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Encyclopedia > Solution
Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water

In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. A common example is a solid, such as salt or sugar, dissolved in water, a liquid. Gases may dissolve in liquids, for example, carbon dioxide or oxygen in water. Liquids may dissolve in other liquids and gases always mix with other gases.[1] Download high resolution version (534x1013, 83 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (534x1013, 83 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The word solution can mean: Solution (band), a Dutch progressive rock band A business solution is a product, service, or combination of both which solves a business problem. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... MIXTUREEEE<3 In chemistry, a mixture is a substance made by combining two or more different materials in such a way that no chemical reaction occurs. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Examples of solid solutions are alloys, certain minerals and polymers containing plasticizers. The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility. The physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, molality, and parts per million (ppm). An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... Look up Compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... In chemistry, colligative properties are factors that determine how the properties of a bulk liquid solution change depending on the concentration of the solute in the bulk solution. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...


Solutions should be distinguished from non-homogeneous mixtures such as colloids and suspensions. A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ...

Contents

Types of solutions

Many types of solutions exist, as solids, liquids and gases can be both solvent and solute, in any combination: For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ...

Examples of solutions Solute
Gas Liquid Solid
Solvent Gas Oxygen and other gases in nitrogen (air)
Liquid Carbon dioxide in water (carbonated water) Ethanol (common alcohol) in water; various hydrocarbons in each other (petroleum) Sucrose (table sugar) in water; sodium chloride (table salt) in water; gold in mercury, forming an amalgam
Solid Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals; platinum has been studied as a storage medium. Hexane in paraffin wax, mercury in gold. Steel, duralumin, other metal alloys

General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Effervescence from soda. ... “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... For other uses, see Amalgamation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Paraffin is a common name for a group of high molecular weight alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium or dural) is the name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...

Solvents

Main article: Solvent

Solvents can be broadly classified into polar and non-polar solvents. A common measure of the polarity of a solvent is the dielectric constant. The most widely used polar solvent is water, with a dielectric constant of 78.5. Ethanol, with a dielectric constant of 24.3, has intermediate polarity. An example of a non-polar solvent is hexane, which has a dielectric constant of 1.9. Generally polar or ionic compounds will only dissolve in polar solvents. A simple test for the polarity of a liquid solvent is to rub a plastic rod, to induce static electricity. Then hold this charged rod close to a running stream of the solvent. If the path of the solvent deviates when the rod is held close to it, it is a polar solvent. Certain molecules have polar and non-polar regions, for example sodium dodecyl sulfate. This class of molecules (called amphipathic molecules) includes surfactants like soaps and emulsifiers, as they have the ability to stabilize emulsions by aligning themselves on the interface between the non-polar and polar liquids, with their polar ends in the polar liquid and their non-polar ends in the non-polar liquid. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks. ... Sodium dodecyl sulfate (or sulphate) (SDS or NaDS) (C12H25NaO4S), also known as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), is an ionic surfactant that is used in household products such as toothpastes, shampoos, shaving foams and bubble baths for its thickening effect and its ability to create a lather. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Amphiphiles. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable...


Solvation

Main article: Solvation

During solvation, especially when the solvent is polar, a structure forms around it, which allows the solute-solvent interaction to remain stable. Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ...


When no more of a solute can be dissolved into a solvent, the solution is said to be saturated. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated changes significantly with different environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, and contamination. Raising the solubility (for example by increasing the temperature) to dissolve more solute, and then lowering the solubility causes a solution to become supersaturated. In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... In physics, the term supersaturation or oversaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under existing circumstances. ...


In general the greater the temperature of a solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, some compounds exhibit reverse solubility, which means that as a solvent gets warmer, less solute can be dissolved. Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is generally less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases, while gases usually become less soluble with increasing temperature. Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ...


Ideal solutions

Main article: ideal solution

The properties of an ideal solution can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of its components. In chemistry, an ideal solution is a solution where the enthalpy of solution is zero. ... In mathematics, linear combinations are a concept central to linear algebra and related fields of mathematics. ...


If both solute and solvent exist in equal quantities (such as in a 50% ethanol, 50% water solution), the concepts of "solute" and "solvent" become less relevant, but the substance that is more often used as a solvent is normally designated as the solvent (in this example, water). “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ...


See also

Look up solution, solute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Transwiki:Creating chemical solutions

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Molar solution is used when referring to the molarity of a solution, which expresses its concentration. ... In biology percentage solutions are often preferred to molar ones. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chemical equilibrium. ... Usually a large, standardised volume of a common reagent such as hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide. ... Bottled mineral water usually contains higher TDS levels than tap water Total dissolved solids (often abbreviated TDS) is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. ...

References

  • IUPAC Gold Book Definition
  1. ^ Streitwieser, Andrew; Heathcock, Clayton H., Kosower, Edward M. (19922). Introduction to Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. ISBN 0-02-418170-6. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carolina Biological: Chemistry: Solution Preparation (1230 words)
A solution is a uniform distribution of solute in solvent.
The volume percent of a solution cannot be calculated directly from the volumes of its components because the final volume may not equal the sum of the components’ volumes.
Solutions of concentrated reagents, such as 37% hydrochloric acid and 85% phosphoric acid, are percent solutions by mass.
Chem4Kids.com: Matter: Solutions (465 words)
A solute is the substance to be dissolved (sugar).
The solute is placed in the solvent and the concentrated solute slowly breaks into pieces.
Solubility is the ability of the solvent (water) to dissolve the solute (sugar).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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