and entertainments in the cities, and there were numerous schools and temples to provide the public with education and religious services.[3] The Song government supported multiple forms of social welfare programs, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, and pauper's graveyards.[3] The Song Dynasty supported a widespread postal service that was modeled on the earlier Han Dynasty postal system to provide swift communication throughout the empire.[42] The central government employed thousands of postal workers of various ranks and responsibilities to provide service for post offices and larger postal stations.[43] In rural areas, farming peasants either owned their own plots of land, paid rents as tenant farmers, or were serfs on large estates.[44] Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed stoneware in the Longquan celadon style; from Zhejiang province, Northern Song dynasty, 10th or 11th century AD. The Song Dynasty (960–1279) of China was an era of Chinese history renowned for its sophistication, complex infrastructure, and a wide array of cultural achievements. ... A Song Dynasty Chinese inkstone with gold and silver markings, from the Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1961 pixel, file size: 271 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1961 pixel, file size: 271 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ... A retirement home is a place of residence intended for the elderly. ... A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... A postal authority organises collection and delivery of domestic mail (US), or post (UK), within its area of control, or in the case of foreign mail, delivery to or receipt of mail from other postal authorities. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... A tenant farmer is one who resides on and farms land owned by a landlord. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ...


Although women were on a lower social tier than men (according to Confucian ethics), they enjoyed many social and legal privileges and wielded considerable power at home and in their own small businesses. As Song society became more and more prosperous and parents on the bride's side of the family provided larger dowries for her marriage, women naturally gained many new legal rights in ownership of property.[45] They were also equal in status to men in inheriting family property.[46][47] There were many notable and well-educated women and it was a common practice for women to educate their sons during their earliest youth.[47][48] The mother of the scientist, general, diplomat, and statesman Shen Kuo taught him essentials of military strategy.[48] There were also exceptional women writers and poets such as Li Qingzhao (1084–1151), who became famous even in her lifetime.[45] A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Li Qingzhao (Traditional Chinese: 李清照; Simplified Chinese: 李清照, pinyin: Lǐ QÄ«ngzhào; Wade-Giles: Li Ching-chao) (1084 - ca. ...

Calligraphy of Huang Tingjian (1045–1105), a renowned calligrapher and associate of Su Shi
Calligraphy of Huang Tingjian (1045–1105), a renowned calligrapher and associate of Su Shi

Religion in China during this period had a great effect on people's lives, beliefs and daily activities, and Chinese literature on spirituality was popular.[49] The major deities of Daoism and Buddhism, ancestral spirits and the many deities of Chinese folk religion were worshiped with sacrificial offerings. With many ethnic foreigners traveling to China to conduct trade or live permanently, there came many foreign religions; religious minorities in China included Middle Eastern Muslims, the Kaifeng Jews, and Persian Manichaeans.[50][51] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Huang Tingjian (黄庭堅) (1045-1105), a chinese painter and calligrapher, was one of the Four masters of the Song Dynasty. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... The change in dynasty in China from the Tang to the dynasties that included the Song Dynasty did not greatly interrupt the trends of Muslims established during the Tang. ... The Kaifeng Jews comprise the best documented Jewish community in China. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...


The populace engaged in a vibrant social and domestic life, enjoying such public festivals as the Lantern Festival or the Qingming Festival. The were entertainment quarters in the cities provided a constant array of amusements. There were puppeteers, acrobats, theater actors, sword swallowers, snake charmers, storytellers, singers and musicians, prostitutes, and places to relax including tea houses, restaurants, and organized banquets.[3][52][53] People attended social clubs in large numbers; there were tea clubs, exotic food clubs, antiquarian and art collectors' clubs, horse-loving clubs, poetry clubs and music clubs.[3] Like regional cooking and cuisines in the Song, the era was known for its regional varieties of performing arts styles as well.[54] Theatrical drama was very popular amongst the elite and general populace, although Classical Chinese—not the vernacular language—was spoken by actors on stage.[55][56] The four largest drama theatres in Kaifeng could hold audiences of several thousand each.[57] There were also notable domestic pastimes, as people at home enjoyed activities such as the go board game and the xiangqi board game. For the festival associated with mooncakes sometimes called Lantern Festival, see Mid-Autumn Festival. ... Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... Chinese folktales have a long history, going back several thousand years. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... ... Chinese chess redirects here. ...


Civil service examinations and the gentry

Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese painting of the 11th century
Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese painting of the 11th century

During this period greater emphasis was laid upon the civil service system of recruiting officials; this was based upon degrees acquired through competitive examinations, in an effort to select the most capable individuals for governance. Selecting men for office through proven merit was an ancient idea in China. The civil service system became institutionalized on a small scale during the Sui and Tang dynasties, but by the Song period it became virtually the only means for drafting officials into the government.[58] The advent of widespread printing helped to widely circulate Confucian teachings and to educate more and more eligible candidates for the exams.[59] This can be seen in the number of exam takers for the low-level prefectural exams rising from 30,000 annual candidates in the early 11th century to 400,000 candidates by the late 13th century.[59] The civil service and examination system allowed for greater meritocracy, social mobility, and equality in competition for those wishing to attain an official seat in government.[60] By using Song state-gathered statistics, Edward A. Kracke, Sudō Yoshiyuki, and Ho Ping-ti supported the hypothesis that simply because one had a father, grandfather, or great-grandfather who had served as an official of state, it did not guarantee that one would obtain the same level of authority.[60][61][62] Robert Hartwell and Robert P. Hymes criticized this model, stating that it places too much emphasis on the role of the nuclear family and demonstrates only three paternal ascendants of exam candidates while ignoring the demographic reality of Song China, the significant proportion of males in each generation that had no surviving sons, and the role of the extended family.[61][62] Many felt disenfranchised by what they saw as a bureaucratic system that favored the land-holding class able to afford the best education.[60] One of the greatest literary critics of this was the official and famous poet Su Shi. Yet Su was a product of his times, as the identity, habits, and attitudes of the scholar-official had become less aristocratic and more bureaucratic with the transition of the periods from Tang to Song.[63] Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed stoneware in the Longquan celadon style; from Zhejiang province, Northern Song dynasty, 10th or 11th century AD. The Song Dynasty (960–1279) of China was an era of Chinese history renowned for its sophistication, complex infrastructure, and a wide array of cultural achievements. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 364 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 2070 pixel, file size: 262 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 364 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 2070 pixel, file size: 262 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Wall scroll painted by Ma Lin in 1246. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... Xiaolian (Simplified Chinese: 孝廉, literally Filially Pious and Incorrupt), was a standard of nominating civil officers started by Emperor Wu of Han in 134 BC. It lasted until its replacement by the imperial examination system during the Sui Dynasty. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Print. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... Extended family (or joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ...

Longquan celadon wares from Zhejiang, 13th century
Longquan celadon wares from Zhejiang, 13th century

Due to China's enormous population growth and the body of its appointed scholar-officials being accepted in limited size (about 20,000 active officials during the Song period), the larger scholarly gentry class would now take over grassroots affairs on the vast local level.[64] Excluding the scholar-officials in office, this elite social class consisted of exam candidates, examination degree-holders not yet assigned to an official post, local tutors, and retired officials.[65] These learned men, degree-holders, and local elites supervised local affairs and sponsored necessary facilities of local communities; any local magistrate appointed to his office by the government relied upon the cooperation of the few or many local gentry elites in the area.[64] For example, the Song government—excluding the educational-reformist government under Emperor Huizong—spared little amount of state revenue to maintain prefectural and county schools; instead, the bulk of the funds for schools was drawn from private financing.[66] This limited role of government officials was a departure from the earlier Tang Dynasty (618–907), when the government strictly regulated commercial markets and local affairs; now the government withdrew heavily from regulating commerce and relied upon a mass of local gentry to perform necessary duties in local communities.[64] Longquan celadon (龙泉青瓷) is a variety of celadon pottery produced in Longquan city, Zhejiang province, China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... In imperial China, gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendents. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ...


The gentry distinguished themselves in society through their intellectual and antiquarian pursuits,[67][68][69] while the homes of prominent landholders attracted a variety of courtiers including artisans, artists, educational tutors, and entertainers.[70] Despite the disdain for trade, commerce, and the merchant class exhibited by the highly cultured and elite exam-drafted scholar-officials, commercialism played a prominent role in Song culture and society.[52] A scholar-official would be frowned upon by his peers if he pursued means of profiteering outside of his official salary; however, this did not stop many scholar-officials from managing business relations through the use of intermediary agents.[71] A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... Commercialism, in its original meaning, is the practices, methods, aims, and spirit of commerce or business. ...


Law, justice, and forensic science

The Broken Balustrade, early 12th century painting
The Broken Balustrade, early 12th century painting

The Song judicial system retained most of the legal code of the earlier Tang Dynasty, the basis of traditional Chinese law up until the modern era.[72] Roving sheriffs maintained law and order in the municipal juridsictions and occasionally ventured into the countryside.[73] Official magistrates overseeing court cases were not only expected to be well-versed in written law but also to promote morality in society.[72] Magistrates such as the famed Bao Qingtian (999–1062) embodied the upright, moral judge who upheld justice and never failed to live up to his principles. Song judges specified the guilty person or party in a criminal act and meted out punishments accordingly, often in the form of caning.[72] In an opposite development of the West, the guilty individual or parties brought to court for a criminal or civil offense were guilty until proven innocent, while even the defendant party was viewed with a high level of suspicion by the judge.[74] Due to this and the immediate jailing of those accused of criminal offenses, people in the Song preferred to settle disputes and quarrels privately, without the court's interference.[74] Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed stoneware in the Longquan celadon style; from Zhejiang province, Northern Song dynasty, 10th or 11th century AD. The Song Dynasty (960–1279) of China was an era of Chinese history renowned for its sophistication, complex infrastructure, and a wide array of cultural achievements. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 738 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1645 pixel, file size: 306 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 738 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1645 pixel, file size: 306 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... Traditional Chinese law refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell. ... Bao Zheng (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (999–1062) was a much-praised judge from Song China. ... This article is about the physical punishment. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Shen Kuo's Dream Pool Essays argued against traditional Chinese beliefs in anatomy (such as his argument for two throat valves instead of three); this perhaps spurred the interest in the performance of post-mortem autopsies in China during the 12th century.[75][76] The physician and judge known as Song Ci (1186–1249) wrote a pioneering work of forensic science on the examination of corpses in order to determine cause of death (strangulation, poisoning, drowning, blows, etc.) and to prove whether death resulted from murder, suicide, or accidental death.[77] Song Ci stressed the importance of proper coroner's conduct during autopsies and the accurate recording of the inquest of each autopsy by official clerks.[78][79] Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031-1095 AD) The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Chi Pi Tan Chinese: 梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the polymath Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... Song Ci (1186 - 1249), a forensic medical expert in the Song Dynasty wrote a book titled Xi Yuan Ji Lu ( Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified through Forensic Science). ... Forensics redirects here. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... For the thrash metal band, see Coroner (band). ... An inquest is a formal process of state investigation. ...


Military and methods of warfare

A Song Dynasty naval ship with a traction trebuchet catapult, from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044.
A Song Dynasty naval ship with a traction trebuchet catapult, from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044.

Although the scholar-officials viewed military soldiers as lower members in the hierarchic social order,[80] a person could gain status and prestige in society by becoming a high ranking military officer with a record of victorious battles.[81] At its height, the Song military had one million soldiers[16] divided into platoons of 50 troops, companies made of two platoons, and one battalion composed of 500 soldiers.[82][83] Crossbowmen were separated from the regular infantry and placed in their own units as they were prized combatants, providing effective missile fire against cavalry charges.[83] The government was eager to sponsor new crossbow designs that could shoot at longer ranges, while crossbowmen were also valuable when employed as long-range snipers.[84] Song cavalry employed a slew of different weapons, including halberds, swords, bows, spears, and 'fire lances' that discharged a gunpowder blast of flame and shrapnel.[85] Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed stoneware in the Longquan celadon style; from Zhejiang province, Northern Song dynasty, 10th or 11th century AD. The Song Dynasty (960–1279) of China was an era of Chinese history renowned for its sophistication, complex infrastructure, and a wide array of cultural achievements. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... ... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... This article is about the weapon. ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... The fire lance (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: huǒ qiāng) or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ...


Military strategy and military training were treated as science that could be studied and perfected; soldiers were tested in their skills of using weaponry and in their athletic ability.[86] The troops were trained to follow signal standards to advance at the waving of banners and to halt at the sound of bells and drums.[83]


The Song navy was of great importance during the consolidation of the empire in the 10th century; during the war against the Southern Tang state the Song navy employed tactics such as defending large floating pontoon bridges across the Yangzi River in order to secure movements of troops and supplies.[87] There were large naval ships in the Song that could carry 1,000 soldiers aboard their decks,[88] while the swift-moving paddle-wheel crafts were viewed as essential fighting ships in any successful naval battle.[88] Southern Tang (also refered to as Nantang) was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-976. ... Pontoon bridge across the James River at Richmond, Virginia, 1865. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ...


In a battle on January 23, 971, a mass of arrow fire from Song Dynasty crossbowmen decimated the war elephant corps of the Southern Han army.[89] This defeat not only marked the eventual submission of the Southern Han to the Song Dynasty, but also the last instance where a war elephant corps was employed as a regular division within a Chinese army.[89] is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births Deaths Culen of Scotland Categories: 971 ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Southern Han (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a kingdom that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907-960) along China’s southern coast from 917 to 971. ...


There was a total of 347 military treatises written during the Song period, as listed by the history text of the Song Shi (compiled in 1345).[90] However, only a handful of these military treatises have survived, which includes the Wujing Zongyao written in 1044. It was the first known book to have listed formulas for gunpowder;[91] it gave appropriate formulas for use in several different kinds of gunpowder bombs.[92] It also provided detailed description and illustrations of double-piston pump flamethrowers, as well as instructions for the maintenance and repair of the components and equipment used in the device.[93] A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ...


Arts, literature, and philosophy

A wooden Bodhisattva statue from the Song Dynasty (960–1279)
A wooden Bodhisattva statue from the Song Dynasty (960–1279)

The visual arts during the Song Dynasty were heightened by new developments such as advances in landscape and portrait painting. An aristocratic elite engaged in the arts as accepted pastimes of the cultured scholar-official, including painting, composing poetry, and writing calligraphy.[94] The poet and statesman Su Shi and his associate Mi Fu (1051–1107) enjoyed antiquarian affairs, often borrowing or buying art pieces to study and copy.[15] Poetry and literature profited from the rising popularity and development of the ci poetry form. Enormous encyclopedic volumes were compiled, such as works of historiography and dozens of treatises on technical subjects. This included the universal history text of the Zizhi Tongjian, compiled into 1000 volumes of 9.4 million written Chinese characters. The genre of Chinese travel literature also became popular with the writings of the geographer Fan Chengda (1126–1193) and Su Shi, the latter of whom wrote the 'daytrip essay' known as Record of Stone Bell Mountain that used persuasive writing to argue for a philosophical point.[95] Although an early form of the local geographic gazetteer existed in China since the 1st century, the matured form known as "treatise on a place", or fangzhi, replaced the old "map guide", or tujing, during the Song Dynasty.[96] A Song Dynasty Chinese inkstone with gold and silver markings, from the Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Wall scroll painted by Ma Lin in 1246. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong Hand-painted Chinese New Years duilian (對聯 couplet), a by-product of Chinese poetry, pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, at Lijiang City, Yunnan Poetry is the most highly regarded literary genre in ancient China. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... Mi Fu(1051-1107) was a native of Shanxi who was noted as a Chinese painter, poet, and calligrapher. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... Ci poetry (è©ž, interchangeable with è¾­ pinyin cí) is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... Zizhi Tongjian (traditional Chinese character: 資治通鑑; simplified Chinese character: 资治通鉴; pinyin Zīzhì Tōngjìan, Wade-Giles Tzu-chih tung-chien) is known to be a important Chinese history text of annual chronology. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Travel literature is literature which records the people, events, sights and feelings of an author who is touring a foreign place for the pleasure of travel. ... Fan Chengda (1126-1193) was one of the best-known Chinese poets of the twelfth century. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... Persuasive writing is used to convince the reader of the writer’s argument. ... A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary, an important reference for information about places and place-names (see: toponomy), used in conjunction with an atlas. ...


The imperial courts of the emperor's palace were filled with his entourage of court painters, calligraphers, poets, and storytellers. Emperor Huizong was a renowned artist as well as a patron of the arts. A prime example of a highly venerated court painter was Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145) who painted an enormous panoramic painting, Along the River During the Qingming Festival. Emperor Gaozong of Song initiated a massive art project during his reign, known as the Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute from the life story of Cai Wenji (b. 177). This art project was a diplomatic gesture to the Jin Dynasty while he negotiated for the release of his mother from Jurchen captivity in the north.[97] Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication and art but ending in tragedy. ... Zhang Zeduan (Traditional: 張擇端; Simplified: 张择端; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Tse-tuan) was a Chinese painter. ... Scheveningen village, a small section of the Panorama Mesdag (1880-1881), with fake terrain in the foreground. ... Emperor Gaozong (June 12, 1107 – November 9, 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. ... Hu-Jia Eighteen Time poem Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute (Hujia Shiba Pai 胡笳十八拍) are songs and poems accompaned with 18 scenes painting on a handscroll, commissioned by the Chinese Emperor Gaozong of Song 高宗 (1107-1287). ... Cài Wénjī (蔡文姬) (177 – 250) was a Han dynasty poet and composer. ...

Portrait of the Zen Buddhist monk Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238.
Portrait of the Zen Buddhist monk Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238.

In philosophy, Chinese Buddhism had waned in influence but it retained its hold on the arts and on the charities of monasteries. Buddhism had a profound influence upon the budding movement of Neo-Confucianism, led by Cheng Yi (1033–1107) and Zhu Xi (1130–1200).[98] Mahayana Buddhism influenced Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi through its concept of ethical universalism,[99] while Buddhist metaphysics had a deep impact upon the pre–Neo-Confucian doctrine of Cheng Yi.[98] The philosophical work of Cheng Yi in turn influenced Zhu Xi. Although his writings were not accepted by his contemporary peers, Zhu's commentary and emphasis upon the Confucian classics of the Four Books as an introductory corpus to Confucian learning formed the basis of the Neo-Confucian doctrine. By the year 1241, under the sponsorship of Emperor Lizong, Zhu Xi's Four Books and his commentary on them became standard requirements of study for students attempting to pass the civil service examinations.[100] The East Asian countries of Japan and Korea also adopted Zhu Xi's teaching, known as the Shushigaku (朱子学, School of Zhu Xi) of Japan, and in Korea the Jujahak (주자학). Buddhism's continuing influence can be seen in painted artwork such as Lin Tinggui's Luohan Laundering. However, the ideology was highly criticized and even scorned by some. The statesman and historian Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072) called the religion a "curse" that could only be remedied by uprooting it from Chinese culture and replacing it with Confucian discourse.[101] Buddhism would not see a true revival in Chinese society until the Mongol rule of the Yuan Dynasty, with Kublai Khan's sponsorship of Tibetan Buddhism and Drogön Chögyal Phagpa as the leading lama. The Christian sect of Nestorianism — which had entered China in the Tang era — would also be revived in China under Mongol rule.[102] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1937, 272 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Chan-Meisters Wu-chun Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Kyoto Current location (gallery): de: Tofukuji Other notes: de: Detail... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1937, 272 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Chan-Meisters Wu-chun Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Kyoto Current location (gallery): de: Tofukuji Other notes: de: Detail... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Zen master Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238 AD, Song Dynasty. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... Cheng Yi (Wade-Giles: Cheng I; also known as Cheng Yichuan [Cheng I-chuan]; courtesy name: Zhengshu; 1033-1107) was a philosopher in China who worked with his older brother Cheng Hao. ... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province, China – died April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... The Four Books of Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (not to be confused with the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature), are Chinese classic texts that Zhu Xi selected, in the Song dynasty, as an introduction to Confucianism: the Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean, the Analects of Confucius... Emperor Lizong 理宗 (1205 - 1264) was the 14th emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the fifth emperor of the Southern Song. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Lin Tinggui, Luohan Laundering, 1178 AD, hanging scroll mounted on panel, ink and color on silk, 200. ... A Chinese Luohan statue from the Liao Dynasty in Hebei Province, China In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) signified a spiritual practitioner who had—to use an expression common in the tipitaka—laid down the burden... Ouyang Xiu (Ou-Yang Hsiu) (歐陽修; 欧阳修 style name: Yongshu 永叔; also known as Zuiweng 醉翁 and Liuyi Jushi 六一居士) (Wade-Giles: Ouyang Hsiu) (1007 - 1072) was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan regions, which include northern Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim), Mongolia, Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia and Tuva) and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (Tibetan: འགྲོ་མགོན་ཆོས་རྒྱལ་འཕགས་པ་; Wylie: Gro mgon Chos rgyal Phags pa; also written Dongon Choegyal Phakpa, Dromtön Chögyal Pagpa, etc. ... Not to be confused with Llama. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ...


Cuisine and apparel

A painting of Emperor Renzong of Song, showing the long robes and the official black-colored silken headgear worn by the emperor.
A painting of Emperor Renzong of Song, showing the long robes and the official black-colored silken headgear worn by the emperor.

The food that one consumed and the clothes that one wore in Song China were largely dictated by one's status and social class. The main food staples in the diet of the lower classes remained rice, pork, and salted fish;[103] their clothing materials were made of hempen or cotton cloths, restricted to a color standard of black and white.[104][105] Pant trousers were the acceptable form of attire for farming peasants, soldiers, artisans, and merchants, although wealthy merchants chose to flaunt more ornate clothing and male blouses that came down below the waist.[105] Acceptable apparel for scholar-officials was rigidly confined to a social hierarchic ranking system. However, as time went on this rule of rank-graded apparel for officials was not as strictly enforced as it was in the beginning of the dynasty.[104] Each official was able to flaunt his awarded status by wearing different-colored traditional silken robes that hung to the ground around his feet, specific types of headgear, and even specific styles of girdles that displayed his graded-rank of officialdom.[106] A Song Dynasty Chinese inkstone with gold and silver markings, from the Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... A blouse A blouse most commonly refers to a womans shirt, although the term is also used for some mens military uniform shirts. ... The emperor Tang Gaozu in his yuanlingshan and putou hat Han Chinese clothing or Hanfu (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: hànfú; Wade-Giles: han4fu2), also known as Hanzhuang (漢裝) or Huafu (華服) (the layperson almost always use the term guzhuang (古裝) which means ancient clothing) refers to the historical clothing of... Youths boxing in a Minoan fresco on the Greek island of Santorini The word girdle originally meant a belt (or metaphorically speaking, something which confines or encloses, as in Tolkiens Girdle of Melian). ...


Women in the Song period wore long dresses, blouses that came down to the knee, skirts and jackets with long or short sleeves, while women from wealthy families could wear purple scarves around their shoulders.[107] The main difference in women's apparel from that of men was that it was fastened on the left, not on the right.[107] This article is about the article of clothing. ...


There is a multitude of existing restaurant and tavern menus and listed entrées for feasts, banquets, festivals, and carnivals during the Song period,[108] all of which reveal a very diverse and lavish diet for those of the upper class. In their meals they could choose from a wide variety of meats, including shrimp, geese, duck, mussel, shellfish, fallow deer, hare, partridge, pheasant, francolin, quail, fox, badger, clam, crab, and many others.[109][110][111][112] Dairy products were absent from Chinese cuisine and culture altogether, beef was rarely consumed since the bull was a valuable draft animal, and dog meat was absent from the diet of the wealthy, although the poor could choose to eat dog meat if necessary (yet it was not part of their regular diet).[113] People also consumed dates, raisins, jujubes, pears, plums, apricots, pear juice, lychee-fruit juice, honey and ginger drinks, pawpaw juice, spices and seasonings of Sichuan pepper, ginger, pimento, soy sauce, oil, sesame oil, salt, and vinegar.[108][114][115][111][116] The common diet of the poor was pork, salted fish, and rice.[103] For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In a restaurant, a menu is the list of options for a diner to select. ... For the university exchange programme ENTREE, see European Network for Training and Research in Electrical Engineering. ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Binomial name Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Partridge (disambiguation). ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... Species 41, see text The francolins are the species of bird in the genus Francolinus of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. ... This article is about the bird. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name (L.) H. Karst. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Sonn. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Species See text Pawpaw (Asimina) is a genus of eight or nine species of small trees with large leaves and fruit, native to eastern North America. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Pimento is sometimes a synonym for Allspice. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... “Vegetable oil” redirects here. ... Chinese Sesame Oil White sesame seeds Sesame oil (also known as gingelly oil or til oil) is an organic oil derived from sesame seedss, noted to have the distinctive aroma and taste of its parent seed. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ...


Economy, industry, and trade

Chinese boats from Zhang Zeduan's (1085–1145) painting Along the River During Qingming Festival; Chinese ships of the Song period featured hulls with watertight compartments.
Chinese boats from Zhang Zeduan's (1085–1145) painting Along the River During Qingming Festival; Chinese ships of the Song period featured hulls with watertight compartments.

The economy of the Song Dynasty was one of the most prosperous and advanced economies in the medieval world. Song Chinese invested their funds in joint stock companies and in multiple sailing vessels at a time when monetary gain was assured from the vigorous overseas trade and indigenous trade along the Grand Canal and Yangzi River.[117] Prominent merchant families and private businesses were allowed to occupy industries that were not already government-operated monopolies.[16][118] Both private and government-controlled industries met the needs of a growing Chinese population in the Song.[16][118] Both artisans and merchants formed guilds which the state had to deal with when assessing taxes, requisitioning goods, and setting standard worker's wages and prices on goods.[117] Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... Zhang Zeduan (Traditional: 張擇端; Simplified: 张择端; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Tse-tuan) was a Chinese painter. ... Panorama of Along the River During Qingming Festival, an 18th century remake of the 12th century original Along the River During Qingming Festival (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is generally attributed to the Song Dynasty artist, Zhang Zeduan (1085-1145). ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship. ... A joint stock company (JSC) is a type of business partnership in which the capital is formed by the individual contributions of a group of shareholders. ... Grand Canal of China in Suzhou The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... This article is about the economic term. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ...


The iron industry was pursued by both private entrepreneurs who owned their own smelters as well as government-supervised smelting facilities.[119][120] The Song economy was stable enough to produce over a hundred million kg (over two hundred million lb) of iron product a year.[121] Large scale deforestation in China would have continued if not for the 11th century innovation of the use of coal instead of charcoal in blast furnaces for smelting cast iron.[121] Much of this iron was reserved for military use in crafting weapons and armoring troops, but some was used to fashion the many iron products needed to fill the demands of the growing indigenous market. The iron trade within China was furthered by the building of new canals which aided the flow of iron products from production centers to the large market found in the capital city.[122] The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory, most likely with the use of iron from meteors. ... For the computer game by Peter Molyneux, see The Entrepreneur. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...


The annual output of minted copper currency in 1085 alone reached roughly six billion coins.[1] The most notable advancement in the Song economy was the establishment of the world's first government issued paper-printed money, known as Jiaozi (see also Huizi).[1] For the printing of paper money alone, the Song court established several government-run factories in the cities of Huizhou, Chengdu, Hangzhou, and Anqi.[123] The size of the workforce employed in paper money factories was large; it was recorded in 1175 that the factory at Hangzhou employed more than a thousand workers a day.[123] For other uses, see Jiaozi (disambiguation). ... It is the official banknote of Song Dynasty issued in 1160. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... Huizhou (Simplified Chinese: 惠州; Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with Chengde. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ...

Left item: A Northern Song qingbai-ware vase with a transparent blue-toned ceramic glaze, from Jingdezhen, 11th century; Center item: A Northern or Southern Song qingbai-ware bowl with incised lotus decorations, a metal rim, and a transparent blue-toned glaze, from Jingdezhen, 12th or 13th century; Right item: A Southern Song miniature model of a storage granary with removable top lid and doorway, qingbai porcelain with transparent blue-toned glaze, Jingdezhen, 13th century.
Left item: A Northern Song qingbai-ware vase with a transparent blue-toned ceramic glaze, from Jingdezhen, 11th century; Center item: A Northern or Southern Song qingbai-ware bowl with incised lotus decorations, a metal rim, and a transparent blue-toned glaze, from Jingdezhen, 12th or 13th century; Right item: A Southern Song miniature model of a storage granary with removable top lid and doorway, qingbai porcelain with transparent blue-toned glaze, Jingdezhen, 13th century.

The economic power of Song China heavily influenced foreign economies abroad. The Moroccan geographer al-Idrisi wrote in 1154 of the prowess of Chinese merchant ships in the Indian Ocean and of their annual voyages that brought iron, swords, silk, velvet, porcelain, and various textiles to places such as Aden (Yemen), the Indus River, and the Euphrates in modern-day Iraq.[124] Foreigners, in turn, had an impact on the Chinese economy. For example, many West Asian and Central Asian Muslims went to China to trade, becoming a preeminent force in the import and export industry, while some were even appointed as officers supervising economic affairs.[125][126] Sea trade with the Southeast Pacific, the Hindu world, the Islamic world, and the East African world brought merchants great fortune and spurred an enormous growth in the shipbuilding industry of Song-era Fujian province.[127] However, there was risk involved in such long overseas ventures. To reduce the risk of losing money on maritime trade missions abroad, the historians Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais write: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 731 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1674 × 1374 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 731 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1674 × 1374 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Position of Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Jingdezhen (Simplified Chinese: 景德镇; Traditional Chinese: 景德鎮; Pinyin: ), or the Town of Jingde, is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in Jiangxi Province, China, with a city population of 3,112,000 (estimate 2006) has been termed the Porcelain Capital (瓷都) because of its production of quality... Binomial name Gaertn. ... A scale model of the Tower of London. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... Al_Idrisis world map from 1154. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

[Song era] investors usually divided their investment among many ships, and each ship had many investors behind it. One observer thought eagerness to invest in overseas trade was leading to an outflow of copper cash. He wrote, 'People along the coast are on intimate terms with the merchants who engage in overseas trade, either because they are fellow-countrymen or personal acquaintances...[They give the merchants] money to take with them on their ships for purchase and return conveyance of foreign goods. They invest from ten to a hundred strings of cash, and regularly make profits of several hundred percent'.[63]

Technology, science, and engineering

An illustration of a trebuchet catapult from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044. Trebuchets like this were used to launch the earliest type of explosive bombs.
An illustration of a trebuchet catapult from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044. Trebuchets like this were used to launch the earliest type of explosive bombs.[128]

Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, in Hangzhou, erected in 1156 and fully constructed in 1165 AD. The architecture of the Song Dynasty was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ...

Gunpowder warfare

Further information: History of gunpowder

Advancements in weapons technology enhanced by Greek fire and gunpowder, including the evolution of the early flamethrower, explosive grenade, firearm, cannon, and land mine, enabled the Song Chinese to ward off their militant enemies until the Song's ultimate collapse in the late 13th century.[129][130][131][132][133] The Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044 was the first book in history to provide formulas for gunpowder and their specified use in different types of bombs.[134] While engaged in a war with the Mongols, in the year 1259 the official Li Zengbo wrote in his Kozhai Zagao, Xugaohou that the city of Qingzhou was manufacturing one to two thousand strong iron-cased bomb shells a month, dispatching to Xiangyang and Yingzhou about ten to twenty thousand such bombs at a time.[135] In turn, the invading Mongols employed northern Chinese soldiers and used these same type of gunpowder weapons against the Song Chinese.[136] By the 14th century the firearm and cannon could also be found in Europe, India, and the Islamic Middle East, during the early age of gunpowder warfare. Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Chinese Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD. Gunpowder was the first and only known chemical explosive until the invention of others—nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, smokeless powder and TNT—in the 19th century. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Firearms redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Qingzhou (青州) is the ancient capital of Shandong province, China. ... Xiangyang (Traditional Chinese: 襄陽, Simplified Chinese: 襄阳, pinyin: Xiāngyáng) was a Chinese city famous for the Siege of Xiangyang (1267-1273) by Mongol invaders. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ...


Measuring distance and mechanical navigation

As early as the Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220), when the state needed to effectively measure distances traveled throughout the empire, the Chinese relied on the mechanical odometer device.[137] The Chinese odometer came in the form of a wheeled-carriage, its inner gears functioning off the rotated motion of the wheels, and specific units of distance — the Chinese li — marked by the mechanical striking of a drum or bell for auditory alarm.[138] The specifications for the 11th century odometer was written by Chief Chamberlain Lu Daolong, who is quoted extensively in the historical text of the Song Shi (compiled by 1345).[139] In the Song period, the odometer vehicle was also combined with another old complex mechanical device known as the South Pointing Chariot.[140] This device, originally crafted by Ma Jun in the 3rd century, incorporated a differential gear that allowed a figure mounted on the vehicle to always point in the southern direction, no matter how the vehicle's wheels' turned about.[141] The device concept of the differential gear for this navigational vehicle is now found in all modern automobiles in order to apply the equal amount of torque to wheels rotating at different speeds. Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... The li (里 lǐ) is a Chinese unit of distance, until recently usually considered to be about 576 metres, but is now standardised at a half a kilometre or 500 metres (547 yards). ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) The South Pointing Chariot (Zhi Nan Che 指南車) is widely regarded as the most complex geared mechanism of the ancient Chinese civilization, and was continually used throughout the medieval period as well. ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Ma Jun (馬鈞, Wade-Giles: Ma Chün; 200 - 265), styled Deheng (徳衡), was a Chinese mechanical engineer and government official during the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, that allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... Car redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ...


Polymaths, inventions, and astronomy

Further information: Chinese astronomy and List of Chinese inventions
An interior diagram of the astronomical clocktower of Kaifeng featured in Su Song's book, written by 1092 and published in printed form by the year 1094.
An interior diagram of the astronomical clocktower of Kaifeng featured in Su Song's book, written by 1092 and published in printed form by the year 1094.

Polymath figures such as the statesmen Shen Kuo and Su Song (1020–1101) embodied advancements in all fields of study, including biology, botany, zoology, geology, minerology, mechanics, horology, astronomy, pharmaceutical medicine, archeology, mathematics, cartography, optics, art criticism, and more.[142][143][68] The Dunhuang map from the Tang Dynasty (North Polar region). ... . ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1366 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1366 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... A clock tower is a tower built with a large clock face on one or more (often all four) of its sides so as to be visible to a large number of inhabitants of an area. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Horology is the study of the science and art of timekeeping devices. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max. ...


Shen Kuo was the first to discern magnetic declination of true north while experimenting with a compass.[144][145] Shen theorized that geographical climates gradually shifted over time.[146][147] He created a theory of land formation involving concepts accepted in modern geomorphology.[148] He performed optical experiments with camera obscura just decades after Ibn al-Haytham was the first to do so.[149] He also improved the designs of astronomical instruments such as the widened astronomical sighting tube, which allowed Shen Kuo to fix the position of the pole star (which had shifted over centuries of time).[150] Shen Kuo was also known for hydraulic clockworks, as he invented a new overflow-tank clepsydra which had more efficient higher-order interpolation instead of linear interpolation in calibrating the measure of time.[150] Magnetic declination. ... True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031-1095 AD) The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Chi Pi Tan Chinese: 梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the polymath Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China. ... For other uses of the words Pole star and Polestar see Polestar (disambiguation). ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... For other uses, see Interpolation (disambiguation). ...


Su Song was best known for his horology treatise written in 1092, which described and illustrated in great detail his hydraulic-powered, 12 m (40 ft) tall astronomical clock tower built in Kaifeng. The clock tower featured large astronomical instruments of the armillary sphere and celestial globe, both driven by an escapement mechanism (roughly two centuries before the verge escapement could be found in clockworks of Europe).[151][152] In addition, Su Song's clock tower featured the world's first endless power-transmitting chain drive,[153] an essential mechanical device found in many practical uses throughout the ages, such as the bicycle. Su's tower featured a rotating gear wheel with 133 clock jack manikins who were timed to rotate past shuttered windows while ringing gongs and bells, banging drums, and presenting announcement plaques.[154] In his printed book, Su published a celestial atlas of five star charts. These star charts feature a cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection, the latter being a cartographic innovation of Gerardus Mercator in 1569.[155][156] Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... Clocktower at Geelong Grammar School, Victoria, Australia A clock tower is a tower built with one or more (often four) clock faces. ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by the ancient Greek Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking... Chinese history, astronomers have created celestial globes to assist the observation of the stars. ... A simple escapement. ... This article is about the clock escapement mechanism. ... For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ... Roller chain and sprocket Mack AC delivery truck at the Petersen Automotive Museum with chain drive visible Chain drive was a popular power transmission system from the earliest days of the automobile. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... A pair of mannequins A mannequin (alternately, manikin, mannikin, manakin, dummy, or form) is a life-size, articulated doll mainly used to display clothing. ... Big Ben, the tower clock of the Palace of Westminster in London, is a famous striking clock. ... A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit. ... Mercator world map Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigatium Emendate (1569) The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator, in 1569. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ...


Although the endeavors of the polymaths Shen and Su represent perhaps the highest achievements in technology and science during the Song period, there were many other significant technical writers and inventions. For example, Qin Guan's book published in 1090, the Can Shu (Book of Sericulture), described a silk-reeling machine that employed the first known use of a mechanical belt drive.[157] Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... v-belt flat belt A Belt is a looped strip of flexible material, used to mechanically link two or more rotating shafts. ...


Mathematics and cartography

Further information: Chinese mathematics and Chinese geography
The Yu Ji Tu, or Map of the Tracks of Yu Gong, carved into stone in 1137, located in the Stele Forest of Xi'an. This 3 ft (0.91 m) squared map features a graduated scale of 100 li for each rectangular grid. China's coastline and river systems are clearly defined and precisely pinpointed on the map. Yu Gong is in reference to the Chinese deity described in the geographical chapter of the Classic of History, dated 5th century BCE.
The Yu Ji Tu, or Map of the Tracks of Yu Gong, carved into stone in 1137, located in the Stele Forest of Xi'an. This 3 ft (0.91 m) squared map features a graduated scale of 100 li for each rectangular grid. China's coastline and river systems are clearly defined and precisely pinpointed on the map. Yu Gong is in reference to the Chinese deity described in the geographical chapter of the Classic of History, dated 5th century BCE.

There were many notable improvements to Chinese mathematics during the Song era. The book published in 1261 by the mathematician Yang Hui (c. 1238–1298) provided the earliest Chinese illustration of Pascal's triangle, although it was described earlier around 1100 by Jia Xian.[158] Yang Hui also provided rules for constructing combinatorial arrangements in magic squares, provided theoretical proof for Euclid's forty-third proposition about parallelograms, and was the first to use negative coefficients of 'x' in quadratic equations.[159][160][161] Yang's contemporary Qin Jiushao (c. 1202–1261) was the first to introduce the zero symbol into Chinese mathematics;[162] before this blank spaces were used instead of zeros in the system of counting rods.[163] He is also known for working with Chinese remainder theorem, Heron's formula, and astronomical data used in determining the winter solstice. Knowledge of Chinese mathematics before 100 BC is somewhat fragmentary, and even after this date the manuscript traditions are obscure. ... The Zheng He map, produced in 1763. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 593 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (834 × 843 pixels, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 593 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (834 × 843 pixels, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Stele Forest (碑林; pinyin: Bēilín), aka Xian Stele Forest Museum or Xian Beilin Museum, is a museum for steles and stone sculptures which is located in Xian, China. ... Xian redirects here. ... The li (里 lǐ) is a Chinese unit of distance, until recently usually considered to be about 576 metres, but is now standardised at a half a kilometre or 500 metres (547 yards). ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... This article explores the history of geography. ... The Classic of History (書經/书经 Shū Jīng) is a collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. ... Knowledge of Chinese mathematics before 100 BC is somewhat fragmentary, and even after this date the manuscript traditions are obscure. ... Yang Hui (楊輝, c. ... The first five rows of Pascals triangle In mathematics, Pascals triangle is a geometric arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. ... In recreational mathematics, a magic square of order n is an arrangement of n² numbers, usually distinct integers, in a square, such that the n numbers in all rows, all columns, and both diagonals sum to the same constant. ... For other uses, see Euclid (disambiguation). ... A parallelogram. ... In mathematics, a quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of the second degree. ... Ch’in Chiu-Shao (秦九韶 or 秦九劭, transcribed Qin Jiushao in pinyin) (ca. ... Zero redirects here. ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... Several related results in number theory and abstract algebra are known under the name Chinese remainder theorem. ... A triangle with sides a, b, and c. ... This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ...


Geometry and surveying were essential mathematics in the realm cartography and precision map-making. The earliest extant Chinese maps date to the 4th century BCE,[164] yet it was not until the time of Pei Xiu (224–271) that topographical elevation, a formal rectangular grid system, and use of a standard graduated scale of distances was applied to terrain maps.[165][166] In the Song period, Shen Kuo was the first to create a raised-relief map, while his other maps featured a uniform graduated scale of 1:900,000.[167] A 3 ft (0.91 m) squared map of 1137 — carved into a stone block — followed a uniform grid scale of 100 li for each gridded square, and accurately mapped the outline of the coasts and river systems of China, extending all the way to India.[168] Furthermore, the world's oldest known terrain map in printed form comes from the edited encyclopedia of Yang Jia in 1155, which displayed western China without the formal grid system that was characteristic of more professionally-made Chinese maps.[169] Although gazetteers had existed since 52 CE during the Han Dynasty and gazetteers accompanied by illustrative maps (Chinese: tujing) since the Sui Dynasty, the illustrated gazetteer became much more common in the Song Dynasty, when the foremost concern was for illustrative gazetteers to serve political, administrative, and military purposes.[170] For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8,000 years - nobody knows exactly, but longer than written words). ... Pei Xiu (裴秀) was a minister of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms Period of China. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Grid references define locations on maps using grid values. ... A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three dimensional representation, usually of terrain. ... A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary, an important reference for information about places and place-names (see: toponomy), used in conjunction with an atlas. ...


Movable type printing

Further information: History of typography in East Asia
One of the star charts from Su Song's Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao published in 1092, featuring cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection and the corrected position of the pole star thanks to Shen Kuo's astronomical observations. Su Song's celestial atlas of 5 star maps is actually the oldest in printed form.
One of the star charts from Su Song's Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao published in 1092, featuring cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection and the corrected position of the pole star thanks to Shen Kuo's astronomical observations.[171][156] Su Song's celestial atlas of 5 star maps is actually the oldest in printed form.[172]

The innovation of movable type printing was made by the artisan Bi Sheng (990–1051), first described by the scientist and statesman Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088.[173][174] The collection of Bi Sheng's original clay-fired typeface was passed on to one of Shen Kuo's nephews, and was carefully preserved.[175][174] Movable type enhanced the already widespread use of woodblock methods of printing thousands of documents and volumes of written literature, consumed eagerly by an increasingly literate public. The advancement of printing had a deep impact on education and the scholar-official class, since more books could be made faster while mass-produced, printed books were cheaper in comparison to laborious handwritten copies.[63][59] The enhancement of widespread printing and print culture in the Song period was thus a direct catalyst in the rise of social mobility and expansion of the educated class of scholar elites, the latter which expanded dramatically in size from the 11th to 13th centuries.[63][176][59] For the article on the development of printing in Europe, see History of western typography. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 576 pixelsFull resolution (984 × 708 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 576 pixelsFull resolution (984 × 708 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... Mercator world map Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigatium Emendate (1569) The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator, in 1569. ... For other uses of the words Pole star and Polestar see Polestar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Print. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... Pì ShÄ“ng (Wade-Giles selling) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1052) was the inventor of the first know movable type printing system. ... Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031-1095 AD) The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Chi Pi Tan Chinese: 梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the polymath Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China. ... “Font” redirects here. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Print culture embodies all forms of printed text and other printed forms of visual communication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ...


The movable type invented by Bi Sheng was ultimately trumped by the use of woodblock printing due to the limitations of the enormous Chinese character writing system, yet movable type printing continued to be used and was improved in later periods. The Yuan Dynasty scholar-official Wang Zhen (fl. 1290–1333) implemented a faster typesetting process, improved Bi's baked-clay movable type character set with a wooden one, and experimented with tin-metal movable type.[177][178][179] The wealthy printing patron Hua Sui (1439–1513) of the Ming Dynasty established China's first metal movable type (using bronze) in 1490.[180] In 1638 the Beijing Gazette switched their printing process from woodblock to movable type printing.[181] Yet it was during the Qing Dynasty that massive printing projects began to employ movable type printing. This includes the printing of sixty six copies of a 5,020 volume long encyclopedia in 1725, the Gujin Tushu Jicheng (Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times), which necessitated the crafting of 250,000 movable type characters cast in bronze.[182] By the 19th century the European style printing press replaced the old Chinese methods of movable type, while traditional woodblock printing in modern East Asia is used sparsely and for aesthetic reasons. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Wáng ZhÄ“n (王禎) (fl. ... Hua Sui (1439-1513 AD) was a Chinese scholar and printer of Wuxi, Jiangsu province during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Peking redirects here. ... A gazette is a newspaper. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Gujin tushu jicheng (古今圖書集成, Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times) is a vast encyclopaedic work written in China during the reigns of Qing emperors Kangxi and Yongzheng, completed in 1725. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


Hydraulic engineering and nautics

A plan and side view of a canal pound lock, a concept pioneered in 984 by the Assistant Commissioner of Transport for Huainan, the engineer Qiao Weiyo.[183]

There were considerable advancements in hydraulic engineering and nautical technology during the Song Dynasty. The 10th century invention of the pound lock for canal systems allowed different water levels to be raised and lowered for separated segments of a canal, which significantly aided the safety of canal traffic and allowed for larger barges to pass through.[184] There was the Song era innovation of watertight bulkhead compartments for ships that allowed possible damage to the hull without sinking.[185][63] If ships were damaged, the Chinese of the 11th century discovered how to employ a drydock to repair boats while suspended out of water.[186] There Song Chinese used crossbeams to brace the ribs of ships in order to strengthen them in a skeletal like structure.[187] Stern-mounted rudders had been mounted on Chinese ships since the 1st century, as evidenced with a preserved Han tomb model of a ship. In the Song period the Chinese devised a way to mechanically raise and lower rudders in order for ships to travel in a wider range of water depths.[187] The Song Chinese arranged the protruding teeth of anchors in a circular pattern instead of in one direction.[187] David Graff and Robin Higham state that this arrangement "[made] them more reliable" for anchoring ships.[187] Arguably the most important nautical innovation of the Song period was the introduction of the magnetic mariner's compass for navigation at sea.[167] The magnetic compass was first written of by Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088, as well as Zhu Yu in his Pingzhou Table Talks published in 1119. Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... Very basic diagram of canal lock gates, made on 5th January 2003 by Nommo File links The following pages link to this file: Canal lock Categories: GFDL images ... Very basic diagram of canal lock gates, made on 5th January 2003 by Nommo File links The following pages link to this file: Canal lock Categories: GFDL images ... A pound lock is type of canal lock which is used almost exclusively today. ... Huainan (Chinese: 淮南; Pinyin: Huáinán) is a prefecture-level city with 1,076,000 inhabitants in central Anhui province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. ... A pound lock is type of canal lock which is used almost exclusively today. ... A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... Zhu Yu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Chu Yü) was an author of the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). ...


Structural engineering and architecture

The 42 m (137 ft) tall, brick and wood Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei, built in 1045.
The 42 m (137 ft) tall, brick and wood Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei, built in 1045.

Architecture during the Song period reached new heights of sophistication. Authors such as Yu Hao and Shen Kuo wrote books outlining the field of architectural layouts, craftsmanship, and structural engineering in the 10th and 11th centuries, respectively. Shen Kuo preserved the written dialogues of Yu Hao when describing technical issues such as slanting struts built into pagoda towers for diagonal wind bracing.[188] Shen Kuo also preserved Yu's specified dimensions and units of measurement for various building types.[189] The architect Li Jie (1065–1110), who published the Yingzao Fashi ('Treatise on Architectural Methods') in 1103, greatly expanded upon the works of Yu Hao and compiled the standard building codes used by the central government agencies and by craftsmen throughout the empire.[190][191] He addressed the standard methods of construction, design, and applications of moats and fortifications, stonework, greater woodwork, lesser woodwork, wood-carving, turning and drilling, sawing, bamboo work, tiling, wall building, painting and decoration, brickwork, glazed tile making, and provided proportions for mortar formulas in masonry.[192][193] In his book, Li provided detailed and vivid illustrations of architectural components and cross-sections of buildings. These illustrations displayed various applications of corbel brackets, cantilever arms, mortise and tenon work of tie beams and cross beams, and diagrams showing the various building types of halls in graded sizes.[194][195][196][197][198] He also outlined the standard units of measurement and standard dimensional measurements of all building components described and illustrated in his book.[191][199] The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, in Hangzhou, erected in 1156 and fully constructed in 1165 AD. The architecture of the Song Dynasty was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 345 KB)Photograph of the Lingxiao Pagoda, Zhengding, Hebei Province, China. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 345 KB)Photograph of the Lingxiao Pagoda, Zhengding, Hebei Province, China. ... The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, a half-brick half-wooden pagoda built in 1045 AD, with little change in renovations since. ... Zhengding (Chinese: 正定; pinyin: ) is a county in Hebei Province approximately 260 kilometers south of Beijing, China. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yu Hao was a late 10th century Chinese architect of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... A strut is a structural component designed to resist longitudinal compression. ... The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, in Hangzhou, erected in 1156 and fully constructed in 1165 AD. The architecture of the Song Dynasty was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. ... Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, Yingzao Fashi The Yingzao Fashi (Chinese:營造法式; Treatise on Architectural Methods or State Building Standards) is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (1065–1110),[1] the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... Elaborately decorated classical-style stone corbels support balconies on a building in Indianapolis. ... A schematic image of two cantilevers. ... Diagram of a Mortise and Tenon Joint Simple and strong, the mortise and tenon joint (also called the mortice and tenon) has been used for millennia by woodworkers around the world to join two pieces of wood, most often at an angle close to 90°. Although there are many variations...

Games in the Jinming Pool, silk painting by Zhang Zerui, depiction of Kaifeng, Northern Song era.
Games in the Jinming Pool, silk painting by Zhang Zerui, depiction of Kaifeng, Northern Song era.

Grandiose building projects were supported by the government, including the erection of towering Buddhist Chinese pagodas and the construction of enormous bridges (wood or stone, trestle or segmental arch bridge). Many of the pagoda towers built during the Song period were erected at heights that exceeded ten stories. Some of the most famous are the Iron Pagoda built in 1049 during the Northern Song and the Liuhe Pagoda built in 1165 during the Southern Song, although there were many others. The tallest is the Liaodi Pagoda of Hebei built in the year 1055, towering 84 m (275 ft) in total height. Some of the bridges reached lengths of 1220 m (4000 ft), with many being wide enough to allow two lanes of cart traffic simultaneously over a waterway or ravine.[200] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Chinese Pagoda is a landmark in Birmingham. ... Steel trestle with plate girder spans A trestle is a bridge that consists of a large number of short spans, supported by splayed vertical elements and is usually for railroad use. ... An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. ... The Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, China, built in 1049 AD during the Song Dynasty. ... Liuhe Pagoda (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Liùhé TÇŽ), literally Six Harmonies Pagoda or Six Harmonies Tower, is multi-storied pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. ... The Liaodi Pagoda, completed in 1055 during the Song Dynasty. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, from Li Jie's building manual Yingzao Fashi, printed in 1103.
Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, from Li Jie's building manual Yingzao Fashi, printed in 1103.

The professions of the architect, craftsman, carpenter, and structural engineer were not seen as professionally equal to that of a Confucian scholar-official as architectural knowledge had been passed down orally for thousands of years in China, from a father craftsman to his son. However, structural engineering and architecture schools were known to have existed during the Song period; one prestigious engineering school was headed by the renowned bridge-builder Cai Xiang (1012–1067) in medieval Fujian province.[201] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (837 × 1087 pixel, file size: 418 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (837 × 1087 pixel, file size: 418 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Brackets in Badami Cave Temples in India A bracket in architecture is a member made of wood, stone, or metal that overhangs a wall with the purpose of carrying or supporting a weight. ... A schematic image of two cantilevers. ... The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, in Hangzhou, erected in 1156 and fully constructed in 1165 AD. The architecture of the Song Dynasty was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. ... Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, Yingzao Fashi The Yingzao Fashi (Chinese:營造法式; Treatise on Architectural Methods or State Building Standards) is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (1065–1110),[1] the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China. ... Cai Xiang (simplified Chinese: 蔡襄) (born in Xianyou, Fujian in 1012, died in Xianyou 1067) is a Chinese calligrapher, scholar, official and poet. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Besides existing buildings and technical literature of building manuals, Song Dynasty artwork portraying cityscapes and other buildings aid modern-day scholars in their attempts to reconstruct and realize the nuances of Song archicture. Song Dynasty artists such as Li Cheng, Fan Kuan, Guo Xi, Zhang Zeduan, Emperor Huizong of Song, Ma Lin, and Zhang Zerui painted close-up depictions of buildings as well as large expanses of cityscapes featuring arched bridges, halls and pavilions, pagoda towers, and distinct Chinese city walls. The scientist and statesman Shen Kuo was known for his criticism of artwork relating to architecture, saying that it was more important for an artist to capture a wholistic view of a landscape than it was to focus on the angles and corners of buildings.[202] For example, Shen criticized the work of the painter Li Cheng for failing to observe the principle of "seeing the small from the viewpoint of the large" in portraying buildings.[202] The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, in Hangzhou, erected in 1156 and fully constructed in 1165 AD. The architecture of the Song Dynasty was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. ... Seattle, Washington cityscape Houses of Parliament, Sunset, 1902, by Claude Monet View of Delft (1660-1661) by Jan Vermeer A cityscape is the urban equivalent of a landscape. ... Buddhist Temple in Mountain. ... Fan Kuan (范寬 ca. ... Guo Xi was a Chinese landscape painter. ... Zhang Zeduan (Traditional: 張擇端; Simplified: 张择端; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Tse-tuan) was a Chinese painter. ... Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication and art but ending in tragedy. ... An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. ... Pavilion in Taipei, Taiwan Chinese Pavilions (Chinese 亭, pinyin tíng) are single-story covered structures and are a traditional part of Chinese architecture. ... Myanmars Shwedagon Pagoda is one of the most recognizable and revered pagodas in the Buddhist World A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia For other uses, see Pagoda (disambiguation). ... Qing dynasty wall of Xian, showing elaborate wall towers Chinese city walls (Chinese: ; pinyin: chéngqiáng; literally city wall) refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times. ... Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max. ...


There were also pyramidal tomb structures in the Song era, such as the Song imperial tombs located in Gongxian, Henan province.[203] About 100 km from Gongxian is another Song Dynasty tomb at Baisha, which features "elaborate facsimiles in brick of Chinese timber frame construction, from door lintels to pillars and pedestals to bracket sets, that adorn interior walls."[203] The two large chambers of the Baisha tomb also feature conical-shaped roofs.[204] Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


Archaeology

Scholars of the Song claim to have collected ancient relics dating back as far as the Shang Dynasty, such as this bronze ding vessel.
Scholars of the Song claim to have collected ancient relics dating back as far as the Shang Dynasty, such as this bronze ding vessel.

In addition to the Song gentry's antiquarian pursuits of art collecting, scholar-officials during the Song became highly interested in retrieving ancient relics from archaeological sites, in order to revive the use of ancient vessels in ceremonies of state ritual.[205] Scholar-officials of the Song period claimed to have discovered ancient bronze vessels that were created as far back as the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE) which bore the writing characters of the Shang era.[206] Some attempted to recreate these bronze vessels by using imagination alone, not by observing tangible evidence of relics; this practice was criticized by Shen Kuo in his work of 1088.[205] Yet Shen Kuo had much more to criticize than this practice alone. Shen objected to the idea of his peers that ancient relics were products created by famous "sages" in lore or the ancient aristocratic class; Shen rightfully attributed the discovered handicrafts and vessels from ancient times as the work of artisans and commoners from previous eras.[205] He also disapproved of his peers' pursuit of archaeology simply to enhance state ritual, since Shen not only took an interdisciplinary approach with the study of archaeology, but he also emphasized the study of functionality and investigating what was the ancient relics' original processes of manufacture.[205] Shen used ancient texts and existing models of armillary spheres to create one based on ancient standards; Shen described ancient weaponry such as the use of a scaled sighting device on crossbows; while experimenting with ancient musical measures, Shen suggested hanging an ancient bell by using a hollow handle.[205] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... A ding or ting (Chinese: 鼎; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is an ancient Chinese vessel with three legs; hence, it is also called a tripod. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Oracle bone script (Chinese: 甲骨文; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally shell bone writing) refers to incised (or, rarely, brush-written) ancient Chinese characters found on oracle bones, which are animal bones or turtle shells used in divination in ancient China. ... A painting of a gentry scholar with two courtesans, by Tang Yin, c. ... Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ... Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (muzzle) Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (stock) A sight is an optical device used to assist aim by guiding the eye and aligning it with the weapon or other item to be pointed. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... Bianzhong (編鐘) is an ancient Chinese musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells. ...


Despite the gentry's overriding interest in archaeology simply for reviving ancient state rituals, some of Shen's peers took a similar approach to the study of archaeology. His contemporary Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072) compiled an analytical catalogue of ancient rubbings on stone and bronze which pioneered ideas in early epigraphy and archeology.[68] On the unreliability of historical works written after the fact, scholar-official Zhao Mingcheng (1081–1129) stated "...the inscriptions on stone and bronze are made at the time the events took place and can be trusted without reservation, and thus discrepancies may be discovered."[207] Historian R.C. Rudolph states that Zhao's emphasis on consulting contemporary sources for accurate dating is parallel with the concern of the German historian Leopold von Ranke (1795–1886),[207] and was in fact emphasized by many Song scholars.[208] The Song scholar Hong Mai (1123–1202) heavily criticized what he called the court's "ridiculous" archaeological catalogue Bogutu compiled during the Huizong reign periods of Zheng He and Xuan He (1111–1125).[209] Hong Mai obtained old vessels from the Han Dynasty and compared them with the descriptions offered in the catalogue, which he found so inaccurate he stated he had to "hold my sides with laughter."[210] Hong Mai pointed out that the erroneous material was the fault of Chancellor Cai Jing (1047–1126), who prohibited scholars from reading and consulting the written histories.[210] Ouyang Xiu (Ou-Yang Hsiu) (歐陽修; 欧阳修 style name: Yongshu 永叔; also known as Zuiweng 醉翁 and Liuyi Jushi 六一居士) (Wade-Giles: Ouyang Hsiu) (1007 - 1072) was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... Leopold Von Ranke in 1877. ... Cai Jing (蔡京, 1047-1126) was the Imperial Tutor during the reign of Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty. ...


See also

The Four Great Books of Song (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was compiled by Li Fang and others during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). ... Lu You (陆游 or 陸遊)(1125- 1210) was a Chinese poet of the southern Song dynasty. ... Longquan celadon (龙泉青瓷) is a variety of celadon pottery produced in Longquan city, Zhejiang province, China. ... Shao Yung (邵雍) was one of the most remarkable men who has ever probed the hidden, metaphysical secrets of life. ... Mongol Period Tiger Kiln Celadon Bowl, Private Collection Japan Base and Footrim Recent excavations at the Tiger Cave Kiln at Hangzhou in the Chinese province of Zhejiang have helped to identify one site of origin of the important celadon-glazed porcelain wares of the Southern Song Dynasty known as Guan... Wang Chongyang (11 January 1113 – 22 January 1170) [Chinese calendar: 宋徽宗政和二年十二月廿二 – 金世宗大定十年正月初四] (Traditional Chinese: 王重陽; Simplified Chinese: 王重阳; pinyin: Wáng Chóngyáng) was a Song Dynasty Taoist who was one of the founders of Quanzhen Taoism in the twelfth century. ... It has been suggested that Guo Shiguang be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zeng Gong (曾鞏; style name: Zigu 子固; 1019-1083) was a scholar and historian of the Song Dynasty in China. ...

Notes

^ a: During the reign of the Song Dynasty the world population grew from about 250 million to approximately 330 million, a difference of 80 million. Please also see Medieval demography.
^ b: For the history of paper-printed money, please see banknote.
^ c: Despite the establishment of permanent standing navy in Song Dynasty, China already had a long naval history prior to the Song, see Naval history of China.
^ d: As opposed to the previous Han and Tang Dynasty, each of which boasted roughly 50 million inhabitants
^ e: See the technology section for more information.
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

References

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  • Shen, Fuwei (1996). Cultural flow between China and the outside world. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 7-119-00431-X.
  • Sivin, Nathan (1995). Science in Ancient China. Brookfield, Vermont: VARIORUM, Ashgate Publishing.
  • Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman. "The Tangut Royal Tombs near Yinchuan", Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (Volume X, 1993): 369-381.
  • Sung, Tz’u, translated by Brian E. McKnight (1981). The Washing Away of Wrongs: Forensic Medicine in Thirteenth-Century China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0892648007
  • Wagner, Donald B. "The Administration of the Iron Industry in Eleventh-Century China," Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (Volume 44 2001): 175–197.
  • Wang, Lianmao (2000). Return to the City of Light: Quanzhou, an eastern city shining with the splendour of medieval culture. Fujian People's Publishing House.
  • West, Stephen H. "Playing With Food: Performance, Food, and The Aesthetics of Artificiality in The Sung and Yuan," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (Volume 57, Number 1, 1997): 67–106.
  • Wright, Arthur F. (1959). Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Yuan, Zheng. "Local Government Schools in Sung China: A Reassessment," History of Education Quarterly (Volume 34, Number 2; Summer 1994): 193–213.

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Further reading

  • Gascoigne, Bamber (2003). The Dynasties of China: A History. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 1-84119-791-2. 
  • Giles, Herbert Allen (1939). A Chinese biographical dictionary (Gu jin xing shi zu pu). Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh. (see here for more)
  • Gernet, Jacques (1982). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24130-8. 
  • Kruger, Rayne (2003). All Under Heaven: A Complete History of China. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-470-86533-4. 
  • Tillman, Hoyt C. and Stephen H. West (1995). China Under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin Intellectual and Cultural History. New York: State University of New York Press.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Song Dynasty
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Art of the Song Dynasty
Preceded by
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Dynasties in Chinese history
960-1279
Succeeded by
Yuan Dynasty


Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... The Liuhe Pagoda, or Six Harmonies Pagoda, in Hangzhou, erected in 1156 and fully constructed in 1165 AD. The architecture of the Song Dynasty was based upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, much like every subsequent dynastic period of China. ... A Song Dynasty Chinese inkstone with gold and silver markings, from the Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan. ... The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960-1279) of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century. ... Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed stoneware in the Longquan celadon style; from Zhejiang province, Northern Song dynasty, 10th or 11th century AD. The Song Dynasty (960–1279) of China was an era of Chinese history renowned for its sophistication, complex infrastructure, and a wide array of cultural achievements. ... Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 623 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1774 × 1708 pixel, file size: 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Imperial Era: II (909 words)
The Sui dynasty's early demise was attributed to the government's tyrannical demands on the people, who bore the crushing burden of taxes and compulsory labor.
The founders of the Song dynasty built an effective centralized bureaucracy staffed with civilian scholar-officials.
The Song dynasty is notable for the development of cities not only for administrative purposes but also as centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce.
Song Dynasty - MSN Encarta (1654 words)
The Song dynasty marked the beginning of a new relationship between government and society that would characterize the later imperial period of Chinese history.
Financially, the dynasty depended on the lower Yangtze region, which by the middle of the 11th century had become the economic and population center of the empire.
The Song army was defeated, and in 1004 it signed a peace treaty with the Liao in which it agreed to make an annual payment of 100,000 ounces of silver and 200,000 bolts of silk.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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