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Encyclopedia > Somatostatin

Somatostatin is a hormone. Precisely it is a mixture of two peptides, one built of 14 amino acids, the other of 28. A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestable), are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ...


Somatostatin is secreted not only by cells of the hypothalamus but also by so called delta cells of stomach, intestine and pancreas. It binds to somatostatin receptors. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Delta cells are somatostatin producing cells. ... The stomach (Gaster) In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the alimentary canal used to digest food. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes endocrine - it produces several important hormones // Anatomy The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located posterior to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall. ...


All actions of the hormone are inhibitory.
Somatostatin's main actions are:


Octreotide (brand name Sandostatin, Novartis Pharmaceuticals) is an octopeptide that mimics natural somatostatin pharmacologically, though is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone. The FDA has approved the usage of a salt form of this peptide, octreotide acetate, as an injectable depot formulation for the treatment of acromegaly, the treatment of diarrhea and flushing episodes associated with carcinoid syndrome, and treatment of diarrhea in patients with vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumors (VIPomas). Octreotide has also been used off-label for the treatment of severe, refractory diarrhea from other causes. It is used in Toxicology for the treatment of prolonged recurrent hypoglycemia after sulfonylurea overdose. Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Cholecystokinin (CCK, previously pancreozymin) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Secretin is a hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum in response to low duodenum pH and fatty acids in the duodenum to stimulate the secretion of bicarbonate from bicarbonate producing organs(liver, pancreas, Brunners glands) when the pH drops below a set value. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The structure of insulin Red: carbon; green: oxygen; blue: nitrogen; pink: sulfur. ... Glucagon ball and stick model Glucagon is a 29 amino acid polypeptide acting as an important hormone in carbohydrate metabolism. ... The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes endocrine - it produces several important hormones // Anatomy The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located posterior to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Novartis International AG is a multinational, pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestable), are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... Glucagon ball and stick model Glucagon is a 29 amino acid polypeptide acting as an important hormone in carbohydrate metabolism. ... The structure of insulin Red: carbon; green: oxygen; blue: nitrogen; pink: sulfur. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Acromegaly (from Greek akros high and megalos large - extremities enlargement) is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH). ... Diarrhea (AmE) or diarrhoea (CwE) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent and watery or loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; lit. ... // Basics: Carcinoid syndrome refers to the array of symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
SSTR3 - Somatostatin receptor type 3 (4358 words)
SSTR3, a somatostatin (SST) receptor, is an adenylyl cyclase (AC)-inhibiting receptor.
Somatostatin significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vivo in the matrigel sponge assay; this inhibition was mimicked by the SSTR3 agonist L-796778 and reversed by the SSTR3 antagonist BN81658, demonstrating involvement of SSTR3.
Somatostatin receptor gene expression of SSTR1, SSTR2, and SSTR3 subtypes was evaluated by in situ hybridization in 55 human primary tumors shown to contain a high density of somatostatin receptors in binding assays.
Somatostatin (602 words)
Somatostatin was named for its effect of inhibiting secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.
Somatostatin suppresses secretion of gastric acid and pepsin, lowers the rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine.
Somatostatin is often referred to as having neuromodulatory activity within the central nervous sytem, and appears to have a variety of complex effects on neural transmission.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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