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Encyclopedia > Solvent

A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. Look up solvent, solvency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ...


The most common solvent in everyday life is water. Most other commonly-used solvents are organic (carbon-containing) chemicals. These are called organic solvents. Solvents usually have a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, leaving the dissolved substance behind. To distinguish between solutes and solvents, solvents are usually present in the greater amount. Solvents can also be used to extract soluble compounds from a mixture, the most common example is the brewing of coffee or tea with hot water. Solvents are usually clear and colorless liquids and many have a characteristic odor. The concentration of a solution is the amount of compound that is dissolved in a certain volume of solvent. The solubility is the maximal amount of compound that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes), in perfumes (ethanol), and in chemical syntheses. The use of inorganic solvents (other than water) is typically limited to research chemistry and some technological processes. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Aroma redirects here. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Methyl acetate, also known as acetic acid methyl ester or methyl ethanoate, is a clear, flammable liquid with a characteristic, not unpleasant smell like certain glues or nail polish removers. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , Flash point −4 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylate esters Methyl acetate, Butyl acetate Related compounds Acetic acid, ethanol Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...

Contents

Solutions and solvation

When one substance is mixed with another, a solution is formed.[1] The mixing is referred to a miscibility. However, in addition to mixing, both substances in the solution can interact with each other in specific ways. Solvation describes these interactions. When something is dissolved, molecules of the solvent arrange itself around molecules of the solute. Heat is evolved and entropy is decreased making the solution more thermodynamically stable than the solute alone. This arranging is mediated by the respective chemical properties of the solvent and solute, such as hydrogen bonding, dipole moment and polarizability.[2]


Solvent classifications

Solvents can be broadly classified into two categories polar/non-polar and protic/aprotic. Generally, the dielectric constant of the solvent provides a rough measure of a solvent's polarity. Solvents with a dielectric constant of less than 15 are generally considered nonpolar.[3] Technically, the dielectric constant measures the solvent's ability to reduce the field strength of the electric field surrounding a charged particle immersed in it. This reduction is then compared to the field strength of the charged particle in a vacuum.[4] In laymen's terms, dielectric constant of a solvent can be thought of as its ability to reduce the solute's internal charge. The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ...


Other polarity scales

Dielectric constants are not the only measure of polarity. Because solvents are used by chemists to carry out chemical reactions or observe chemical and biological phenomena, more specific measures of polarity are required.


The Grunwald Winstein mY scale measures polarity in terms of solvent influence on buildup of positive charge of a solute during a chemical reaction.


Kosower's Z scale measures polarity in terms of the influence of the solvent on uv absorption maxima of a salt, usually pyridinium iodide or the pyridinium zwitterion.[5] For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Pyridinium cation Pyridinium refers to the cationic form of pyridine. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... A zwitterion (from German Zwitter — hybrid, hermaphrodite) is a compound with acidic and basic groups in the same molecule. ...


Donor number and donar acceptor scale measures polarity in terms of how a solvent interacts with specific substances, like a strong Lewis acid or a strong Lewis base.[6] In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ...


The polarity, dipole moment, polarizability and hydrogen bonding of a solvent determines what type of compounds it is able to dissolve and with what other solvents or liquid compounds it is miscible. As a rule of thumb, polar solvents dissolve polar compounds best and non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar compounds best: "like dissolves like". Strongly polar compounds like sugars (e.g. sucrose) or ionic compounds, like inorganic salts (e.g. table salt) dissolve only in very polar solvents like water, while strongly non-polar compounds like oils or waxes dissolve only in very non-polar organic solvents like hexane. Similarly, water and hexane (or vinegar and vegetable oil) are not miscible with each other and will quickly separate into two layers even after being shaken well. In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... This article deals with sugar as food and as an important, widely traded commodity; the word also has other uses; see Sugar (disambiguation) A sugar is a form of carbohydrate; the most commonly used sugar is a white crystalline solid, sucrose; used to alter the flavor and properties (mouthfeel, perservation... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ...


Polar protic and polar a-protic

Solvents with a dilectric constant greater than 15 can be further divided into protic and aprotic. Protic solvents solvate anions (negatively charged solutes) strongly via hydrogen bonding. Water is a protic solvent. Aprotic solvents such as acetone or dichloromethane tend to have large dipole moments (separation of partial positive and partial negative charges within the same molecule) and solvate positively charged species via their negative dipole.[7] In chemical reactions the use of polar protic solvents favors the SN1 reaction mechanism, while polar aprotic solvents favor the SN2 reaction mechanism. An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Dipole moment refers to the quality of a system to behave like a dipole. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... The SN1 reaction is an substitution reaction in organic chemistry. ... In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs. ... Structure of the SN2 transition state The SN2 reaction (also known as bimolecular substitution nucleophilic) is a type of nucleophilic substitution, where a lone pair from a nucleophile attacks an electron deficient electrophilic center and bonds to it, expelling another group called a leaving group. ...


Solvent effects

Boiling point

Another important property of solvents is boiling point. This also determines the speed of evaporation. Small amounts of low-boiling solvents like diethyl ether, dichloromethane, or acetone will evaporate in seconds at room temperature, while high-boiling solvents like water or dimethyl sulfoxide need higher temperatures, an air flow, or the application of vacuum for fast evaporation. This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Low Boilers: Boiling ranges below 100 °C
  • Medium Boilers: Boiling ranges between 100 °C and 150 °C
  • High Boilers: Boiling ranges above 150 °C

Density

Most organic solvents have a lower density than water, which means they are lighter and will form a separate layer on top of water. An important exception: many halogenated solvents like dichloromethane or chloroform will sink to the bottom of a container, leaving water as the top layer. This is important to remember when partitioning compounds between solvents and water in a separatory funnel during chemical syntheses. For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical series. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A partition coefficient is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in two solvents. ... Separating funnel. ...


Health and safety

Fire

Most organic solvents are flammable or highly flammable, depending on their volatility. Exceptions are some chlorinated solvents like dichloromethane and chloroform. Mixtures of solvent vapors and air can explode. Solvent vapors are heavier than air, they will sink to the bottom and can travel large distances nearly undiluted. Solvent vapors can also be found in supposedly empty drums and cans, posing a flash fire hazard; hence empty containers of volatile solvents should be stored open and upside down. R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Explode redirects here. ... A flash fire is an unexpected, sudden intense fire caused by ignition of flammable solids, liquids or their vapors, gases, or dust. ...


Both diethyl ether and carbon disulfide have exceptionally low autoignition temperatures which increase greatly the fire risk associated with these solvents. The autoignition temperature of carbon disulfide is below 100°C (212°F), so as a result objects such as steam pipes, light bulbs, hotplates and recently extinguished bunsen burners are able to ignite its vapours. This article is about the chemical compound. ... CS2 redirects here. ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... A heating element converts electricity into heat through the process of Joule heating. ... Look up Bunsen burner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Peroxide formation

Ethers like diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran (THF) can form highly explosive organic peroxides upon exposure to oxygen and light, THF is normally more able to form such peroxides than diethyl ether. One of the most susceptible solvents is diisopropyl ether. This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... Chemical structure of diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ether is an clear, colorless, and liquid secondary ether that is used as a solvent. ...


The heteroatom (oxygen) stabilizes the formation of a free radical which is formed by the abstraction of a hydrogen atom by another free radical. The carbon centred free radical thus formed is able to react with an oxygen molecule to form a peroxide compound. A range of tests can be used to detect the presence of a peroxide in an ether, one is to use a combination of iron sulfate and potassium thiocyanate. The peroxide is able to oxidize the Fe2+ ion to an Fe3+ ion which then form a deep red coordination complex with the thiocyanate. In extreme cases the peroxides can form crystalline solids within the vessel of the ether. This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Iron(II) sulfate, also known as ferrous sulfate and as copperas (FeSO4) is an example of an ionic compound. ... See: Thiocyanate Potassium thiocyanate is the chemical compound KSCN. It is an important salt of the thiocyanate anion, one of the pseudohalides. ... To oxidize an element or a compound is to increase its oxidation number. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ...


Unless the desiccant used can destroy the peroxides, they will concentrate during distillation due to their higher boiling point. When sufficient peroxides have formed, they can form a crystalline and shock sensitive solid precipitate. When this solid is formed at the mouth of the bottle, turning the cap may provide sufficient energy for the peroxide to detonate. Peroxide formation is not a significant problem when solvents are used up quickly; they are more of a problem for laboratories which take years to finish a single bottle. Ethers have to be stored in the dark in closed canisters in the presence of stabilizers like butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or over sodium hydroxide. A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Precipitation is the condensation of a solid from a solution during a chemical reaction. ... Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is the organic compound with the formula MeC6H2(CMe3)2OH (Me = methyl). ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...


Peroxides may be removed by washing with acidic iron(II) sulfate, filtering through alumina, or distilling from sodium/benzophenone. Alumina does not destroy the peroxides; it merely traps them. The advantage of using sodium/benzophenone is that moisture and oxygen is removed as well. Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Benzophenone, also known as diphenylmethanone, phenyl ketone, diphenyl ketone, or benzoylbenzene. ... Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Health effects

Many solvents can lead to a sudden loss of consciousness if inhaled in large amounts. Solvents like diethyl ether and chloroform have been used in medicine as anesthetics, sedatives, and hypnotics for a long time. Ethanol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. Diethyl ether, chloroform, and many other solvents (e.g. from gasoline or glues) are used recreationally in glue sniffing, often with harmful long term health effects like neurotoxicity or cancer. Methanol can cause internal damage to the eyes, including permanent blindness. Inhalation is the movement of air from the external environment, through the airways, into the alveoli during breathing. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... A sedative is a drug that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), which causes calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Volatile substance abuse or solvent abuse (called huffing) is the practice of inhaling volatile substances for their psychoactive effects. ... Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances ,which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ...


It is interesting to note that ethanol has a synergistic effect when taken in combination with many solvents. For instance a combination of toluene/benzene and ethanol causes greater nausea/vomiting than either substance alone. Many chemists make a point of not drinking beer/wine/other alcoholic drinks if they know that they have been exposed to an aromatic solvent.[citation needed] Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


Environmental contamination

A major pathway to induce health effects arises from spills or leaks of solvents that reach the underlying soil. Since solvents readily migrate substantial distances, the creation of widespread soil contamination is not uncommon; there may be about 5000 sites worldwide that have major subsurface solvent contamination; this is particularly a health risk if aquifers are affected. Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


Chronic health effects

Some solvents including chloroform and benzene (an ingredient of gasoline) are carcinogenic. Many others can damage internal organs like the liver, the kidneys, or the brain. For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


General precautions

  • Avoiding being exposed to solvent vapors by working in a fume hood, or with local exhaust ventilation (LEV), or in a well ventilated area
  • Keeping the storage containers tightly closed
  • Never using open flames near flammable solvents, use electrical heating instead
  • Never flush flammable solvents down the drain, read safety data sheets for proper disposal information
  • Avoiding the inhalation of solvent vapors
  • Avoiding contact of the solvent with the skin — many solvents are easily absorbed through the skin. They also tend to dry the skin and may cause sores and wounds.

A common modern fume hood. ...

Properties table of common solvents

The solvents are grouped into non-polar, polar aprotic, and polar protic solvents and ordered by increasing polarity. The polarity is given as the dielectric constant. The density of nonpolar solvents that are heavier than water is bolded. The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...

Solvent Chemical Formula Boiling point Dielectric constant Density
Non-Polar Solvents
Hexane CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 69 °C 2.0 0.655 g/ml
Benzene C6H6 80 °C 2.3 0.879 g/ml
Toluene C6H5-CH3 111 °C 2.4 0.867 g/ml
Diethyl ether CH3CH2-O-CH2-CH3 35 °C 4.3 0.713 g/ml
Chloroform CHCl3 61 °C 4.8 1.498 g/ml
Ethyl acetate CH3-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH3 77 °C 6.0 0.894 g/ml
Polar Aprotic Solvents
1,4-Dioxane /-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-O- 101 °C 2.3 1.033 g/ml
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) /-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2- 66 °C 7.5 0.886 g/ml
Dichloromethane (DCM) CH2Cl2 40 °C 9.1 1.326 g/ml
Acetone CH3-C(=O)-CH3 56 °C 21 0.786 g/ml
Acetonitrile (MeCN) CH3-C≡N 82 °C 37 0.786 g/ml
Dimethylformamide (DMF) H-C(=O)N(CH3)2 153 °C 38 0.944 g/ml
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) CH3-S(=O)-CH3 189 °C 47 1.092 g/ml
Polar Protic Solvents
Acetic acid CH3-C(=O)OH 118 °C 6.2 1.049 g/ml
n-Butanol CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH 118 °C 18 0.810 g/ml
Isopropanol (IPA) CH3-CH(-OH)-CH3 82 °C 18 0.785 g/ml
n-Propanol CH3-CH2-CH2-OH 97 °C 20 0.803 g/ml
Ethanol CH3-CH2-OH 79 °C 24 0.789 g/ml
Methanol CH3-OH 65 °C 33 0.791 g/ml
Formic acid H-C(=O)OH 100 °C 58 1.21 g/ml
Water H-O-H 100 °C 80 1.000 g/ml

A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , Flash point −4 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylate esters Methyl acetate, Butyl acetate Related compounds Acetic acid, ethanol Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... 1,4-Dioxane, often just called dioxane, is a clear, colorless heterocyclic organic compound which is a liquid at room temperature and pressure. ... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Flash point None Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Acetonitrile is an organic molecule, often used as a solvent, with the chemical formula of CH3CN. Also known as methyl cyanide, it is the simplest of the organic nitriles. ... Dimethylformamide is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H. Commonly abbreviated DMF, this colourless liquid is miscible with water and majority of organic liquids. ... Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically), is an alcohol with a 4 carbon structure and the molecular formula of C4H10O. It is primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and as a fuel. ... Isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol is a common name for 2-propanol, an alcohol commonly used for application to the skin, and popularly referred to as rubbing alcohol. ... Propan-1-ol is is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH. It is also known as 1-propanol, 1-propyl alcohol n-propyl alcohol, or simply propanol. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ...

See also

Look up solvent in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... A partition coefficient is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in two solvents. ... A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. ... Ionic liquid An ionic liquid is a liquid that contains essentially only ions. ... A deep eutectic solvent or DES is a type of ionic solvent with special properties composed of a mixture which forms a eutectic with a melting point much lower than either of the individual components. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ... ...

References

  1. ^ Tinoco, Sauer, Wang & Puglisi, Physical Chemistry Prentice Hall 2002 p. 134
  2. ^ Lowery, T.H. and Richardson, K.S., Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry, Harper Collins Publishers 3rd ed. 1987 p. 181-183.
  3. ^ Lowery, T.H. and Richardson, K.S., Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry, Harper Collins Publishers 3rd ed. 1987 p. 177.
  4. ^ Lowery, T.H. and Richardson, K.S., Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry, Harper Collins Publishers 3rd ed. 1987 p. 177.
  5. ^ Kosower, E.M. "An introduction to Physical Organic Chemistry" Wiley: New York, 1969 p. 293
  6. ^ Gutmann, V. Coord. Chem. Rev. 1976, 18 225
  7. ^ Lowery, T.H. and Richardson, K.S., Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry, Harper Collins Publishers 3rd ed. 1987 p. 183.

External links

  • Table Properties of common organic solvents
  • Table and text O-Chem Lecture
  • Tables Properties and toxicities of organic solvents
  • Miscibility Table Phenomex Solvent Miscibility Table (includes Polarity Index)
  • Miscibility Table GLS Solvent Miscibility Table (includes Dielectric Constant)

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