FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Sonata" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sonata

Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, to sing), a piece sung. The term, being vague, naturally evolved through the history of music, designating a variety of forms prior to the Classical era. The term would take on increasing importance in the Classical period, and by the early 19th century the word came to be used for a principle of composing large scale works, and be applied to most instrumental genres, regarded alongside the fugue as one of two fundamental methods of organizing, interpreting and analyzing concert music. In the 20th century the term continued to be applied to instrumental works, but the formal principles enunciated and taught through the 19th century were weakened or loosened. Music is a form of art and entertainment or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... Cantata (Italian for a song or story set to music), a vocal composition accompanied by instruments and generally containing more than one movement. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition. ...

Contents

Usage of sonata

The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works, including works for solo instrument such as keyboard or violin, and for groups of instruments. In the transition from the Baroque to the Classical period, the term sonata undergoes a change in usage, from being applied to many different kinds of small instrumental work to being more specifically applied to chamber music genres with either a solo instrument, or a solo instrument with piano. Increasingly after 1800, the term applies to a form of large-scale musical argument, and it is generally used in this sense in musicology and musical analysis. Most of the time if some more specific usage is meant, then the particular body of work will be noted: for example the sonatas of Beethoven will mean the works specifically labelled sonata, whereas Beethoven and sonata form will apply to all of his large-scale instrumental works, whether concert or chamber. In the 20th century, sonatas in this sense would continue to be composed by influential and famous composers, though many works which do not meet the strict criterion of "sonata" in the formal sense would also be created and performed.


Instrumentation

In the Baroque period, a sonata was for one or more instruments almost always with continuo. After the Baroque most works designated as sonatas specifically are performed by a solo instrument, most often a keyboard instrument, or by a solo instrument together with a keyboard instrument. In the late Baroque and early Classical period, a work with instrument and keyboard was referred to as having an obbligato part, in order to distinguish this from use of an instrument as a continuo, though this fell out of usage by the early 1800s. Beginning in the early 19th century, works were termed sonata if, according to the understanding of that time, they were part of the genre, even if they were not designated sonata when originally published, or by the composer. A related term at the time was "Fantasia" or "Fantasie", which was applied to movements or works which had a much freer form than the Sonata (for example Schubert's Wanderer Fantasy). Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 to 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords, and nonchord tones, in relation to a bass note. ... Italian for obligatory, from Latin word obligare, to oblige. ... The fantasia (also English fantasy, German fantasie, French fantaisie) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. ... Wanderer Fantasy is the popular name for Franz Schuberts opus 15 (D. 760), a fantasy for piano solo in four movements, which follows the classical sonata form. ...


In the Classical period and afterwards, sonatas for piano solo were the most common genre of sonata, with sonatas for violin and piano or cello and piano being next. However, sonatas for a solo instrument other than keyboard have been composed, as have sonatas for other combinations of instruments, and for other instruments with piano.


Brief history of the usage of sonata

The Baroque sonata

By the time of Arcangelo Corelli, two polyphonic types of sonata were established: the sonata da chiesa (church sonata) and the sonata da camera ("ordinary" sonata, literally chamber sonata). Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an Italian violin player and Baroque music composer. ... Sonata da Chiesa is Italian for church sonata. Sonatas are instrumental compositions of three or more movements. ... Sonata da camera (or chamber sonata) is a type of trio sonata intended for secular performance. ...


The sonata da chiesa, generally for one or more violins and bass, consisted normally of a slow introduction, a loosely fugued allegro, a cantabile slow movement, and a lively finale in some binary form suggesting affinity with the dance-tunes of the suite. This scheme, however, was not very clearly defined, until the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Friderich Handel, when it became the essential sonata and persists as a tradition of Italian violin music – even into the early 19th century, in the works of Boccherini. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Bass (IPA: [], rhyming with face), when used as an adjective, describes tones of low frequency or range. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... Binary form is a way of structuring a piece of music into two related sections, both of which are usually repeated. ... It has been suggested that Suite_de_Danses be merged into this article or section. ... Bach redirects here. ... George Frideric Handel, 1733 George Frideric Handel (or Georg Friedrich Händel in German) (February 23, 1685 – April 14, 1759) was a German Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. ...


The sonata da camera had consisted almost entirely of idealized dance-tunes, but by the time of Bach and Handel such a composition drew apart from the sonata, and came to be called a suite, a partita, an ordre, or, when it had a prelude in the form of a French opera-overture, an overture. On the other hand, the features of sonata da chiesa and sonata da camera then tended to be freely intermixed. Bach, however, while not using the titles themselves, nevertheless keeps the two types so distinct that they can be recognized by style and form. Thus, in his six solo violin sonatas, Nos. 1, 3, and 5 are recognizably sonate de chiesa; and Nos. 2, 4, and 6 are explicitly called partitas, but are admissible among the sonatas as being sonate da camera.[citation needed] Bach is also cited as being among the first composers to have the keyboard and solo instrument share a melodic line, whereas previously most sonatas for keyboard and instrument had kept the melody exclusively in the solo instrument. Partita was originally the name for a single instrumental piece of music (16th and 17th centuries), but Johann Kuhnau and later German composers (notably Johann Sebastian Bach) used it for collections of musical pieces, as a synonym for suite. ... Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ... The Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin (BWV 1001–1006) is a set of six works composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


The term sonata is also applied to the series of over 500 works for harpsichord solo, or sometimes for other keyboard instruments, by Domenico Scarlatti, originally published under the name Essercizi per il gravicembalo (Exercises for the Harpsichord). Most of these pieces are in one binary-form movement only, with two parts that are in the same tempo and use the same thematic material, though occasionally there will be changes in tempo within the sections. Many of the sonatas were composed in pairs, one being in the major and the other in the parallel minor. They are frequently virtuosic, and use more distant harmonic transitions and modulations than were common for other works of their time. They are admired for their great variety and invention. These are the sonatas for solo keyboard by Domenico Scarlatti, listed in Kirkpatrick number order: Kk. ... Harpsichord in Flemish style; for more info, click the image. ... Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 – July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. ... Binary form is a way of structuring a piece of music into two related sections, both of which are usually repeated. ...


The genre – particularly for solo instruments with just the continuo or ripieno – eventually influenced the solo movements of suites or concerti that occurred between movements with the full orchestra playing, for example in the Brandenburg Concerti of Bach. The trio sonatas of Vivaldi, too, show parallels with the concerti he was writing at the same time. Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... Ripieno (Italian for stuffing) or tutti (Italian for everybody) is the larger of the two ensembles in the concerto grosso. ... The six Brandenburg concertos (BWV 1046-1051) by Johann Sebastian Bach are a collection of instrumental works presented by Bach to the Margrave of Brandenburg in 1721, but probably composed earlier. ...


The sonatas of Domenico Paradies are mild and elongated works of this type, with a graceful and melodious little second movement included. The manuscript on which Longo bases his edition of Scarlatti frequently shows a similar juxtaposition of movements, though without any definite indication of their connection. The style is still traceable in the sonatas of the later classics, whenever a first movement is in a uniform rush of rapid motion, as in Mozart's violin sonata in F (K. 377), and in several of Clementi's best works. Pietro Domenico Paradisi (also Pier Domenico Paradies) (Naples, 1707 – Venice, August 25, 1791) was an Italian composer, harpsichordist and harpsichord teacher, most prominently known for a composition popularly entitled Toccata in A. // Probably a student of Nicola Porpora, he dedicated himself at first to composing for the theater. ... (For a list organized by genre, see List_of_compositions_by_Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart) The Köchel-Verzeichnis is a complete, chronological catalogue of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart which was originally created by Ludwig von Köchel. ... Muzio Clementi (January 24, 1752 – March 10, 1832) was a classical composer, and acknowledged as the first to write specifically for the piano. ...


The sonata in the Classical period

The practice of the Classical period would become decisive for the sonata; the term moved from being one of many terms indicating genres or forms, to designating the fundamental form of organization for large-scale works. This evolution stretched over fifty years. The term came to apply both to the structure of individual movements (see Sonata form and History of sonata form) and to the layout of the movements in a multi-movement work. In the transition to the Classical period there were several names given to multimovement works, including divertimento, serenade, and partita, many of which are now regarded effectively as sonatas. The usage of sonata as the standard term for such works began somewhere in the 1770s. Haydn labels his first piano sonata as such in 1771, after which the term divertimento is used very sparingly in his output. The term sonata was increasingly applied to either a work for keyboard alone (see Piano sonata), or for keyboard and one other instrument, often the violin or cello. It was less and less frequently applied to works with more than two instrumentalists; for example piano trios were not often labelled sonata for piano, violin, and cello. The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ... This article treats the history of sonata form through the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern eras. ... Divertimento is a music genre, with most of its examples stemming from the 18th century. ... In music, a Serenade (or sometimes Serenata) is, in its most general sense, a musical composition, and/or performance, in someones honor. ... Partita was originally the name for a single instrumental piece of music (16th and 17th centuries), but Johann Kuhnau and later German composers (notably Johann Sebastian Bach) used it for collections of musical pieces, as a synonym for suite. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Initially the most common layout of movements was:

  1. Allegro, which at the time was understood to mean not only a tempo, but also some degree of "working out", or development, of the theme. (See Charles Rosen's The Classical Style, and his Sonata Forms.)
  2. A middle movement which was, most frequently, a slow movement: an Andante, an Adagio, or a Largo; or, less frequently, a Minuet or Theme and Variations form.
  3. A closing movement, early in the period sometimes a minuet, as in Haydn's first three piano sonatas, but afterwards, generally an Allegro or a Presto, often labelled Finale. The form was often a Rondo.

However, two-movement layouts also occur, a practice Haydn uses as late as the 1790s. There is also in the early Classical period the possibility of using four movements, with a dance movement inserted before the slow movement, as in Haydn's Piano sonatas No. 6 and No. 8. Mozart's sonatas would also be primarily in three movements. Of the works that Haydn labelled piano sonata, divertimento, or partita in Hob XIV, 7 are in two movements, 35 are in three movements, and 3 are in four movements; and there are several in three or four movements whose authenticity is listed as "doubtful". Composers such as Boccherini would publish sonatas for piano and obbligato instrument with an optional third movement – in Boccherini's case, 28 Cello sonatas. A minuet, sometimes spelled menuet, is a social dance of French origin for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. ... In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ... Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also in reference to a character-type that is distinct from the form. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ... Luigi Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was a classical era composer and cellist from Italy, mostly known for one particular minuet from one of his string quintets, and the Cello Concerto in B flat major (G 482). ...


But increasingly instrumental works were laid out in four, not three movements, a practice seen first in string quartets and symphonies, and reaching the sonata proper in the early sonatas of Beethoven. However, two- and three-movement sonatas continue to be written through out the Classical period: Beethoven's opus 102 pair has a two-movement C major sonata and a three-movement D major sonata. 1820 portrait by Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced ) (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist. ...


The four-movement layout was by this point standard for the string quartet, and overwhelmingly the most common for the symphony. The usual order of the four movements is: The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet (French: quatuor à cordes, German: Streichquartett, Italian: quartetto di corde or quartetto darchi, Spanish: cuarteto de cuerdas) is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  1. An allegro, which by this point was in what is called sonata form, complete with exposition, development, and recapitulation.
  2. A slow movement, an Andante, Adagio or Largo.
  3. A dance movement, frequently Minuet and trio or – especially later in the classical period – a Scherzo and trio
  4. A finale in faster tempo, often in a sonata–rondo form.

This four-movement layout came to be considered the standard for a sonata, and works without four movements, or with more than four, were increasingly felt to be exceptions; they were labelled as having movements "omitted", or had "extra" movements. Movements when they appeared out of this order would be described as "reversed", such as the Scherzo coming before the slow movement in Beethoven's 9th Symphony. This usage would be noted by critics in the early 1800s, and it was codified into teaching soon thereafter. Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ... This article is about tempo in music. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... A minuet, sometimes spelt menuet, is a dance for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also in reference to a character-type that is distinct from the form. ...


It is difficult to overstate the importance of Beethoven's output of sonatas: 32 piano sonatas, plus sonatas for cello and piano and violin and piano, forming a large body of music which would over time increasingly be thought essential for any serious instrumentalist to master.


The sonata in the Romantic period

In the early 19th century conservatories of music were established, leading to a codification by critics, theorists and professors of the practice of the Classical period. In this setting, our current usage of the term sonata was established, both as regards form per se, and in the sense that a fully elaborated sonata serves as a norm for concert music in general, which other forms are seen in relation to. Carl Czerny declared that he had invented the idea of sonata form, and music theorists began to write of the sonata as an ideal in music. From this point forward, the word sonata in music theory as often labels the abstarct musical form as well as much as particular works. Hence there are references to a symphony as a sonata for orchestra. This is referred to by William Newman as the sonata idea, and by others as the sonata principle. Carl Czerny (sometimes Karl; February 21, 1791 – July 15, 1857) was an Austrian pianist, composer and teacher. ... William Stein Newman (April 6, 1912 - April 27, 2000) was an American musicologist. ...


Among works expressly labelled sonata, some of the most famous were composed in this era. There is the "Funeral March" sonata of Chopin, the sonatas of Mendelssohn, the three sonatas of Robert Schumann, those of Franz Liszt, and later the sonatas of Johannes Brahms and Sergei Rachmaninoff. Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (Slovak: List Franz) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian ( with both parents from Slovakia ) virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Johannes Brahms. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasil’evič Rahmaninov, April 1, 1873 (N.S.) or March 20, 1873 (O.S.) – March 28, 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. ...


In the early 19th century the sonata form was rigorously defined, from a combination of previous practice and the works of important Classical composers, particularly Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, but composers such as Clementi also. Works not explicitly labelled sonata were nevertheless felt to be an expression of the same governing structural practice. Because the word became definitively attached to an entire concept of musical layout, the differences in Classical practice began to be seen as important to classify and explain. It is during this period that the differences between the three- and the four-movement layouts became a subject of commentary, with emphasis on the concerto being laid out in three movements, and the symphony in four. Many thought that the four movement form was the superior layout. The concerto form was thought to be Italianate, while the four-movement form's predominance was ascribed to Haydn, and was considered German. Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ...


The importance of the sonata in the clash between Brahmsians and Wagnerians is also of note. Brahms represented, to his advocates, adherence to the form as it was strictly construed, while Wagner and Liszt claimed to have transcended the Procrustean nature of its outline. For example Ernest Newman wrote, in Brahms and the Serpent: [citation needed] Ernest Newman (November 30, 1868 – July 7, 1959) was an English music critic. ...

That, perhaps, will be the ideal of the instrumental music of the future; the way to it, indeed, seems at last to be opening out before modern composers in proportion as they discard the last tiresome vestiges of sonata form. This, from being what it was originally, the natural mode of expression of a certain eighteenth century way of thinking in music, became in the nineteenth century a drag upon both individual thinking...

This view, that the sonata is truly only at home in the Classical style, and had become a road block to later musical development, is one that has been held at various times by composers and musicologists, including recently by Charles Rosen. In this view the sonata called for no explicit analysis in Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven's era, in the same sense that Bach "knew" what a fugue was and how to compose one, whereas later composers were bound by an "academic" sense of form that was not well suited to the Romantic era's more frequent and more rapid modulations. In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. ...


The sonata after the Romantic period

The sonata was closely tied in the Romantic period to tonal harmony and practice. Even before the demise of this practice, large-scale works increasingly deviated from the four-movement layout that had been considered standard for almost a century, and the internal structure of movements began to alter as well. The "sonata idea", along with the term sonata itself, continued to be central to musical analysis, and a strong influence on composers, both in large-scale works and in chamber music. The role of the sonata as an extremely important form of extended musical argument would inspire composers such as Hindemith, Prokofiev, Shostakovich to compose in sonata form, and works with traditional sonata structures continue to be composed and performed. Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a center or tonic. ... Paul Hindemith (November 16, 1895 – December 28, 1963) was a German composer, violist, teacher, theorist and conductor. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokof’ev; 15/April 271, 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Dmitri Shostakovich Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Šostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ...


The piano sonatas of Scriabin would begin from standard forms of the late Romantic period, but would progressively abandon the formal markers that had been taught, and would usually be composed as single-movement works; he is sometimes thought of as a composer on the boundary between Romantic and modern practice of the sonata. Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin) (6 January 1872 – 27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ...


Charles Ives's massive Concord Sonata (1920) for piano bore little resemblance to the traditional Sonata. It had four movements (though not with the usual tempos), very few barlines, and the tonality, where present, is fleeting or often compounded with polytonality. It even contained optional (and very minor) parts for viola and flute. This photo from around 1913 shows Ives in his day job: he was the director of a successful insurance agency. ... The Piano Sonata No. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... The use of more than one key simultaneously is known in music as polytonality. ... The viola (in French, alto; in German Bratsche) is a string instrument played with a bow which serves as the middle voice of the violin family, between the upper lines played by the violin and the lower lines played by the cello and double bass. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Still later, Pierre Boulez would compose three sonatas in the early 1950s, which, while they were neither tonal nor laid out in the standard four-movement form, were intended to have the same significance as sonatas. Elliot Carter began his transition from neo-classical composer to avant-garde with his Cello Sonata. Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Pierre Boulez composed three piano sonatas. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


The sonata in scholarship and musicology

The sonata idea or principle

Research into the practice and meaning of sonata form, style, and structure has been the motivation for important theoretical works by Heinrich Schenker, Arnold Schoenberg, and Charles Rosen among others; and the pedagogy of music continued to rest on an understanding and application of the rules of sonata form as almost two centuries of development in practice and theory had codified it. Heinrich Schenker Heinrich Schenker (June 19, 1868 - January 13, 1935) was a music theorist, best known for his approach to musical analysis, now usually called Schenkerian analysis. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Schoenberg redirects here. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ...


The development of the classical style and its norms of composition formed the basis for much of the music theory of the 19th and 20th centuries. As an overarching formal principle, sonata was accorded the same central status as Baroque fugue; and generations of composers, instrumentalists, and audiences were guided by this understanding of sonata as an enduring and dominant principle in Western music. The sonata idea begins before the term had taken on its present importance, along with the evolution of the Classical period's changing norms. The reasons for these changes, and how they relate to the evolving sense of a new formal order in music, is a matter to which research is devoted. Some common factors which were pointed to include: the shift of focus from vocal music to instrumental music; changes in performance practice, including the loss of the continuo and the playing of all movements of a work straight through, without "mechanical" repeats; the shift away from the idea that each movement should express one dominant emotion (see Affect (psychology)), to a notion of accommodating contrasting themes and sections in an integrated whole; the move from a polyphonic mode of composition to a homophonic mode; changes in the availability of instruments, and new technical developments in instruments; the obsolescence of straightforward binary organization of movements; the rise of more dance rhythms; and changes in patronage and presentation. In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition. ... In psychology, affect is the scientific term used to describe a subjects externally displayed mood. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ...


Crucial to most interpretations of the sonata form is the idea of a tonal center; and, as the Grove Concise Dictionary of Music puts it: "The main form of the group embodying the 'sonata principle', the most important principle of musical structure from the Classical period to the 20th century: that material first stated in a complementary key be restated in the home key."


The sonata idea has been thoroughly explored by William Newman in his monumental three-volume work Sonata in the Classic Era (A History of the Sonata Idea), begun in the 1950s and published in what has become the standard edition of all three volumes in 1972. He notes that according to his research, theorists had generally shown "a hazy recognition of 'sonata form' during the Classical Era and up to the late 1830s" and places particular emphasis on Reicha's 1826 work describing the "fully developed binary form", for its fixing of key relationships, Czerny's 1837 note in the preface to his Opus 600, and Adolph Bernhard Marx, who in 1845 wrote a long treatise on sonata form. Up until this point, Newman argues, the definitions available were quite imprecise, requiring only instrumental character and contrasting character of movements.


William Newman also notes, however, that these codifications were in response to a growing understanding that the 18th century did have a formal organization of music. Before those publications of Reicha, Czerny, or Marx, there are references to the "customary sonata form", and in particular to the organization of the first movement of sonatas and related works. He documents the evolution of sonata analysis as well, showing that early critical works on sonatas, with some very notable exceptions, dealt with structural and technical details only loosely. Instead, many important works belonging to the sonata genre, or in sonata form, were not analyzed comprehensively in terms of their thematic and harmonic resources until the 20th century.


20th century theory

Two of the most important theorists in European musicology of the 20th century, Heinrich Schenker and Arnold Schoenberg, both had ideas of central importance for the analysis and general understanding of the sonata. Their ideas were extremely rigorous, and placed tremendous emphasis on the long range influence of tonal materials. Both advanced theories of analysis of works which would be adopted by later theorists. While the two men disagreed with each other, their ideas have often been used in combination.


Heinrich Schenker argued that there was an Urlinie or basic tonal melody, and a basic bass figuration. He held that when these two were present, there was basic structure, and that the sonata represented this basic structure in a whole work with a process known as interruption. Arnold Schoenberg advanced the theory of monotonality, according to which a single work should be played as if in one key, even if movements were in different keys, and that the capable composer would reference everything in a work to a single tonic triad.


For Schenker, tonal function was the essential defining characteristic of comprehensible structure in music, and his definition of the sonata form rested, not on themes groups or sections, but on the basic interplay between the different "layers" of a composition. For Schoenberg, tonality was not essential to comprehensibility, but he accorded similar importance to the structural role of notes, in "explaining" the relationships of chords and counterpoint in musical structure. Both theorists held that tonality, and hence sonata structure in tonal form, is essentially hierarchical: what is immediately audible is subordinate to large-scale movements of harmony. They argued that transient chords and events are less significant than movement between certain crucial underlying chords.


As a practical matter, Schenker applied his ideas to the editing of the piano sonatas of Beethoven, using original manuscripts and his own theories to "correct" the available sources. The basic procedure was the use of tonal theory to infer meaning from available sources as part of the critical process, even to the extent of completing works left unfinished by their composers. While many of these changes were and are controversial, that procedure has a central role today in music theory, and is an essential part of the theory of sonata structure as taught in most music schools.


Famous sonatas

For a more comprehensive list of sonatas, see List of sonatas. The following is a list of musical pieces that belong to the category, Sonata. ...


Classical (ca 1760 – ca 1830)

1820 portrait by Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced ) (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens opus 27 no. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... The Violin Sonata No. ... The Violin Sonata No. ... Violin Sonata No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Cello Sonatas No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Cello Sonatas No. ... Beethovens Sonata No. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... The Piano Sonata in F major by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is in Ludwig von Köchels catalogue of Mozarts works ( in the 1964 revised edition). ... Mozarts 13th Piano Sonata (or simply, K.333) is written mostly in its Major Key: B-flat. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... The Piano Sonata No. ... The Piano Sonata No. ... Sonata in C for Keyboard and Violin, K. 6, is written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and is one of his earliest works. ... The violin sonata in A for violin and keyboard written in 1787 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is a work in three movements Molto allegro in A Andante, in D and Presto, in A. The above terms allegro, andante and presto are explained in the article tempo. ... Giuseppe Tartini. ... The Devils Trill Sonata is a famous work for solo violin by Giuseppe Tartini (1692-1770), famous for being extremely technically demanding, even today. ...

Romantic (ca 1830 – ca 1900)

Johannes Brahms. ... The cello sonata number 1 in E minor, opus 38 written by Johannes Brahms in 1862–5 has three movements: Allegro non troppo, in E minor, in common (4/4) time. ... The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin (commonly mistaken for a daguerrotype), taken by Louis-Auguste Bisson in 1849. ... Chopin Sonata No. ... Frédéric Chopin composed his Piano Sonata No. ... Frédéric Chopin composed his Piano Sonata No. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (June 15, 1843 – September 4, 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... Sonatas for violin and piano written by Edvard Grieg, a Norwegian composer (1843–1907). ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (Slovak: List Franz) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian ( with both parents from Slovakia ) virtuoso pianist and composer. ... A work for solo piano by Franz Liszt. ... One of the pages from the original manuscript of the sonata. ... Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ... The violin sonata no. ... Johannes Brahms. ... Albert Hermann Dietrich (born 28 August 1829 at Golk, near Meissen; died 20 November 1908 in Berlin) was a German composer and conductor, remembered less for his own achievements than for his friendship with Johannes Brahms. ... Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ... The ‘F-A-E Sonata, a four-movement work for violin and piano, is an interesting example of a collaborative effort by three composers. ...

20th Century (including contemporary) (ca 1910 – 2000)

  • Leoš Janáček

Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber (March 9, 1910–January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music, best known for his Adagio for Strings. ... The Cello Sonata Op. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Pierre Boulez composed three piano sonatas. ... Pierre Boulez composed three piano sonatas. ... Pierre Boulez composed three piano sonatas. ... This photo from around 1913 shows Ives in his day job: he was the director of a successful insurance agency. ... The Piano Sonata No. ... Leoš Janáček in 1928 Leoš Janáček ▶ (help· info) (July 3, 1854 in Hukvaldy, Moravia – August 12, 1928 in Ostrava) was a Czech composer. ... 1. ... Benjamin Burwell Johnston, Junior (born March 15, 1926 in Macon, Georgia) is one of the best known composers writing in the just intonation system. ... Sonata for Microtonal Piano is a sonata for specifically microtonally tuned piano by Ben Johnston written in 1964 (see also just intonation). ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokof’ev; 15/April 271, 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Sergei Prokofievs Violin Sonata No. ... Sergei Prokofievs Violin Sonata No. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin) (6 January 1872 – 27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... Scriabins second piano sonata in G sharp minor (Opus 19, also titled Sonata-Fantasy) took five years for him to write. ... The 3rd piano sonata by the Russian composer and pianist Alexander Scriabin, 1872-1915. ... The fourth piano sonata (Opus 30) written by Scriabin in 1903 is in the key of F sharp major. ... The fifth piano sonata, Op. ... The seventh piano sonata (Opus 64) written by Scriabin in 1911 is entitled White Mass. The piece is highly chromatic and atonal like Scriabins other late works. ... The eighth piano sonata written by Scriabin is labeled Opus 66 and was written in 1912-1913. ... The ninth piano sonata (Opus 68) written by Scriabin in 1912-1913 is often known by the nickname Black Mass. Although the nickname was not invented by Scriabin, he personally approved of it. ... The tenth and final piano sonata (Opus 70) of Scriabin was written in 1913. ...

References

  • William S. Newman Sonata in the Classic Era (A History of the Sonata Idea) ISBN 0-393-00623-9
  • William S. Newman The sonata in the Baroque Era ISBN 0-393-00622-0
  • William S. Newman The sonata in the Classic Era ISBN 0-393-95286-X
  • William S. Newman The sonata since Beethoven ISBN 0-393-95290-8
  • William S. Newman Beethoven on Beethoven: Playing His Piano Music His Way ISBN 0-393-30719-0
  • Charles Rosen Sonata Forms ISBN 0-393-02658-2
  • Charles Rosen The Classical Style ISBN 0-393-31712-9
  • Charles Rosen The Romantic Generation ISBN 0-674-77934-7
  • Arnold Schoenberg Harmonielehre
  • Heinrich Schenker Free Composition
  • Felix Salzer Structural Hearing Volumes I & II
  • Stanley Sadie ed, The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music

William Stein Newman (April 6, 1912 - April 27, 2000) was an American musicologist. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Schoenberg redirects here. ... Heinrich Schenker Heinrich Schenker (June 19, 1868 - January 13, 1935) was a music theorist, best known for his approach to musical analysis, now usually called Schenkerian analysis. ... Felix Salzer (June 13, 1904–August 12, 1986) was an Austrian-American music theorist, musicologist and pedagogue. ... Stanley Sadie, CBE, (October 30, 1930-March 21, 2005) was a British musicologist, music critic, and editor. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biber Mystery Sonatas - Index (286 words)
This two disc set of Heinrich von Biber's Rosary or Mystery Sonatas presents the complete set of fifteen sonatas and the concluding passacaglia which appears in the sole surviving Munich manuscript.
The sonatas each correspond to the fifteen mysteries or meditations on the life of Christ.
Walter Reiter's recording of the Mystery Sonatas is the culmination of a seven year labour of love and is in his own words, is his "most powerfully artistic experience to date".
BBC - Radio 3 - Artur Pizarro The Beethoven Sonata Cycle (118 words)
During 2003, renowned Portuguese pianist Artur Pizarro performed an epic 8-concert cycle of all 32 Beethoven Sonatas at St John's, Smith Square, London.
Comprehensive programme notes on each Sonata are available below.
Sonata No. 14 in C sharp minor, Op.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m