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Encyclopedia > Somalia
Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya
جمهورية الصومال
Jumhūriyyat as-Sūmāl
Somali Republic
Flag of Somalia
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemSoomaaliyeey Toosoow
Somalia, Wake Up
Capital
(and largest city)
Mogadishu
2°02′N, 45°21′E
Official languages Somali[1]
Recognised regional languages Arabic, Italian, English (classed as secondary languages)[1]
Demonym Somali
Government Transitional Federal Government Semi-presidential Republic
 -  President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
 -  Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein
Independence from the UK and Italy 
 -  Date June 26 & July 1, 1960 
Area
 -  Total 637,661 km² (42nd)
246,201 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
Population
 -  2008 estimate 9,558,666[1] (89th)
 -  Density 13/km² (198th)
34/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2004 estimate
 -  Total $5.26 billion (157th)
 -  Per capita $600 (148th)
HDI (2007) N/A (low) (Not Ranked)
Currency Somali shilling (SOS)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .so (currently non-operational)
Calling code +252
1 The World Factbook[1]
2 BBC News[2]
3 Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic

Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومالtransliteration: aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Somali Republic (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومالtransliteration: Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya on its southwest, the Gulf of Aden with Yemen on its north, the Indian Ocean at its east, and Ethiopia to the west. Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Flag ratio: ~2:3 The flag of Somalia was adopted on October 12, 1954. ... The Coat of arms of Somalia was adopted in 1956. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Somali national anthem, Somalia, Wake Up, was composed by Ali Mire Awale-July 1947. ... Image File history File links LocationSomalia. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is the parliament of Somalia. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page contains a list of the Presidents of Somalia. ... Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (Somali: ) (b. ... List of the Heads of Government of Somalia (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Political Affiliations SNL - Somali National League SRSP - Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party SYL - Somali Youth League USC - United Somali Congress Mil - Military n-p - Non-partisan See also History of Somalia Presidents of Somalia... Nur Hassan Hussein is a politician that has been chosen to be the Prime Minister of Somalia by Somali President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The Somali shilling (shilin soomaali) is the currency used in the African nation of Somalia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .so is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Somalia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, or TFC is the principle organizing document of the Somali Republic, written and approved in February 2004 in Nairobi, Kenya. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ...


Italian Somaliland gained its independence from Italy on 1 July 1960. On the same day, it united with British Somaliland, which gained independence on 26 June 1960, to form the Somali republic. The Somali state currently exists largely in a de jure capacity; Somalia has a weak but largely recognised central government authority, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), but this currently controls only the central region of Somalia, and before the end of 2006 controlled only the city of Baidoa. Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ... Baidoa (Somali: Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles) by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. ...


De facto control of the north of the country resides in the local authorities; of these Puntland, Maakhir, Galmudug, acknowledge the authority of the TFG and maintain their declaration of autonomy within a federated Somalia, while Southwestern Somalia and Jubaland in the south have largely abandoned the idea of autonomy. Their political capital, Baidoa, is currently the TFG capital, and their commercial capital, Kismayo, is being disputed. On the other hand, Somaliland in the north, with its capital in Hargeisa, has declared independence and does not recognise the TFG as governing authority. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Motto None Anthem Puntland Somali National Anthem Capital Garowe (Administrative), Bosaso (Commercial) Largest city Bosaso Official languages Somali and Arabic Government  -  President Mohamud Muse Hersi  -  Vice-President Hassan Dahir Mohamud Autonomy Inside Somalia   -  Declared 1998   -  Recognition   Area  -  Total 212,510 km km² (84th) n/a sq mi   -  Water (%) Negl. ... Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Badhan Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Jibrell Ali Salad Autonomy from Somaliland, Puntland and Somalia   -  Proclaimed July 1, 2007   -  Unrecognised  Area  -  Total 35,000 km²  13,514 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 700,000  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer... Motto None Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Galcayo Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Mohamed Warsame Ali  -  Vice-President Abdisalam Haji Ahmed Liban Autonomy Part of Federated Somalia   -  Declared August 14, 2006   -  Recognition self-elected state autonomy  Area  -  Total 100,000 km km² (not ranked) not ranked... For other uses, see Autonomy (disambiguation). ... Southwestern Somalia and claimed territories, 2002-2006 Capital (and largest city) Baidoa Official languages Somali, Arabic Government  -  Presidentbare hiraale Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud Autonomy within Somalia   -  Declared April 1, 2002   -  Abandoned February 10, 2006  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3) Internet TLD . ... Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Kismayo Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Autonomy Part of Federated Somalia   -  Autonomy Declared 1998   -  Ended by JVA 2004   -  Re-established 2007   -  Recognition Not Recognized  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3... Kismayo or Kismayu (Somali: ; Arabic: , transliteration: ; Italian: ) is a port city in the Jubbada Hoose region of Somalia and is the countrys third largest city (after Mogadishu and Hargeisa. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ... Hargeisa (Somali: Hargeysa) is a city in Somalia and the capital of the de-facto Republic of Somaliland which was formed in 1991. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Somalia

Continuously inhabited for the last 2,500 years by numerous and varied ethnic groups, some Afar or other Cushitic-speaking populations, and the majority Somalis. From the 1st century numerous ports including Hafun and Mosylon-Bandar Gori were trading with Roman and Greek sailors. Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya) is a coastal nation in East Africa, widely known as Horn of Africa. ... Afar may refer to: Look up afar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages phylum, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... Hafun (Xaafuun) is a small low-lying peninsula in the Bari region of northern Somalia. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The northwest was part of the Aksumite Empire from about the 3rd century to the 7th but between 700 AD and 1200 AD Islam became firmly established, especially with the founding of Mogadishu in 900. The period following, 1200 AD to 1500 AD, saw the rise of numerous Somali city-states and kingdoms. In northwestern Somalia, the Sultanate of Adal (a multi-ethnic state comprised of Afars, Somalis and Hararis) with Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi as their leader in 1520, successfully conquered three-quarters of Ethiopia before being defeated by a joint Ethiopian-Portuguese force at the Battle of Wayna Daga on February 21, 1543. Aksum was an important participant in international trade from the 1st century CE (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea) until circa the later part of the 1st millennium when it succumbed to a long decline against pressures from the various Islamic powers leagued against it. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Adal was a sixteenth century province-cum-sultanate located in East Africa north of Ethiopia, in modern Eritrea and Djibouti. ... Afar (or Danakil) are a tribal people who reside principally in the Danakil Desert in the Afar Region of Ethiopia and in Eritrea and Djibouti. ... Ahmed Gurey statue in Mogadishu. ... Combatants Ethiopia Adal Sultanate Commanders Emperor Galawdewos Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi Strength 8,000 Ethiopian infantry, 500 Ethiopian horse, 70 Portuguese musketeers, 60 Portuguese horse 14,000 infantry, 1200 horse, 200 Ottoman musketeers Casualties unknown extensive, but not precisely known; 160 Ottoman musketeers killed The Battle of Wayna... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ...


The Ajuuraan Sultanate flourished from the 14th to the 17th centuries. Following the collapse of Adal and Ajuuraan in the 17th century, the region saw the emergence of new city states such as the Sultanates of eastern Sanaag, of Bari, of Geledi-Afgoye, of Gasar Gudde-Lugh Ganane, of Mogadishu and the Benadir coast, and of Hobyo. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Location of Sanaag in northern Somalia Sanaag (Somali: Sanaag; Arabic: سناغ‎ Sanāgh) is a region (gobol) in northern Somalia. ... Bari is a region (gobolka) in northern Somalia. ... Benadir is a coastal region of Somalia. ... Hobyo is an ancient harbor city in the Mudugh region of Somalia. ...


Colonial period

Competition between the Somali clans that lived in these states persisted through the colonial period, when various parts of the region were colonised by Britain and Italy. This era began in the year 1884, the end of a long period of comparative peace. At the Berlin Conference of 1884, the scramble for Africa started the long and bloody process of the imperial partition of Somali lands. The French, British, and Italians came to Somalia in the late 19th century. This 2002 CIA map shows the distribution of Somali clan populations across the Somali homelands, and their percentages within Somalia: Hawiye (25%), Isaaq (22%), Darod (20%), Rahanweyn (17%), Dir (7%), Digil (3%), and ethnic minorities (6%) Somali clan refers to the clan grouping of the Somali people. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


The British signed treaties with the clans in what was known after as British Somaliland which was a protectorate in 1886 after the withdrawal of Egypt. Egypt sought to prevent European colonial expansion in Northeast Africa. The southern area, was colonised by Italy in 1889, became known as Italian Somaliland. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan, Sayyid), born in the north of the Somali peninsula, was a religious, nationalist and controversial leader. Known to the British as the "Mad Mullah", he spent 20 years leading armed resistance to the British, Italian, and Ethiopian forces in Somalia. Born into the Ogaden sub-clan of the Darod, Hassan grew up in among the Dhulbahante pastoralists who were good herdsmen and warriors and who used camels as well as horses. Young Hassan's hero was his maternal grandfather Sade Mogan who was a great warrior chief. Mohammed Abdullah Hasssan on his famous horse Xin-Faniin Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan, Sayyid) (born April 7, 1864, in the north of Somalia, died December 21, 1920 in Imi, Ethiopia) was Somalias religious and nationalist leader (called the Mad Mullah by the British, although he was neither... This article is about the ethnic group. ... The Darod (Somali language: Darood, or Daarood) is a Somali clan. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... A herder is a worker who lives a semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, especially in places where these animals wander unfenced pasture lands. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Between 1900 and 1907, the Italian leaders tried several times to negotiate a land deal with the Geledi Sultan based in Afgoye and his Biyo-maal and Digil warriors. In 1905 more than 1,000 Biyo-maal and Tunni warriors, along with a large number of Italians, were killed when the Italian army attacked in an attempt to gain their objectives. Though many Somali warriors were killed during the war, they still defeated the enemy and succeeded in protecting the Benadir coast. After a long and bloody battle, the Italian leaders allied with other Somali tribes and their combined strength finally destroyed the Sultan's forces. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Sheikh Uways al-Barawi of the Tunni sub-clan of the Rahanweyn (Digil and Mirifle) in Barawa, lived at the same time as Hassan and led the Qadiriyyah sect. He resisted the Italian occupation in a non-violent method. He was murdered in Biyoley, in today's Bakool region, by the Dervish in 1920 as Hassan was seeking to recruit forces from Italian Somaliland. This was after the British used aircraft to destroy Hassan's base in Taleex. Sheikh Aweys rejected violence and Hassan's ways were based on violent resistance. For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Sheikh Uways Al-Barawi (1847-1909) was a Somali scholar credited with reviving Islam in 19th century East Africa. ... The Rahanweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle. ... Barawa or Brava (Somali: Baraawe; Arabic: ; Bravanese: Mwiini or Nti ya Mbalazi) is a port town in the south eastern coast of Somalia. ... Qadiriyyah (Arabic: القادريه) (also transliterated Qadiri), is one of the oldest Sufi tariqas, derives its name from Abdul Qadir Jilani (also transliterated as Gilani) (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Location of Bakool in Somalia Bakool (Somali: Bakool) is a region (gobolka) in central Somalia. ... For other uses, see Dervish (disambiguation). ... Taleex, also known as Taleh; is an city, and capital of the similarly-named district located in northeast Somalia, now known as the State of Puntland, and also claimed as territory of the Republic of Somaliland). ...


As a result of Hassan and his followers being chased by the followers of Sheikh al-Barawi, Hassan had to escape through the thick forest along the Jubba River until he reached Imi, Ethiopia, where he died of influenza, and, reportedly, wounds inflicted on him during his escape. Bridge over the Jubba in Baardheere, Somalia The Juba or Jubba River (Somali: Jubba; Italian: ) is a river in southern Somalia. ... IMI is a three letter acronym. ... Flu redirects here. ...


To this day the annual pilgrimage to Sheikh al-Barawi's grave in Biyoley is held where people of the Qadiriyyah sect and admirers of al-Barawi attend.


Sheikh Hassan Barsane of the Gugundhabe, a sub-clan of the Hawiye, and a member of the Ahmadi, was another Somali religious leader who resisted the Italian rule in a non-violent manner. He, like al-Barawi, rejected Hassan's approaches. Hawiye is a Somali clan whose members live in central and southern Somalia, in larger numbers in Kenya and Ethiopia, and in smaller numbers in other countries. ... This article is about the Ahmadiyya branch of Islam founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ...


World War II

Fascist Italy, under Benito Mussolini attacked Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), with an aim to colonize it, in 1935. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia. Image File history File links SYL-Freedom. ... Image File history File links SYL-Freedom. ... The Somali Youth League (SYL) was the first political party of Somalia. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


On August 3, 1940, Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somalia and by August 14 succeeded in taking Berbera from the British. is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents United Kingdom British India British Somaliland Northern Rhodesia British East Africa Italy Italian East Africa Commanders Reade Godwin-Austen Arthur Chater Guglielmo Nasi Carlo De Simone Luigi Frusci Strength 4,000 24,000 Casualties and losses 38 killed[1] 71 wounded[1] 49 missing[1] Total:205[2] Destroyed... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berbera (Somali Berbera) (coordinates:) is a city in the newly established Saaxil region of Somalia, and is currently part of the internationally unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


A British force, including Somali troops, launched a campaign in January 1942 from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland. By February, most of Italian Somaliland was captured and in March, British Somaliland was retaken from the sea. The British Empire forces operating in Somaliland comprised three divisions of South African, West and East African troops. They were assisted by Somali patriot forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq, Dhulbahante, and Warsangali clans. Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The tomb of Sheikh Isaq, the father of the Isaq tribe The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak) (Somali language: Reer Sheik Isaxaaq); is one of the main Somali clans. ... The Dhulbahante is a Somali sub clan of the Harti part of the Koombe and of Kablalax, of the Darod tribes. ... The Warsangali (also Warsengeli or Warsingeli) (Son of Mohamoud Harti) is a Somali clan of the Harti group, part of the Darod clan. ...


Following the war the United Nations gave Somalia as a protectorate to Italy in 1949. The Ogaden province of Somalia was given to the re-established Ethiopian government by the British Empire, which kept British Somaliland under its protection/rule. The French also kept Djibouti under colonial administration, until eventual independence in 1977. UN redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical area. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ...


The State of Somalia

Though Somalis and other Africans fought hard on the Allied side in World War II, they were re-subjugated soon after the conflict. The bitterness of lost hope strengthened the long struggle against colonialism, and in most parts of Africa, including Somalia, independence movements began. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The major political parties that fought for Somalia's independence were Somali Youth Club (SYC) which later became Somali Youth League (SYL); Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) which later became Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali HDMS; and the Somali National League (SNL). The Somali Youth League (SYL) was the first political party of Somalia. ...


The independence of the British Somaliland Protectorate from the United Kingdom was proclaimed on 26 June 1960 and unification with the former Italian Somaliland took place 5 days later. Now most of the Somali clans were independent and the country of Somalia was formed, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.[3][4][5] A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa with Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President,[6][7][8] and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister, later to become President (from 1967-1969). is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abdullahi Issa Abdullahi Issa Mohamud was born in 1922 at Afgoi. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This page contains a list of the Presidents of Somalia. ... Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was President of Somalia from June 10, 1967 until October 15, 1969. ... List of the Heads of Government of Somalia (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Political Affiliations SNL - Somali National League SRSP - Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party SYL - Somali Youth League USC - United Somali Congress Mil - Military n-p - Non-partisan See also History of Somalia Presidents of Somalia...


However inter-tribal rivalry persisted[9][10][11][12] with many clans claiming to have been forced into the state of Somalia. In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal became Prime Minister, appointed by Shermarke (Egal was later to become President of the breakaway independent Somaliland). Mudane Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal (Somali: ) (born August 15, 1922 in Odweyne, British Somaliland - died May 3, 2002 in Pretoria, South Africa) was a Somali politician. ...


In late 1969 following the assassination of President Shermarke a military government assumed power in a coup d'état led by General Siad Barre and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. Barre became President and Korshel vice-president. The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programmes and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate from 5% to 55% by the mid-1980s. Coup redirects here. ... Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre) (1919 – January 2, 1995) was the Head of State of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. ... Children reading. ...


However, struggles continued during Barre's rule. At one point he assassinated a major figure in his cabinet, Major General Gabiere, and two other officials.


It was in July 1976 when the real dictatorship of the Somali military commenced with the founding of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed, XHKS). It was the single party that ruled Somalia until the fall of the military government in December 1990 - January 1991. It was violently overthrown by the combined armed revolt of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed, SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC), Somali National Movement (SNM), and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG). XHKS flag XHKS poster XHKS poster XHKS poster Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (in Somali: Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed or XHKS), the governing political party in Somalia 1976-1991. ... Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) (in Somali: Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed, and initially known as the Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia), has been one of the major political and paramilitary umbrella organizations in Somalia since its founding in 1981 by several officers opposed to the regime of Siad Barre. ... The United Somali Congress is a politico-military organization in Somalia based around the Habr Gidr clan (itself part of the larger Hawiye clan). ... Somali National Movement. ... The Somali Patriotic Movement is a political party and paramilitary organization in Somalia. ... Over the course of the Somali Civil War, there have been many revolutionary movements and militia groups run by competing warlords which have held de facto control over vast areas of the country. ... Over the course of the Somali Civil War, there have been many revolutionary movements and militia groups run by competing warlords which have held de facto control over vast areas of the country. ...


The Ogaden War

Fakr ad-Din mosque
Fakr ad-Din mosque

In 1977 and 1978 Somalia fought with its neighbour Ethiopia in the Ogaden War, in which Somalia aimed to liberate and unite the Somali lands that had been divided and subjugated under colonialism and to win the right of self-determination for ethnic Somalis in those countries. Somalia first engaged Kenya and Ethiopia diplomatically, but this failed. Somalia, already preparing for war, created the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF, then called the Western Somali Liberation Front, WSLF) and eventually sought to capture Ogaden. Somalia acted unilaterally without consulting the international community, which was generally opposed to redrawing colonial boundaries, while the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, refused to help Somalia, and instead, backed Communist Ethiopia. For most of the war, Somalia appeared to be winning in most of Ogaden, but with Somali forces at the gates of Addis Ababa, Soviet and Cuban forces and weapons came to the aid of Ethiopia. The Somali Army was decimated and Somalia sought the help of the United States. Although the Carter Administration originally expressed interest in helping Somalia he later declined, as did American allies in the Middle East and Asia. The Americans perhaps did not want to engage the Soviets in this period of détente. Image File history File links Fakr_Ud_Din_Mosque. ... Image File history File links Fakr_Ud_Din_Mosque. ... The Fakr ad-Din Mosque is the oldest mosque in Mogadishu. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Flag of the ONLF Territories inhabited by ethnic Somalis The Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) (Amharic: )(Somali: Jahbadda Wadaniga Xoreenta Ogadenia, JWXO), is a separatist rebel group fighting to make the region of Ogaden in eastern Ethiopia an independent state. ... Somali guerrilla activity in the Ogaden and in the Haud area east of Harer flared sporadically after Somalia gained its independence in 1960, but the guerrilla activity remained essentially a police concern until a border war erupted in 1964. ... Banners of the international community at the United Nations in Geneva The term international community is a political phrase that can refer to either: All the lands represented within the United Nations. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James Earl... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...


The Somali Civil War

Main article: Somali Civil War

By 1978, the moral authority of the Somali government had collapsed. Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship and the regime was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished. The government became increasingly totalitarian, and resistance movements, encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War. The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ...


1991 saw great changes in Somalia. President Barre was ousted by a combined northern and southern clan based forces all of whom were backed and armed by Ethiopia. And following a meeting of the SNM and northern clans' elders, the northern former British portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland in May 1991; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognised by any foreign government.[13][14] SNM is a three-character combination that may refer to: Sacred Name Movement SNM Chat Society of Nuclear Medicine Somali National Movement Special nuclear material Sant Nirankari Mission Categories: | ...


In January 1991, President Ali Mahdi Muhammad was selected by the manisfesto group as an interim president for the whole of Somalia until a conference between all stakeholders to be held in Djibouti in February of the same year to select a national leader. However, United Somali Congress military leader General Mohamed Farrah Aidid, the Somali National Movement leader Abdirahman Toor and the Somali Patriotic Movement leader Col Jess refused to recognize Mahdi as president. This caused a split between the SNM, USC and SPM and the armed groups Manifesto, Somali Democratic Movement (SDM) and Somali National Alliance (SNA) on the one hand and within the USC forces. This led efforts to remove Barre who still claimed to be the legitimate president of Somalia. He and his armed supporters remained in the south of the country until mid 1992, causing further escalation in violence, especially in the Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower Shabelle, Lower Juba, and Middle Juba regions. The armed conflict within the USC devastated the Mogadishu area. Ali Mahdi Muhammad (born 1938) was president of Somalia from January (when Mohammed Farah Aidid removed the then president Mohamed Siad Barre) to November of 1991, but was not able in that time to exert control over the country. ... The United Somali Congress is a politico-military organization in Somalia based around the Habr Gidr clan (itself part of the larger Hawiye clan). ... General Mohamed Farrah Aidid (Somali: ; December 15, 1934 – August 1, 1996) was a controversial Somali leader, often described as a warlord[1]. He was the chairman of United Somali Congress (USC) and later Somali National Alliance (SNA) who drove Mohamed Siad Barre’s dictatorial regime from the capital, Mogadishu and... Somali National Movement. ... The Somali Patriotic Movement is a political party and paramilitary organization in Somalia. ... The Somali National Alliance was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. ...


The civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in southern Somalia. The basis of most of the conflicts was clan allegiances and competition for resources between the warring clans. James Bishop, the United States last ambassador to Somalia, explained that there is "competition for water, pasturage, and... cattle. It is a competition that used to be fought out with arrows and sabers... Now it is fought out with AK-47s."[15] The resulting famine caused the United Nations Security Council in 1992 to authorize the limited peacekeeping operation United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I). UNOSOM's use of force was limited to self-defence and it was soon disregarded by the warring factions. In reaction to the continued violence and the humanitarian disaster, the United States organised a military coalition with the purpose of creating a secure environment in southern Somalia for the conduct of humanitarian operations. This coalition, (Unified Task Force or UNITAF) entered Somalia in December 1992 on Operation Restore Hope and was successful in restoring order and alleviating the famine. In May 1993, most of the United States troops withdrew and UNITAF was replaced by the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II). “Security Council” redirects here. ... Operation Provide Relief (UNOSOM I) was a United Nation (UN) sponsored effort to provide humanitarian relief for the people of Somalia who were facing a severe famine, initiated and exacerbated by the ongoing Somoli civil war. ... The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a United Nations sanctioned effort to assist in stabilising Somalia in the face of widespread lawlessness and a severe famine. ... Combatants United States United Nations Pakistan Malaysia Somalia Commanders George HW Bush Bill Clinton Boutros Boutros Ghali Mohamed Farrah Aidid Casualties 24 Pakistani KIA 22 US KIA Unknown The 1992-1993 War in Somalia was a United States initiated and United Nations sanctioned military operation(code-named OPERATION RESTORE HOPE... Operation Restore Hope was an American military operation with the support of the United Nations which was formed to deliver humanitarian aid and restore order to the African nation of Somalia which was suffering from a severe famine, general anarchy, and domination by a number of warlords following the collapse...


However, Aidid saw UNOSOM II as a threat to his power and in June 1993 his militia attacked Pakistan Army troops, attached to UNOSOM II, (see Somalia (March 1992 to February 1996)) in Mogadishu inflicting over 80 casualties. Fighting escalated until 18 American troops and more than 1,000 Somalis were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October 1993. The UN withdrew Operation United Shield in 3 March 1995, having suffered significant casualties, and with the rule of government still not restored. The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Belligerents United Nations United States Malaysia Pakistan Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Sikandar Afzal Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000-4,000 Casualties and losses U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded SNA Militia and civilians... Operation United Shield was the name given to the US military operation of evacuating all remaining 6,200 UN peacekeeping troops from Somalia from January to March of 1995, the troops were made up of Americans, Pakistanis and Egyptians. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


In June 1996, Mohamed Farrah Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.


2000 – Present

Areas directly administered by the Transitional Federal Government
Areas directly administered by the Transitional Federal Government

Following the civil war the Majeerteen clan declared a self-governing state in the northeast, which took the name Puntland, but maintained that it would participate in any Somali reconciliation to form a new central government. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Main article: Somali clan Language(s) Somali and Arabic Religion(s) Islam (Sunni) Related ethnic groups Dhulbahante, Mehri, Warsangali and other Harti and Darod groups. ... Motto None Anthem Puntland Somali National Anthem Capital Garowe (Administrative), Bosaso (Commercial) Largest city Bosaso Official languages Somali and Arabic Government  -  President Mohamud Muse Hersi  -  Vice-President Hassan Dahir Mohamud Autonomy Inside Somalia   -  Declared 1998   -  Recognition   Area  -  Total 212,510 km km² (84th) n/a sq mi   -  Water (%) Negl. ...


Then in 2002, Southwestern Somalia, comprising Bay, Bakool, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Juba), Gedo, Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabele) and Jubbada Hoose (Lower Juba) regions of Somalia declared itself autonomous. Although initially the instigators of this, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, which had been established in 1995, was only in full control of Bay, Bakool and parts of Gedo and Jubbada Dhexe, they quickly established the de facto autonomy of Southwestern Somalia. Although conflict between Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud and his two deputies, weakened the Rahanweyn militarily from February 2006, the Southwest became central to the TFG based in the city of Baidoa. Shatigadud became Finance Minister, his first deputy Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe became Parliamentary Speaker and his second deputy Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade became Minister of Transport. Shatigadud also held the Chairmanship of the Rahanwein Traditional Elders' Court. Southwestern Somalia and claimed territories, 2002-2006 Capital (and largest city) Baidoa Official languages Somali, Arabic Government  -  Presidentbare hiraale Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud Autonomy within Somalia   -  Declared April 1, 2002   -  Abandoned February 10, 2006  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3) Internet TLD . ... Bay is a region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ... Location of Bakool in Somalia Bakool (Somali: Bakool) is a region (gobolka) in central Somalia. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Somalia ... For other uses, see Gedo (disambiguation). ... Location of Shabeellaha Hoose in Somalia Lower Shabele (Somali: Shabeellaha Hoose; Arabic: ‎ ) is an administrative region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ... Jubbada Hoose is a region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ... The regions (gobolka) of Somalia are (capitals in parentheses): Awdal (*) (Baki) Bakool (Oddur) Banaadir (Mogadishu) Bari (Bender Cassim) Bay (Baidoa) Galguduud (Dusa Mareb) Gedo (Garbahaarey) Hiraan (Beledweyne) Jubbada Dhexe (Buaale) Jubbada Hoose (Kismaayo) Mudug (Galcaio) Nugaal (Garoowe) Sanaag (*) (Erigavo) Saaxil (*) (Berbera) Shabeellaha Dhexe (Giohar) Shabeellaha Hoose (Merca) Sool (*) (Laascaanood... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rahanwein Resistance Army. ... Colonel bare adan shire hiraale (Somali: bare hiiraale) is a notable Somali warlord, and chairman of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA), which sought to establish the autonomous state of Southwestern Somalia. ... Sheikh Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe (Somali: ) was a former cabinet minister and the present Speaker of Parliament of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia. ...


In 2004, the TFG met in Nairobi, Kenya and published a charter for the government of the nation.[16][17] The TFG capital is presently in Baidoa. Location of Nairobi Coordinates: , Country Province HQ City Hall Founded 1899 Constituencies of Nairobi List Makadara Kamukunji Starehe Langata Dagoretti Westlands Kasarani Embakasi Government  - Mayor Geoffrey Majiwa Area  - City 684 km² (264. ...


Meanwhile Somalia was one of the many countries affected by the tsunami which struck the Indian Ocean coast following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, destroying entire villages and killing an estimated 300 people and in 2006, Somalia was deluged by torrential rains and flooding that struck the entire Horn of Africa affecting 350,000 people.[18] For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea (subduction) earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The Horn of Africa. ...

Somalia at the height of I.C.U. power, December 2006
Somalia at the height of I.C.U. power, December 2006

The tribal rivalry continued in 2006 with the declaration of regional autonomy by the state of Jubaland, consisting of parts of Gedo, Jubbada Dhexe, and the whole of Jubbada Hoose. Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale, chairman of the Juba Valley Alliance, who comes from Galguduud in central Somalia is the most powerful leader there. Like Puntland this regional government did not want full statehood, but some sort of federal autonomy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Superscript text Barre Aadan Shire Barre Adan Shire (Somali: ), also known as Barre Hiiraale, Barre Hirale Aden Shire, or Abdikadir Adan Shire[1], is the Minister of Defense of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG), which was formed in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2004. ... Jubaland (Somali: Jubbaland) or Juba Valley (Somali: Dooxada Jubba), formerly Trans-Juba (Italian: ), is the southwesternmost part of Somalia, on the far side of the Juba River (thus Trans-Juba), bordering on Kenya. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The 2006 civil war and invasion by Ethiopia

See also: Battle of Mogadishu (2006), Rise of the Islamic Courts Union (2006), War in Somalia (2006–present), Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts in the Somali Civil War, and 2008 timeline of the War in Somalia

Conflict broke out again in early 2006 between an alliance of Mogadishu warlords known as the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (or "ARPCT") and a militia loyal to the Islamic Courts Union (or "I.C.U."), seeking to institute Sharia law in Somalia. Social law changes, such as the forbidding of chewing khat,[19] and even the prohibition against watching movies and football in public,[20] were part of moves by the ICU to change behaviours and impose strict social morals. Combatants Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Islamic Court Union Commanders Mohamed Qanyare, Muse Sudi, Nuur Daqle Sheikh Sharif Ahmed Strength unknown unknown Casualties Over 350 deaths[1] The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Alleged: Eritrea Foreign Jihadists ARPCT, comprising Various Warlords Transitional Federal Government Puntland Autonomous Region Rahanweyn Resistance Army Ethiopia[1] Alleged:  Uganda[2] Commanders Muhammad Ibraheem Bilal Hasan Hersi Turki Yusuf Siad Inda-Addeh Mukhtar Robow Adan Ayrow Barre Adan Shire Hirale (Jubaland), Abdi... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Hizbul Shabaab al-Itihaad al-Islamiya Alleged: Foreign Mujahideen al-Qaeda  Eritrea  Ethiopia TFG Galmudug Puntland After the invasion: AMISOM United States Commanders Hassan Aweys Sharif Ahmed Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Abdikadir Adan Shire Abdi Hasan Awale Mohamud Muse Hersi Meles Zenawi Patrick M. Walsh Strength... Main articles: Somali Civil War (2006), Battle of Baidoa, and Ethiopian intervention in the Somali Civil War The Somali Civil War began in 1988. ... The Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT) is a Somali alliance made by powerfull warlords and businesspeople, while some of them were ministers in the transitional federal government of Somalia. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Binomial name (Vahl) Forssk. ...


The Union was led by Sheikh Sharif Ahmed. When asked if the ICU plans to extend its control to the rest of Somalia, Sheikh Ahmed responded in an interview: Chairman of the ICU, Sharif Ahmed. ...

"Land is not our priority. Our priority is the people's peace, dignity and that they could live in liberty, that they could decide their own fate. That is our priority. Our priority is not land; the people are important to us."

Several hundred people, mostly civilians caught in the crossfire, died during this conflict. Mogadishu residents described it as the worst fighting in more than a decade. The Islamic Courts Union accused the U.S. of funding the warlords through the Central Intelligence Agency and supplying them with arms in an effort to prevent the Islamic Courts Union from gaining power. The United States Department of State, while neither admitting nor denying this, said the U.S. had taken no action that violated the international arms embargo of Somalia. A few e-mails describing covert illegal operations by private military companies in breach of U.N. regulations have been reported[21] by the UK Sunday newspaper The Observer. CIA redirects here. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


By early June 2006 the Islamic Militia had control of Mogadishu, following the Second Battle of Mogadishu, and the last A.R.P.C.T. stronghold in southern Somalia, the town of Jowhar, then fell with little resistance. The remaining A.R.P.C.T. forces fled to the east or across the border into Ethiopia and the alliance effectively collapsed. Combatants Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Islamic Court Union Commanders Mohamed Qanyare, Muse Sudi, Nuur Daqle Sheikh Sharif Ahmed Strength unknown unknown Casualties Over 350 deaths[1] The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia. ... Jauhar (sometimes written jowhar) was originally the voluntary death on a funeral pyre of the queen or the royal women of defeated Rajput cities or forts in order to avoid capture. ...


The Ethiopian-supported Transitional Government then called for intervention by a regional East African peacekeeping force. The I.C.U. meanwhile were fiercely opposed to foreign troops — particularly Ethiopians — in Somalia.[22] claiming that Ethiopia, with its long history as an imperial power including the occupation of Ogaden, seeks to occupy Somalia, or rule it by proxy. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Meanwhile the I.C.U. and their militia took control of much of the southern half of Somalia, normally through negotiation with local clan chiefs rather than by the use of force. However, the Islamic militia stayed clear of areas close to the Ethiopian border, which had become a place of refuge for many Somalis including the Transitional Government itself, headquartered in the town of Baidoa. Ethiopia said it would protect Baidoa if threatened. On September 25, 2006, the I.C.U. moved into the southern port of Kismayo, the last remaining port held by the transitional government.[23] Ethiopian troops entered Somalia and seized the town of Buur Hakaba on October 9, and later that day the I.C.U. issued a declaration of war against Ethiopia.[24] is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 1, 2006, peace talks between the Transitional Government and the ICU broke down. The international community feared an all-out civil war, with Ethiopian and rival Eritrean forces backing opposing sides in the power-struggle.[25] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


War erupted on December 21, 2006 when the leader of ICU, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys said: "Somalia is in a state of war, and all Somalis should take part in this struggle against Ethiopia", and heavy fighting broke out between the Islamic militia on one side and the Somali Transitional Government allied with Ethiopian forces on the other.[26] For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mr. ...


In late December 2006, Ethiopia launched airstrikes against Islamic troops and strong points across Somalia. Ethiopian Information Minister Berhan Hailu stated that targets included the town of Buurhakaba, near the Transitional Government base in Baidoa. An Ethiopian jet fighter strafed Mogadishu International Airport (now Aden Adde International Airport), without apparently causing serious damage but prompting the airport to be shut down. Other Ethiopian jet fighters attacked a military airport west of Mogadishu.[27][28] Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi then announced that his country was waging war against the ICU to protect his country's sovereignty. "Ethiopian defence forces were forced to enter into war to the protect the sovereignty of the nation and to blunt repeated attacks by Islamic courts terrorists and anti-Ethiopian elements they are supporting," he said.[29][30] Airstrike in Kosovo War An airstrike is a military strike by air forces on either a suspected or a confirmed enemy ground position, which depending on the selected tactics may or may not be followed up by artillery, armor, or infantry units. ... Buurhakaba is a city located in the Bay region of southwestern Somalia. ... Aden Adde International Airport (formerly Mogadishu International Airport) is the international airport of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. ... Meles Zenawi Asres (Geez መለስ ዜናዊ meles zēnāwī, b. ...


Days of heavy fighting followed as Ethiopian and government troops backed by tanks and jets pushed against Islamic forces between Baidoa and Mogadishu. Both sides claimed to have inflicted hundreds of casualties, but the Islamic infantry and vehicle artillery were badly beaten and forced to retreat toward Mogadishu. On 28 December 2006, the allies entered Mogadishu after Islamic fighters fled the city. Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi declared that Mogadishu had been secured, after meeting with local clan leaders to discuss the peaceful hand-over of the city.[31] Yet as of April 2008, the Transitional Federal Government and its Ethiopian allies still face frequent attacks from an Islamic insurgency. is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ali Mohammed Ghedi A TRAITOR-WHOS LAST DAYS ARE NEAR Ali Mohammed Ghedi or Mohammed Ali Ghedi (Somali: ) (born 1951) is the Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia. ...


The Battle of Ras Kamboni

The Islamists retreated south, towards their stronghold in Kismayo, fighting rearguard actions in several towns. They abandoned Kismayo, too, without a fight, claiming that their flight was a strategic withdrawal to avoid civilian casualties, and entrenched around the small town of Ras Kamboni, at the southernmost tip of Somalia and on the border with Kenya. In early January, the Ethiopians and the Somali government attacked, resulting in the Battle of Ras Kamboni, and capturing the Islamic positions and driving the surviving fighters into the hills and forests after several days of combat. On January 9, 2007, the United States openly intervened in Somalia by sending Lockheed AC-130 gunships to attack Islamic positions in Ras Kamboni. Dozens were killed and by then the ICU were largely defeated. Ras Kamboni is a town in the Badhaadhe district of Somalia, on a peninsula near the border with Kenya. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters[1] Transitional Federal Government (TFG) Ethiopia United States Commanders Sharif Sheik Ahmed Yusuf Hassan TFG: Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Col. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The AC-130 gunship is a heavily-armed ground attack airplane. ...


As of November 30, 2007, the fighting continued in Mogadishu between transitional government Somali and Ethiopian official troops, on one hand, and Islamic militants, on the other. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Somalia

Somalia has had no effective national government since 1991. The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government, controls only parts of Southern Somalia from its base in the town of Baidoa, and is not recognized by most Somalis. On October 14, 2004, the Somali Transitional Federal Parliament elected Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, previously president of Puntland, to be president of Somalia. Because of the situation in Mogadishu, the election was held in a sports centre in Nairobi, Kenya. Yusuf was elected with 189 of the 275 votes from members of parliament. The politics of Somalia are defined by the state of civil war which, since 1991, has divided the country into various warring entities and autonomist and seccessionist regions. ... Image File history File links Abdullahi_Yusuf_Ahmed. ... Image File history File links Abdullahi_Yusuf_Ahmed. ... Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (Somali: ) (b. ... Baidoa (Somali: Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles) by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is the parliament of Somalia. ... Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (Somali: ) (b. ...


Many other small political organisations exist, some clan-based, others seeking a Somalia free from clan-based politics. Many of them have come into existence since the civil war. The political situation therefore remains unstable; for example, on September 18, 2006, Abdullah Yusuf barely survived a suicide attack on his convoy in Baidoa, although twelve other people were killed.[32] is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the northwest, there is the secessionist region of Somaliland with its capital in Hargeisa that declared its independence in 1991. This Isaaq-dominated governing zone is not recognized by any major international organization or country, although it has remained more stable and certainly more peaceful than the rest of Somalia, neighboring Puntland notwithstanding.[33][34] For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ... Hargeisa (Somali: Hargeysa) is a city in Somalia and the capital of the de-facto Republic of Somaliland which was formed in 1991. ... The tomb of Sheikh Isaq, the father of the Isaq tribe The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak) (Somali language: Reer Sheik Isaxaaq); is one of the main Somali clans. ... Motto None Anthem Puntland Somali National Anthem Capital Garowe (Administrative), Bosaso (Commercial) Largest city Bosaso Official languages Somali and Arabic Government  -  President Mohamud Muse Hersi  -  Vice-President Hassan Dahir Mohamud Autonomy Inside Somalia   -  Declared 1998   -  Recognition   Area  -  Total 212,510 km km² (84th) n/a sq mi   -  Water (%) Negl. ...


Puntland in the northeast also remains autonomous but supports the Transitional Government and, unlike Somaliland, still considers itself a part of the Somali Republic. Motto None Anthem Puntland Somali National Anthem Capital Garowe (Administrative), Bosaso (Commercial) Largest city Bosaso Official languages Somali and Arabic Government  -  President Mohamud Muse Hersi  -  Vice-President Hassan Dahir Mohamud Autonomy Inside Somalia   -  Declared 1998   -  Recognition   Area  -  Total 212,510 km km² (84th) n/a sq mi   -  Water (%) Negl. ...


Sanaag Region and some parts of Bari region there is newly declared state of Maakhir which is a self-proclaimed autonomous state within Somalia on an area disputed by Somaliland and Puntland. Declared in July 1, 2007, it remains unrecognized by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia. Location of Sanaag in northern Somalia Sanaag (Somali: Sanaag; Arabic: سناغ‎ Sanāgh) is a region (gobol) in northern Somalia. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Badhan Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Jibrell Ali Salad Autonomy from Somaliland, Puntland and Somalia   -  Proclaimed July 1, 2007   -  Unrecognised  Area  -  Total 35,000 km²  13,514 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 700,000  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ...


Maakhir is mainly inhabited by the Warsangali clan, a member of the Harti confederation of clans (along with the Dhulbahante and Majeerteen) and a clan of the Darod tribe. Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Badhan Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Jibrell Ali Salad Autonomy from Somaliland, Puntland and Somalia   -  Proclaimed July 1, 2007   -  Unrecognised  Area  -  Total 35,000 km²  13,514 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 700,000  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer... The Warsangali (also Warsengeli or Warsingeli) (Son of Mohamoud Harti) is a Somali clan of the Harti group, part of the Darod clan. ... Harti (also Herti; In Somali it means Strong man) is a Somali sub-clan of Darood. ... The Dhulbahante is a Somali sub clan of the Harti part of the Koombe and of Kablalax, of the Darod tribes. ... Main article: Somali clan Language(s) Somali and Arabic Religion(s) Islam (Sunni) Related ethnic groups Dhulbahante, Mehri, Warsangali and other Harti and Darod groups. ... The Darod (Somali language: Darood, or Daarood) is a Somali clan. ...


In the southwestern interior, Jubaland and Southwestern Somalia have both recognised the TFG and local leaders are part of the government. Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Kismayo Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Autonomy Part of Federated Somalia   -  Autonomy Declared 1998   -  Ended by JVA 2004   -  Re-established 2007   -  Recognition Not Recognized  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3... Southwestern Somalia and claimed territories, 2002-2006 Capital (and largest city) Baidoa Official languages Somali, Arabic Government  -  Presidentbare hiraale Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud Autonomy within Somalia   -  Declared April 1, 2002   -  Abandoned February 10, 2006  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3) Internet TLD . ...


The southern half of the country, with the bulk of the population, as of November 2007, is unstable, following the 2006 Civil War between the Transitional Government and the Islamic Courts Union.


Westerners and those working for western organisations continue to be targets of the violence. Two aid workers, one British and the other Kenyan, were abducted in Puntland on 8 May 2007 and a western nurse and her escort were shot dead in Mogadishu on 17 September 2006. is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The inhabitants of Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions of the Northern Somalia have announced formations of a new political party – Northern Somali Unionist Movement (NSUM) as a grass roots Somali organization whose members and supporters hail from Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions in the Northern regions of Somalia(formerly British Somaliland) and whose clan in these regions do not identify with the Somaliland secession. NSUM stands for the promotion of peace and unity among all people of Somalia.


Capital

Mogadishu is the capital of Somalia. However, during the conflict in 2006, Mogadishu became part of the territory controlled by the Islamic Courts Union, while the Transitional Federal Government had its seat in Baidoa. The Government returned to Mogadishu in December 2006 with the help of Ethiopian troops. Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Baidoa (Somali: Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles) by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Somalia
Hargeisa and much of the de-facto republic of Somaliland is desert or hilly terrain. Here the Naasa Hablood hills are shown.
Hargeisa and much of the de-facto republic of Somaliland is desert or hilly terrain. Here the Naasa Hablood hills are shown.

Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa with the Gulf of Aden to the north and the Indian Ocean to the east. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on the continent.[35] Geography of Somalia - Africas easternmost country, Somalia has a land area of 637,540 square kilometers, slightly less than that of the state of Texas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Naasa_Hablood2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Naasa_Hablood2. ... Hargeisa (Somali: Hargeysa) is a city in Somalia and the capital of the de-facto Republic of Somaliland which was formed in 1991. ... Naasa Hablood The Naasa Hablood hills seen from Hargeysa Naasa-Hablood (Somali meaning Girls Breasts) are twin hills situated on the outskirts of the Hargeisa, Somaliland. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ...


Climate

Major climatic factors are a year-round hot climate, seasonal monsoon winds, and irregular rainfall with recurring droughts. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 °C to 40 °C (85–105 °F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast. Mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15 °C to 30 °C (60–85 °F). The southwest monsoon, a sea breeze, makes the period from about May to October the mildest season at Mogadishu. The December-February period of the northeast monsoon is also relatively mild, although prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant. The "tangambili" periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ...

Regions and districts

Political map of Somalia.
Political map of Somalia.

Prior to the civil war, Somalia was divided into eighteen regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which were in turn subdivided into districts. The regions are: The regions (gobolka) of Somalia are (capitals in parentheses): Awdal (*) (Baki) Bakool (Oddur) Banaadir (Mogadishu) Bari (Bender Cassim) Bay (Baidoa) Galguduud (Dusa Mareb) Gedo (Garbahaarey) Hiraan (Beledweyne) Jubbada Dhexe (Buaale) Jubbada Hoose (Kismaayo) Mudug (Galcaio) Nugaal (Garoowe) Sanaag (*) (Erigavo) Saaxil (*) (Berbera) Shabeellaha Dhexe (Giohar) Shabeellaha Hoose (Merca) Sool (*) (Laascaanood... The regions of Somalia are subdivided into 75 districts. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 3112 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 3112 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

1 Awdal
2 Bakool
3 Banaadir
4 Bari
5 Bay
6 Galguduud Location of Awdal in Somalia Awdal (Somali: Awdal; Arabic: ) is an administrative region in Somalia. ... Location of Bakool in Somalia Bakool (Somali: Bakool) is a region (gobolka) in central Somalia. ... Is is in Banadircounty where Mogadishu stand. ... Bari is a region (gobolka) in northern Somalia. ... Bay is a region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  7 Gedo
  8 Hiiraan
  9 Jubbada Hoose
10 Shabeellaha Hoose
11 Mudug
12 Jubbada Dhexe
For other uses, see Gedo (disambiguation). ... Location of Hiiraan in Somalia Hiiraan (Somali: Hiiraan; Arabic: ) is an administrative region (gobolka) in central Somalia. ... Jubbada Hoose is a region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ... Location of Shabeellaha Hoose in Somalia Lower Shabele (Somali: Shabeellaha Hoose; Arabic: ‎ ) is an administrative region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ... Location of Mudug in Somalia Mudug (Somali: Mudug; Arabic: ‎ ) is an administrative region (gobolka) in central Somalia. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Somalia ...

13 Shabeellaha Dhexe
14 Nugaal
15 Sanaag
16 Sool
17 Togdheer
18 Woqooyi Galbeed Shabeellaha Dhexe, also Central Shabele is a region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ... The Horn of Africa as seen from the NASA Space Shuttle, in May of 1993. ... Location of Sanaag in northern Somalia Sanaag (Somali: Sanaag; Arabic: سناغ‎ Sanāgh) is a region (gobol) in northern Somalia. ... Location of Sool in Somaliland/Somalia Sool (Somali: Sool; Arabic: ‎ ) is an administrative region (gobolka) in northern Somalia and is claimed by the two self-proclaimed, but internationally unrecognized, states of Somaliland and Puntland, its ruled by Puntland. ... Togdheer is a region (gobolka) in Somalia. ... Woqooyi Galbeed is a region (gobolka) in northern Somalia. ...

On a de facto basis, northern Somalia is now divided up among the quasi-independent states of Puntland, Somaliland, Galmudug and Maakhir. The south is at least nominally controlled by the Transitional Federal Government, although resistance by Islamic groups continues in many areas. Under the de facto arrangements there are now 27 regions. principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons Motto None Anthem Puntland Somali National Anthem Capital Garowe (Administrative), Bosaso (Commercial) Largest city Bosaso Official languages Somali and Arabic Government  -  President Mohamud Muse Hersi  -  Vice-President Hassan Dahir Mohamud Autonomy Inside Somalia   -  Declared 1998   -  Recognition   Area  -  Total 212,510 km km² (84th) n/a sq mi   -  Water (%) Negl. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ... Motto None Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Galcayo Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Mohamed Warsame Ali  -  Vice-President Abdisalam Haji Ahmed Liban Autonomy Part of Federated Somalia   -  Declared August 14, 2006   -  Recognition self-elected state autonomy  Area  -  Total 100,000 km km² (not ranked) not ranked... Anthem Somalia Tosow Capital (and largest city) Badhan Official languages Somali and English Government  -  President Jibrell Ali Salad Autonomy from Somaliland, Puntland and Somalia   -  Proclaimed July 1, 2007   -  Unrecognised  Area  -  Total 35,000 km²  13,514 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 700,000  Currency Somali shilling (SOS) Time zone EAT  -  Summer... The regions (gobolka) of Somalia are (capitals in parentheses): Awdal (*) (Baki) Bakool (Oddur) Banaadir (Mogadishu) Bari (Bender Cassim) Bay (Baidoa) Galguduud (Dusa Mareb) Gedo (Garbahaarey) Hiraan (Beledweyne) Jubbada Dhexe (Buaale) Jubbada Hoose (Kismaayo) Mudug (Galcaio) Nugaal (Garoowe) Sanaag (*) (Erigavo) Saaxil (*) (Berbera) Shabeellaha Dhexe (Giohar) Shabeellaha Hoose (Merca) Sool (*) (Laascaanood...


HIV/AIDS

Despite being caught up in a civil war for over 15 years now, Somalia still surprisingly has one of the lowest HIV infection rates in all of Africa. This is attributed to the Muslim nature of Somali society and adherence of Somalis to Islamic morals.[36] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...

The breadth of the AIDS pandemic has led to the idea in the West that the entire continent is ravaged by the disease. But Somalia — isolated for 14 years since the civil war began and populated by devout Muslims — has an infection rate of perhaps only 1.5 or 2 per cent of the adult population. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...

Stephanie Nolan[37]

Education

School classroom in Hargeisa
School classroom in Hargeisa
A Somali school roster board
A Somali school roster board

With the collapse of the central government in 1991, the education system is now private. Primary schools have risen from 600 before the civil war to 1,172 schools today, with an increase of 28% in primary school enrollment over the last 3 years.[38] In 2006, Puntland, an autonomous state, was the second in Somalia (after Somaliland) to introduce free primary schools with teachers now receiving their salaries from the Puntland administration.[39] In Mogadishu, the Benadir University, the Somalia National University, and the Mogadishu University are three of the eight universities that teach Higher education in Southern Somalia. In Puntland, higher education is provided by the Puntland State University and East Africa University. In Somaliland, it is provided by Amoud University, University of Hargeisa and Burao University. Three Somali Universities are currently ranked in the top 100 of Africa. Qur'anic schools (also known as duqsis) remain the basic system of instruction for religion in Somalia. They provide Islamic education for children, thereby filling a clear religious and social role in the country. Known as the most stable, local, and non-formal education providing basic religious and moral instruction, their strength rests on community support and their use of locally made and widely available teaching materials. Hargeisa (Somali: Hargeysa) is a city in Somalia and the capital of the de-facto Republic of Somaliland which was formed in 1991. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Benadir University, or University of Benadir, abbreviated as BU, is a university located in Mogadishu. ... Somalia National University is the national university of the African nation of Somalia, located in the capital Mogadishu. ... Moqadishu University, The Mugadishu University Campus in Mogadishu, Somalia. ... Amoud University is a university located in Borama. ... Burao University was established in 2004, but the idea of building a university in the city of Burao, Somalia known in Somali as Burco was first proposed in 1998 by a group of people which included ex-governor Mohomoud Adan dheri and the veteran mayor of the city Mohamed Hussein... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...


The Qu'ranic system, which teaches the greatest number of students relative to the other education sub-sectors, is the only system accessible to nomadic Somalis compared to the urban Somalis who have easier access to education. In 1993, a survey by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was conducted in which it found, among other things, that about 40% of pupils in Qu'ranic schools were girls.[40] UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Somalia
Hargeisa market
Hargeisa market

Since the collapse of the state, Somalia has transformed from what Siad Barre referred to as "Scientific Socialism" to a free market economy. A Somali rancher herds cattle in Kismayo. ... Hargeisa (Somali: Hargeysa) is a city in Somalia and the capital of the de-facto Republic of Somaliland which was formed in 1991. ... Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre) (1919 – January 2, 1995) was the Head of State of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. ... Scientific Socialism is the term used by Friedrich Engels to describe the socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ...

Bosaso is the fastest growing city of Somalia, having quadrupled in size during the Somali civil war.
Bosaso is the fastest growing city of Somalia, having quadrupled in size during the Somali civil war.

Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. After livestock, bananas are the principal export; sugar, sorghum, maize, and fish are products for the domestic market. The small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of GDP. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bosaaso (formerly Bander Qassim) is the fourth largest city in Somalia and the main port of Somalia since the start of the Somali Civil War in 1991. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... The industrial sector is generally defined as manufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, fishing and forestry establishments. ...


Telecommunications

Somalia's public telecommunications system has been almost completely destroyed or dismantled. However, private wireless companies thrive in most major cities and actually provide better services than in neighbouring countries. Wireless service and Internet cafés are provided. Somalia was the last African country to access the Internet in August 2000, with only 57 web sites known as of 2003.[41] Internet usage in Somalia grew 44,900% from 2000 to 2007, registering the highest growth rate in Africa.[42] Somalia has the cheapest cellular calling rates in Africa, with some companies charging less than a cent a minute.[43] Competing phone companies have agreed on interconnection standards, which were brokered by the United Nations funded Somali Telecom Association. Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... An Internet café or cybercafé is a place where one can use a computer with Internet access for a fee, usually per hour or minute; sometimes one can have unmetered access with a pass for a day or month, etc. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... UN redirects here. ...


Companies providing telecommunication services are:

  • Golis Telecom Somalia
  • Somali Telecom Group
  • Galkom
  • Global Internet Company
  • Hormuud

Telcom is one of the largest leading telecommunications network operator in Somalia. ... NationLink Telecom is a mobile phone operator in Somalia. ... Netco Ltd, sometimes referred to as North Eastern Telecommunications Company, is a telecommunications company established in 1993 in Bosaso Bari region of Somalia. ... Somafone Telecommunications Service Company (operating as Somafone) is Somalias leading Mobile Telephone Operator. ...

Environment

Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 2% arable land. The civil war had a huge impact on the country’s tropical forests by facilitating the production of charcoal with ever present, recurring, but damaging droughts. Somali environmentalist and Goldman Environmental Prize winner, Fatima Jibrell, became the first Somali to step in and do a much-needed effort to save the rest of the environment through local initiatives that organised local communities to protect the rural and coastal habitat. Jibrell trained a team of young people to organise awareness campaigns about the irreversible damage of unrestricted charcoal production. Jibrell also joined the Buran rural institute that formed and organised the Camel Caravan program in which young people loaded tents and equipment on camels to walk for three weeks through a nomadic locale and educate the people about the careful use of fragile resources, health care, livestock management and peace. A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... The Goldman Environmental Prize is a prize given annually to grassroots environmental activists from six geographic areas: Africa, Asia, Europe, Islands and Island Nations, North America, and South and Central America. ... Fatima Jibrell (Somalia) is founder of the Horn of Africa Relief and Development Organization (Horn Relief). ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


Fatima Jibrell has consistently fought against the burning of charcoal, logging and other man-induced environmental degradation. Her efforts have born fruits to the local communities across Somalia and international recognition when she won the prestigious Environmental Goldman award from San Francisco. Jibrell is also the executive director of Horn Relief and Development Organisation.[44] Fatima Jibrell (Somalia) is founder of the Horn of Africa Relief and Development Organization (Horn Relief). ... For other uses, see Log. ... San Francisco redirects here. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demography of Somalia
This 2002 CIA map shows population density throughout Somalia.
This 2002 CIA map shows population density throughout Somalia.

Somalia has a population of around 10.7 million according to U.N. estimates in 2003, 85% of which constitute ethnic Somalis. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1425x979, 133 KB) Summary Source: Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin URL: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1425x979, 133 KB) Summary Source: Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin URL: http://www. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Somalis are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa. ...

Somali nomad girls

There is little reliable statistical information on urbanisation in Somalia. However, rough estimates have been made indicating an urbanisation of 5% and 8% per annum with many towns rapidly growing into cities. Currently, 34% of the Somali population live in towns and cities with the percentage rapidly increasing.[45] The city of Los Angeles is an example of urbanisation Urbanization or Urbanisation means the removal of the rural characteristics of a town or area, a process associated with the development of civilization. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ...


Because of the civil war, the country has a large diaspora community, one of the largest of the whole continent. Millions of Somalis live abroad, and this excludes those who inhabit the Ogaden region of Ethiopia, Yemen, northeastern Kenya, and Djibouti. The Somali civil war led to the Somali diaspora, where most of the best educated Somalis left for Northern Europe, The Middle East, and North America. ...


Languages

Main article: Languages of Somalia

Somali is the national language of the Somali people and is used virtually everywhere by almost all ethnic Somalis as well as a few minority groups. Minority languages do exist, such as Af-Maay, which is spoken in areas in South-Central Somalia mainly by the Rahanweyn. Variants of Swahili (Barawe) are also spoken along the coast by Arabs and some Bantus (Jareer). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Maay language, also known as Af Maay or Afmaay, is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family and is written using the Latin alphabet. ... The Rahanweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle. ... This article is about the language. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Bantu farmers near Kismaayo The Somali Bantu (also called Jarir, Jareer, Wagosha or Mushunguli) are an ethnic minority group in Somalia which is largely inhabited by Somali people. ...


A considerable number of Somalis speak Arabic due to close ties with the Arab World, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education. English is also widely used and taught. Italian used to be a major language but now because of the civil war and lack of education, it is most frequently heard among older generations. Arabic redirects here. ... Arab States redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Religion

Main article: Islam in Somalia
Eid celebrations in Mogadishu
Eid celebrations in Mogadishu

The Somalis are entirely Sunni Muslims. Christianity's influence was significantly reduced in the 1970s when church-run schools were closed and missionaries sent home. There has been no Archbishop of the Catholic cathedral in the country since 1989; the cathedral in Mogadishu was severely damaged in the civil war of January-February 1992. The Somali constitution discourages the promotion and propagation of any religion other than Islam. This sets Somalis apart from their immediate African neighbours, many of whom are either Christians (particularly the Amhara and others of Ethiopia) or adherents of indigenous faiths. The vast majority of Somalis are Sunni Muslims. ... Image File history File links Somaliamosque11. ... Image File history File links Somaliamosque11. ... The word Eid can mean several things: There are two Islamic festivals of Eid: One is called Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, The other is Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) which is celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Amhara (Amharic: አማራ, Geez: አምሐራ) is an ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia, numbering about 23 million, making up 30. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Somalia

Islam and poetry have been described as the twin pillars of Somali culture. ...

Cuisine

Main article: Cuisine of Somalia
Variety of Somali dishes incorporating rice, vegetables, salads and stews.

The cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and it encompasses different styles of cooking. One thing that unites the Somali food is its being Halal. Therefore, there are no pork dishes, alcohol is not served, nothing that died on its own is eaten and no blood is incorporated. Somali people serve dinner as late as 9 pm. During Ramadan, it is often eaten after Tarawih prayers – sometimes as late as 11 pm. Cambuulo is one of Somalia's most popular dishes and is enjoyed throughout the country as a dinner meal. The dish is made out of well-cooked azuki beans, mixed with butter and sugar. The beans, which by themselves are called digir, are often left on the stove for as many as five hours, on low heat, to achieve the most desired taste. Cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and it encompasses different styles of cooking. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. ... Tarawih (تراويح) is an Arabic phrase referring to extra prayers given at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan. ... Binomial name (Willd. ...


Literature

Main article: Somali literature

Somalia produced a large amount of literature through Islamic poetry and Hadith from Somali scholars of the last centuries. With the adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1973 numerous Somali authors have released books over the years which received widespread success, Nuruddin Farah being one of them. Novels like From a Crooked Rib and Links are considered important literary achievements which earned him the 1998 Neustadt International Prize for Literature. Somalia produced a large amount of literature through Islamic poetry and Hadith from Somali Scholars of the last centuries to modern fiction from present day Somali writers which have received widespread success respectivly. ... This article is about the art form. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Nuruddin Farah (born 1945) is a Somali novelist particularly concerned with womens liberation in postcolonial Somalia. ... The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is a biennial award for literature sponsored by the University of Oklahoma and World Literature Today. ...

African Writers (by country): This is a list of prominent and notable literary figures from the African continent, listed by country, including poets, novelists, childrens writers, essayists, and scholars, listed by country. ...

Music

Main article: Music of Somalia

Somalia has the distinction of being one of only a handful of African countries that are composed almost entirely of one ethnic group, the Somalis. Traditional bands like Waaberi Horseed have gained a small following outside the country. Others, like Maryam Mursal, have fused Somali traditional music with rock, bossa nova, hip hop, and jazz influences. Most Somali music is love oriented. Somalia has the distinction of being one of only a handful of African countries that are composed almost entirely of one ethnic group, the Somalis. ... Maryam Mursal Maryam Mursal (born January 1, 1950) is a famous musician from Somalia. ... This article is about the genre. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


Toronto, where a sizable Somali community exists, replaced Mogadishu (because of the instability) as the centre of the Somali music industry, which is also present in London, Minneapolis, and Columbus. One popular musician from the Somali diaspora is K'naan, a young rapper from Toronto, whose songs talk about the struggles of life in Somalia during the outbreak of the civil war. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... Knaan (Keynaan, meaning traveler in Somali, born 1978)[1] is a Canadian] poet and hip-hop artist from the Hawiye clan in Somalia clan. ...


See also

Somalia, from 1991-2006, is cited by some as a real-world example of a stateless society and legal system. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 15,000 (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: NA Telephone system: the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; private wireless companies offer service in most major cities and charge the lowest international rates on the continent domestic: local cellular telephone... Somalias only major international dispute is with Ethiopia over the Ogaden. ... Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges and is based on natural rights. ... Somalia is one of 35 countries where Scouting exists (be it embryonic or widespread) but where there is no National Scout Organization which is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement at the present time. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... This is a list of notable Somalis from Somalia, Djibouti, and those of Somali heritage living elsewere in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Somalia. ... Adal was a sixteenth century province-cum-sultanate located in East Africa north of Ethiopia, in modern Eritrea and Djibouti. ... The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet[1] by the ancient Egyptians, at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the land of the god [2], was a fabled site in the Horn of Africa and was the source of many exotic products, such as gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory...   The Osmanya alphabet is a script for the Somali language invented between 1920 and 1922 by the Sultan of Obbias brother, Cismaan Yuusuf Keenadiid. ... Example of the Borama script. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d CIA World Factbook
  2. ^ BBC News country profile
  3. ^ The beginning of the Somali nation after independence
  4. ^ The dawn of the Somali nation-state in 1960
  5. ^ The making of a Somalia state
  6. ^ Aden Abdullah Osman the founding father
  7. ^ The founding father of Somalia
  8. ^ A tribute to the Somalia founding father, its president in 1960s
  9. ^ The making of Somalia, Somaliland
  10. ^ The beginning of the Somalia state
  11. ^ The dawn of the Somali nation-state in 1960
  12. ^ Historical self-governing clan factors in present day Somalia
  13. ^ Somaliland citizens ask to be recognised as a state
  14. ^ Somaliland votes for independence
  15. ^ It is a competition that used to be fought out with arrows and sabers... Now it is fought out with AK-47s
  16. ^ The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic. Somalia.cc (February 2004). Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  17. ^ The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic (pdf). iss.co.za (February 2004). Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  18. ^ ICRC (2006-12-11). "No end in sight for flood-stricken Somalia". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  19. ^ "Regional court orders closure of khat kiosks", Garowe Online, 2006-11-22. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  20. ^ Farah, Mohamed Abdi. "Islamists put curfew on Bulo-Burde town after unrest", SomaliNet, 2006-11-22. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  21. ^ Barnett, Antony; Patrick Smith. "US accused of covert operations in Somalia", The Observer, September 10, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  22. ^ Somali Islamists to ask AU to end peace force plan, Reuters, September 9, 2006.
  23. ^ Template:Cite news.
  24. ^ Pflanz, Mike. "Somalia Extremists Declare Jihad On Ethiopia", New York Sun, The Daily Telegraph, 2006-10-10. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  25. ^ Gollust, David. "US Concerned Somalia Conflict Could Spread", Voice of America, 2 November 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  26. ^ "Carnage as Somalia 'in state of war'", CNN, December 22, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  27. ^ "Ethiopia attacks Somalia airports", BBC, 2006-12-25. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  28. ^ Gentleman, Jeffrey. "Ethiopian Jets Strafe Mogadishu Airports", The New York Times, 2006-12-26. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  29. ^ Yare, Hassan. "Ethiopia says forced into war with Somali Islamists", Yahoo!, Reuters, 2006-12-24. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  30. ^ "Ethiopia declares war on Somalia", Al Jazeera, December 25, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  31. ^ Mohamed Olad, Hassan. "Somali troops enter Mogadishu to cheers", Associated Press, 2006-12-28. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. Archived from the original on 2007-01-09. 
  32. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey. "Somali President Survives Suicide Bomb; 8 Others Are Killed", The New York Times, 2006-09-18. Retrieved on 2006-09-19. 
  33. ^ The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia
  34. ^ UN in Action: Reforming Somaliland's Judiciary
  35. ^ Robinson, Simon; Xan Rice. "In Peril on The Sea", Time, 2005-11-07. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  36. ^ Religious and cultural traits in HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa
  37. ^ In Somalia, isolation has kept AIDS at bay ? Stephanie Nolan
  38. ^ Ihebuzor, Noel (2005 01 31). EC and UNICEF join hands to support education in Somalia. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  39. ^ Staff writer, Staff writer (2006 04 06). Puntland (Somalia) to introduce free primary schools. Afrol News. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  40. ^ University of Pittsburgh
  41. ^ Landreville, Kristen (November 28, 2003). Journalists online in Somalia. World Watch. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  42. ^ Internet Usage Statistics for Africa
  43. ^ Winter, Joseph. "Telecoms thriving in lawless Somalia", BBC, 2004-11-19. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  44. ^ Fatima Jibrell: Nursing Nature. Worldpress (July 2002). Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  45. ^ An Urban Development Programme for the European Commission in Somalia
  • Lewis. I.M. "Pastoral Democracy: A study on Pastoralism and Politics among the Northern Somali clans". Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1958. ISBN 978-3825830847
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey. The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Chapter Four: Somalia: A Stateless State - What Next?, pp. 109 - 132, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York, 2001.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is historically a committee of Swiss nationals, although non-Swiss nationals have recently been allowed (the committee appoints new members to itself to replace those who resign or die) which leads the international Red Cross movement (often simply known after its symbol... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 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External links

Find more about Somalia on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • Turbulent Waters in a Maritime Black Hole The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies May 2008
  • Condemn US-Ethiopian aggression against Somalia Lalkar January 2007
  • Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned by Kenneth Allard (CCRP, 1995)
  • From Nation-State to Stateless Nation: The Somali Experience by Michael van Notten (Amsterdam, 2000)
  • "Preserving American Security Ties to Somalia," by Michael Johns, Heritage Foundation, December 26, 1989.
  • Changed Arab attitudes to Somalia Conflict
  • "Separation Anxiety", article in The Walrus about post-traumatic stress disorder among Somali warriors

Government Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Cover of the April 2005 issue of The Walrus. ...

  • Official Website of the Federal Government of Somalia

Geography

  • Bissig Addo ]

News

  • Somalia - War situation since 1991 on France 24 – Special Report about Somalia on France 24 International News Channel
  • Somalia news headlines
  • Somalia's Struggle for Stability, Online NewsHour with Jim Lehrer
  • HRW claims US involved in secret detention of Somalis,Breaking Legal News 2007/04/01
  • IRIN Somalia humanitarian news and analysis
  • U.S. Special Envoy Cites Widespread ‘Lack of Confidence’ in Somali Government Council on Foreign Relations
  • ITN/CNN Report "War tears Somalia apart", an up-to-date report on Mogadishu, October, 10th, 2007.

Economy

  • Anarchy and Invention: How Does Somalia's Private Sector Cope without Government?
  • Breaking Legal News 2007/04/01

General information

  • Open Directory Project - Somalia
  • CBC Digital Archives - The Somalia Affair
  • News and Discussions

Religion

  • Mustaqbalka Ummadda Somaaliyeed

UNESCO

  • UNESCO Nairobi office on education in Somalia
  • UNESCO Nairobi Office - Fact Book on Education For All, Somalia 2006
Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... Timeline of the War on Terrorism: // September 11 - September 11, 2001 attacks take place in New York City, Washington D.C., and Shanksville, United States and kill 2,993 people. ... War on Terrorism casualties: // Military casualties only United States: 4,540 killed, 4 POW/MIA, 11 ex-POW/MIA [1][2] United Kingdom: 260 killed, 25 ex-POW/MIA [1][2] Canada: 83 killed [2] Other Coalition forces: 244 killed, 1 ex-POW/MIA[1][2] Iraqi security forces: 9... // Military/diplomatic campaigns The War on Terror is broadly agreed to be taking place in the following theaters of operation. ... Criticism of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. ... Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance). ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... The Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), is a military command, led by the United States, that is fighting the Iraq War against the multitude of Iraqi insurgents. ... The Iraqi Army is the land force of Iraq, active in various forms since being formed by the British during their mandate over the country after World War I. Today, it is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations... The War on Terrorism has had various targets in its included operations. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف; , ASG),also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Bangsamoro (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various groups have been engaged in an insurgency... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... Combatants  Thailand Mujahideen Pattani Movement (BNP) Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO) Pattani Islamic Mujahideen Movement (GMIP) Mujahideen Islamic Pattani Group National Revolution Front (BRN) Pattani Liberation National Front (BNPP) Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) Commanders Bunrot Somthat Surayud Chulanont Wan Kadir Wan Che Casualties More than 3,000 killed 2,729 civilian... Jaish-e-Mohammed (Arabic:جيش محمد, literally The Army of Muhammad, transliterated as Jaish-e-Muhammed, Jaish-e-Mohammad or Jaish-e-Muhammad, often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic militant organization in South Asia. ... The Hizbul Mujahideen (حزب المجاھدین) (created 1989) is a militant group active in Kashmir. ... The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: or PKK, also called KADEK, Kongra-Gel, and KGK[7]) is a militant Kurdish organization founded in the 1970s and led by Abdullah Öcalan until his capture in 1999. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) was a militant Islamist group formed in 1998 by former Soviet paratrooper Juma Namangani, and the Islamic ideologue Tohir Yuldashev - both ethnic Uzbeks from the Fergana Valley. ... Lashkar-e-Toiba (Urdu: لشكرِ طيبه laÅ¡kar-Ä• ṯaiyyiba, literally The Army of Pure, also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba or Lashkar-i-Toiba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorist organizations in South Asia. ... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Combatants Philippines United States al-Qaeda, Jemaah Islamiyah, Abu Sayyaf, New Peoples Army (alleged collaboration) Commanders Hermogenes Esperon Jr. ... Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP) was the US-sponsored 18-month, $64-million plan designed to increase the capabilities of the Georgian armed forces as part of the Global War on Terrorism. ... The Georgia Sustainment and Stability Operations Program (Georgia SSOP) is a security assistance program designed to create an increased capability in the Georgian military to support Operation Iraqi Freedom stability missions. ... Combatants NATO and allies, represented by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa is the official name used by the US government for a component of its response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on... Combatants United States  Algeria  Chad  Morocco  Niger Mauritania  Mali  Senegal al-Qaeda Strength 480 Americans; 250 Algerians; 200 Chadians; 20 Moroccans; 5 Nigerien; 3 Mauritanians; 1 Malian; 25 Senegalese medical doctors Total:959 troops and 25 medical doctors 2,500 (al-Queda claim) Casualties 1 Nigerian (WIA) and 1 Moroccan... Combatants New Iraqi Army Kurdish Army Coalition: United States United Kingdom Australia Poland Other Coalition forces Baath Party Loyalists Mahdi Army al-Qaeda in Iraq Other Insurgent groups Commanders Nouri al-Maliki Massoud Barzani George W. Bush Tommy Franks Ricardo Sanchez George Casey David Petraeus Tony Blair Gordon Brown Brian... Combatants Saudi Security Forces al-Qaeda Casualties 44 killed 218 wounded 129 killed 3,106+ arrested[1] Civilians: 100 killed (foreigners, Saudis) 510 wounded[1] The Insurgency in Saudi Arabia is an armed conflict in Saudi Arabia between radical Khawarij fighters, believed to be associated with al-Qaeda, against the... Combatants  Thailand Mujahideen Pattani Movement (BNP) Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO) Pattani Islamic Mujahideen Movement (GMIP) Mujahideen Islamic Pattani Group National Revolution Front (BRN) Pattani Liberation National Front (BNPP) Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) Commanders Bunrot Somthat Surayud Chulanont Wan Kadir Wan Che Casualties More than 3,000 killed 2,729 civilian... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Hizbul Shabaab al-Itihaad al-Islamiya Alleged: Foreign Mujahideen al-Qaeda  Eritrea  Ethiopia TFG Galmudug Puntland After the invasion: AMISOM United States Commanders Hassan Aweys Sharif Ahmed Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Abdikadir Adan Shire Abdi Hasan Awale Mohamud Muse Hersi Meles Zenawi Patrick M. Walsh Strength... Belligerents Lebanese Armed Forces Fatah al-Islam Jund al-Sham Commanders Michel Sulaiman Francois al-Hajj Shaker al-Abssi Abu Youssef Sharqieh # Abu Hureira â€  Strength 72,100 troops 450 Fatah militants, 50 Jund militants, unknown number of al-Qaeda bombers Casualties and losses Northern casualties: 168 killed, 400-500 wounded... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Matt Lauer with the crew of Flight 63, the Shoebomber flight. ... Terrorism in Pakistan has been prevalent since the 1980s following the breakup of the nation into modern Pakistan and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... The Riyadh compound bombings took place on May 12, 2003, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ... The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. ... The 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing occurred on 5 August 2003 in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... The Istanbul bombings were two truck bomb attacks carried out on two days in November 2003. ... The 2004 SuperFerry 14 bombing on February 27, 2004, resulted in the sinking of the ferry SuperFerry 14 and the deaths of 116 people in the Philippines worst terrorist attack and the worlds deadliest terrorist attack at sea. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11-M, 3/11, 11/3 and M-11) were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded over 1700. ... The 2004 Australian embassy bombing took place on September 9, 2004 in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... Wikinews has news related to: Four small explosions strike Londons transport system On 21 July 2005, four attempted bomb attacks disrupted part of Londons public transport system two weeks after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. ... Sharm el-Sheikh is located on the coast of the Red Sea, at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Wikinews has news related to: Fatal explosions hit Bali The 2005 Bali bombings were a series of explosions that occurred on October 1, 2005, in Bali, Indonesia. ... India map showing Delhi The 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings occurred on October 29, 2005 in the Indian city of Delhi, killing 59 people and injuring at least 200 others [1] in three explosions. ... Amman, the capital city of Jordan. ... Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... Police at the scene of one of the raids, on Forest Road, Walthamstow, London. ... A group of six radical Islamist[1] men, allegedly plotting to stage an attack on the Fort Dix military base in New Jersey, United States, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) on May 7, 2007. ... On 29 June 2007, in London, two car bombs were discovered and disabled before they could be detonated. ... It has been suggested that Mohammed Asha be merged into this article or section. ... The 2007 Karachi bombing of October 18, 2007 in Karachi, Pakistan, was an attack on a motorcade carrying former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. ... The 2007 Baghlan sugar factory bombing occurred on November 6, 2007 when a bomb exploded in the centre of Baghlan, Afghanistan, while a delegation of parliamentarians was visiting. ... Abu Ghraib cell block The Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب; also Abu Ghurayb) is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km (20 mi) west of Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Irans nuclear ambitions and discusses North Koreas nuclear test. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility whose existence or... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of Stephen Abraham, Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army Reserve, June 14th, 2007 This is the trailer where the Combatant Status... Painting of waterboarding from Cambodias Tuol Sleng Prison Enhanced interrogation techniques is a term that the Bush administration uses to describe techniques of aggressively extracting information from captives which they say are necessary in the War on Terror. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ghost detainee. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement of Alberto J Mora on interrogation abuse, July 7, 2004 Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a joint military prison and... The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. ... An NSA electronic surveillance program that operated without judicial oversight mandated by Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) was named the Terrorist Surveillance Program by the George W. Bush administration[1] in response to the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy which followed the disclosure of the program. ... A bill to amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 to provide additional procedures for authorizing certain acquisitions of foreign intelligence information and for other purposes also known as the Protect America Act of 2007 (Pub. ... In American political and legal discourse, the unitary executive theory is a theory of Constitutional interpretation that is based on aspects of the separation of powers. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law... Terrorist redirects here. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...

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Somalia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3047 words)
Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال, As-Suumaal), formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a coastal nation at the Horn of Africa in East Africa.
Somalia was one of the many countries affected by the tsunami which struck the Indian Ocean coast following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, destroying entire villages and killing an estimated 300 people.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator between the Gulf of Aden on the north and Indian Ocean on the east.
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