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It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. (Discuss)


A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in that fluid. The dissolved substance is called the solute and the dissolving fluid (usually present in excess) is called the solvent, which together form a solution. The process of dissolving is called solvation, or hydration if the solvent is water. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (the solutes) dissolved in another substance (the solvent). ... A subset of the phases of matter, fluids include liquids, gases, plasmas and, to some extent, plastic solids. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (the solutes) dissolved in another substance (the solvent). ... Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... In chemistry, hydration is the condition of being combined with water. ... Jump to: navigation, search Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ...


A solution at equilibrium cannot hold any more solute and is said to be saturated. Solutions may, under special conditions, hold more solute than the solvent can normally dissolve. This is called supersaturation. The maximum equilibrium amount of solute which can normally dissolve per amount of solvent (or solution) is the solubility of that solute in that solvent. It is often expressed as a maximum concentration of a saturated solution. The solubility of one substance dissolving in another is determined by the intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, temperature, the entropy change that accompanies the solvation, the presence and amount of other substances, and sometimes pressure or partial pressure of a solute gas. Chemical equilibrium is the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction; the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal, and the concentration of the reactants and products stop changing. ... The term saturation generally means thoroughly full, and can refer to the following: In chemistry, see saturation (chemistry) for a number of meanings. ... In chemistry, the term supersaturation or oversaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances. ... Jump to: navigation, search Concentration is a very common concept used in chemistry and related fields. ... Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces which act between molecules or between widely separated regions of a macromolecule. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... Jump to: navigation, search In thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, the thermodynamic entropy (or simply the entropy) S is a measure of the internal microscopic disorder present in a system at thermodynamic equilibrium; or, equivalently, the number of possible internal configurations available to the system. ...


For isalts]], solubility in aqueous solutions is often dependent on a solubility constant. The solubility constant is a special case of an equilibrium constant for the reaction of dissolving the salt in question, with the concentration of undissolved compound not in the expression because it is not in the aqueous phase. The solubility constant is also "applicable" (i. e. useful) to precipitation, the reverse of the dissolving reaction. As with other equilibrium constants, temperature can affect the numerical value of solubility constant. Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Solubility equilibrium describes the chemical equilibrium between solid and dissolved states of a compound. ... In chemistry, the equilibrium constant is a theoretically-calculated number associated to a reaction which is an useful tool to determine the concentration of various reactants or products in a system where chemical equilibrium occurs. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ...


Solvents are normally characterized as polar or nonpolar. Polar solvents will dissolve ionic compounds and covalent compounds which ionize, while nonpolar solvents will dissolve nonpolar covalent compounds. For example, ordinary table salt, an ionic compound, will dissolve in water, but not in ethanol. A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ... Jump to: navigation, search In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound in which ions are held together in a lattice structure by ionic bonds. ... Jump to: navigation, search Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Common solvents used in organic chemistry include acetone, ethanol, water, and benzene. Jump to: navigation, search Organic chemistry is the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of organic compounds that by definition contain carbon. ... Jump to: navigation, search For an alternate use of acetone, see Acetone (music). ... Jump to: navigation, search Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is an flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Jump to: navigation, search Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Benzene, also known as C6H6, PhH, and benzol, is an organic chemical compound which is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ...


Water and nonpolar solvents are immiscible; they do not form homogenous mixtures but separate into two distinct phases or form milky emulsions. Homogeneous is an adjective that has several meanings. ... A. Two immisicble liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The (purple) surfactant positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances. ...


While solutions are typically thought of as solids being mixed into liquids, any two states of matter can be mixed and be called a solution. Carbonated water is a solution of a gas in a liquid, hydrogen (a gas) can dissolve in palladium (a solid), and stainless steel is a solution of a solid in a solid (called an alloy). Bubbles in carbonated water float to the surface. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 106. ... The pinnacle of New Yorks Chrysler Building is clad with stainless steel In metallurgy, stainless steel (inox) is defined as a ferrous alloy with a minimum of 10. ... Jump to: navigation, search An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, which has a combination of at least two metals, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ...

Contents


Solubility of bonding type in water

Bonding type Solubility in water Example
ionic most soluble See below
metallic insoluble Fe
unless they react with water K
polar covalent soluble if it H bonds glucose
soluble by reaction HCl
insoluble otherwise ether
non-polar covalent most insoluble benzene
some slightly soluble O2
covalent lattice insoluble diamond

Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... Jump to: navigation, search Glucose (Glc), a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ... The chemical hydrochloric acid is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl). ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... Jump to: navigation, search Benzene, also known as C6H6, PhH, and benzol, is an organic chemical compound which is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Jump to: navigation, search A scattering of round-brilliant cut diamonds shows off the many reflecting facets. ...

Solubility of ionic compounds

Soluble Insoluble
Group 1 and NH4+ compounds carbonates (except Group 1 and NH4+ compounds)
nitrates sulfites (except Group 1 and NH4+ compounds)
acetates (ethanoates) phosphates (except Group 1 and NH4+ compounds)
chlorides, bromides and iodides (except Ag+ and Pb2+) hydroxides and oxides (except Group 1, NH4+, Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+)
sulfates (except Ag+, Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+) sulfides (except Group 1, Group 2 and NH4+ compounds)

Jump to: navigation, search The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table, excluding hydrogen: that is, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride The Ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion of the chemical formula NH4+ and a molecular mass of 18. ... Carbonate is an anion with a charge of -2 and an empirical formula of CO32-. For an aqueous solution, carbonate exists in three forms. ... Jump to: navigation, search The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table, excluding hydrogen: that is, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride The Ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion of the chemical formula NH4+ and a molecular mass of 18. ... this is a negative ion,NO3- Discussion In inorganic chemistry, nitrates are the salts of nitric acid. ... Sulfites are sulfur-based compounds, containing the sulfite ion (SO3 charge: negative 2), and are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation,) dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... Jump to: navigation, search The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table, excluding hydrogen: that is, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride The Ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion of the chemical formula NH4+ and a molecular mass of 18. ... Acetate, or ethanoate, is the anion of a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... Jump to: navigation, search The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table, excluding hydrogen: that is, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride The Ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion of the chemical formula NH4+ and a molecular mass of 18. ... Jump to: navigation, search The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... Definition A bromide ion is an bromine atom with charge -1. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a -1 (negative one) charge. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: −O−H It has a charge of −1. ... Jump to: navigation, search An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements. ... Jump to: navigation, search The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table, excluding hydrogen: that is, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride The Ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion of the chemical formula NH4+ and a molecular mass of 18. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 137. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sulfate is the IUPAC name for the SO42- ion (British English: Sulphate), consisting of a central sulfur atom single bonded to four tetrahedrally oriented oxygen atoms. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 137. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... In chemistry, a sulfide (sulphide in British and Canadian English) is a chemical compound or combination of sulfur with an oxidation number of -2, with another chemical element or a radical thereof. ... Jump to: navigation, search The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table, excluding hydrogen: that is, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are the series of elements in Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra) (not always considered due to its radioactivity and very short half-life). ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride The Ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion of the chemical formula NH4+ and a molecular mass of 18. ...

Software tools for prediction of solution

One of the most recent and prominent solution (solubility) prediction technologies is applied in Quantum 3.1 that is a suite of Molecular Modeling software for Linux and Windows. The software calculates the solvation energy and solubility for a molecule or a library of molecules in a number of solvents (e.g. water and DMSO). The Quantum 3.1 developer is also a service provider.


See also


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Soluble fiber is found in oats, oatmeal, oat bran, beans, legumes, barley, citrus fruits and certain fruits, psyllium, vegetable gum include konjac gum, pectin, guar gum and gum arabic, to name a few.
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