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Encyclopedia > Solubility

Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.[1] It is measured in terms of the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium. The resulting solution is called a saturated solution. Certain substances are soluble in all proportions with a given solvent, such as ethanol in water. This property is known as miscibility. The phrase chemical property is context-dependent, but generally refers to a materials behavior at ambient conditions (i. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... For the connotation of the term relating to chemistry, see Solvation. ... Apparatus for carrying out acid-base titration. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ...


Under various conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, which is metastable. The solvent is often a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture. The species that dissolves, the solute, can be a gas, another liquid, or a solid. Solubilities range widely, from infinitely soluble such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is often applied to poorly soluble compounds, though strictly speaking there are very few cases where there is absolutely no material dissolved. The term supersaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances. ... Metastability in molecules is the ability of a non-equilibrium chemical state to persist for a long period of time. ... For other uses, see Mixture (disambiguation). ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Related Compounds Other anions silver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. ...

Contents

Molecular view

The process of dissolving, called dissolution, is relatively straightforward for covalent substances such as ethanol. When ethanol dissolves in water, the ethanol molecules remain intact but form new hydrogen bonds with the water. When, however, an ionic compounds such as sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water, the sodium chloride lattice dissociates into separate ions which are solvated (wrapped) with a coating of water molecules. Nonetheless, NaCl is said to dissolve in water, because evaporation of the solvent returns crystalline NaCl. Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or sometimes between atoms and other covalent bonds. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... Electron configurations of lithium and fluorine. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is an chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which complexes, molecules, or salts separate or split into smaller molecules, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. ... Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ...


Sometimes the term "dissolving" is applied to an irreversible chemical reaction, as with iron in nitric acid, but in such a case the thermodynamic concept of solubility does not apply. Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ...


When it dissolves, a solute may form several species in the solution. For example, water above the crystals of ferrous hydroxide, Fe(OH)2, will, at equilibrium, contain Fe2+, Fe(OH)+, Fe(OH)2, Fe(OH)3- and possibly other complexes. Therefore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide depends on pH. In general, solubility in the solvent phase can be given only for a specific solute which is thermodynamically stable, and the value of the solublity will include all the species in the solution (in the example above, all the iron-containing complexes).


Factors affecting solubility

Solubility is defined for specific phases. For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to be different, even though both are the same chemical substance (calcium carbonate). In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ...


The solubility of one substance dissolving in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute and the entropy change that accompanies the solvation. Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance, thus changing the solubility. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ...


Solubility may also strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions (ligands) in liquids. Solubility will also depend on the excess (or deficiency) of a common ion (common-ion effect) in the solution. To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of liquid solutions. The last two effects can be quantified using the equation for solubility equilibrium. Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... The common-ion effect is a term used to describe the effect on a solution of two dissolved solutes that contain the same ion. ... The ionic strength of a solution is a function of the concentration of all ions present in a solution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chemical equilibrium. ...


There is also a number of less common factors which may affect solubility. Solubility may depend on the crystal (or droplet) size of the solute phase (typically, solubility will increase with the decreasing crystal size for crystals much smaller than 1 μm). For highly defective crystals, solublity may increase with the increasing degree of disorder. The last two effects, although of great practical importance, are not true solubility effects because true solubility occurs at equilbrium, which requires a perfect monocrystal. For substances dissolving in an electrochemical reaction, solubility is expected to depend on the potential of the solute phase. Electrochemistry is the study of the electronic and electrical aspects of chemical reactions. ...


Temperature

The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature. For around 95% of solid solutes, the solubility increases with temperature[2], but gaseous solutes exhibit more complex behavior. As the temperature is raised gases usually become less soluble in water, but more soluble in organic solvents.[2] Image File history File links SolubilityVsTemperature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The chart shows solubility curves for some typical inorganic salts (all solids).[3] Many salts behave like barium nitrate and disodium hydrogen arsenate, and show a large increase in solubility with temperature. Some solutes (e.g. NaCl in water) exhibit solubility which is fairly independent of temperature. A few, such as cerium(III) sulfate, become less soluble in water as temperature increases. This is sometimes referred to as "retrograte" or "inverse" solubility. Occasionally, a more complex pattern is observed, as with sodium sulfate, where the less soluble decahydrate crystal loses water of crystallization at 32 °C to form a more soluble anhydrous phase. For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Barium Nitrate chemical formula Ba (NO3)2 is a salt of barium and nitrate. ... Sodium sulfate is an important compound of sodium. ... Hydrate is a term which means different things in inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ...


Organic compounds nearly always become soluble as the temperature is raised, in most solvents. The technique of recrystallization, used for purification of solids, depends on this differences in solubility in hot and cold solvent. There are a few exceptions, such as certain cyclodextrins.[4] An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... Insulin crystals Recrystallization is an essentially physical process that has meanings in chemistry, metallurgy and geology. ... Chemical structure of the three main types of cyclodextrins. ...


Pressure

For condensed phases (solids and liquids), the pressure dependence of solubility is typically weak and usually neglected in practice.


Henry's law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid, which may be written as: In chemistry, Henrys law is one of the gas laws, formulated by William Henry. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ...

 p = kc ,

where k is a temperature-dependent constant (for example, 769.2 L•atm/mol for dioxygen (O2) in water at 298 K), p is the partial pressure (atm), and c is the concentration of the dissolved gas in the liquid (mol/L). Dioxygen, O2, is the most common form of the element oxygen in normal conditions. ...


Polarity

A popular aphorism used for predicting solubility is "Like dissolves like"[5] This indicates that a solute will dissolve best in a solvent that has a similar polarity to itself. This is a rather simplistic view, since it ignores many solvent-solute interactions, but it is a useful rule-of-thumb. For example, a very polar (hydrophilic) solute such as urea is highly soluble in highly polar water, less soluble in fairly polar methanol, and practically insoluble in non-polar solvents such as benzene. In contrast, a non-polar or lipophilic solute such as naphthalene is insoluble in water, fairly soluble in methanol, and highly soluble in non-polar benzene.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros) water and φιλια (philia) friendship, refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or naphthene), is a crystalline, aromatic, white, solid hydrocarbon, best known as the primary ingredient of mothballs. ...


Liquid solubilities also generally follow this rule. Lipophilic plant oils, such as olive oil and palm oil, dissolve in non-polar gasoline (petrol), but polar liquids like water will not mix with gasoline.


Synthetic chemists often use the different solubilities of compounds to separate and purify compounds from reaction mixtures.


Rate of dissolution

Dissolution is not always an instantaneous process. It is fast when salt and sugar dissolve in water but much slower for a tablet aspirin or a large crystal of hydrated copper(II) sulfate. The speed at which a solid dissolves may depend on its crystalline properties (crystalline vs amorphous, crystal size) and the presence of polymorphism. This is especially important in designing methods for controlled drug delivery. Critically, the dissolution rate depends on the presence of mixing and other factors that determine the degree of undersaturation in the liquid solvent film immediately adjacent to the solid solute crystal. The rate of dissolution and solubility should not be confused--they are different concepts (kinetic and thermodynamic, respectively). Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (IPA: ), (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (to relieve minor aches and pains), antipyretic (to reduce fever), and as an anti-inflammatory. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... Polymorphism in materials science is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. ... Drug delivery is a term that refers to the delivery of a pharmaceutical compound to humans or animals. ...


Quantification of solubility

Solubility is commonly expressed as a concentration, either molarity or molality, but also as a mole fraction. The maximum equilibrium amount of solute that can normally dissolve per amount of solvent is the solubility of that solute in that solvent. It is often expressed as a maximum concentration of a saturated solution. These maximum concentrations are often expressed as grams of solute per 100 ml of solvent. This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ...


Solubility constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility (see solubility equilibrium). For salts, solubility in aqueous solutions or the maximum amount of salt that can be dissolved is the solubility constant. The solubility constant is a special case of an equilibrium constant. It describes the balance between dissolved salt and undissolved salt. The solubility constant is also "applicable" (i.e. useful) to precipitation, the reverse of the dissolving reaction. As with other equilibrium constants, temperature can affect the numerical value of solubility constant. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with solubility. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chemical equilibrium. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... In chemistry, the equilibrium constant is a quantity characterizing a chemical equilibrium in a chemical reaction. ... Fig. ...


Henry's law is used to quantify the solubility of gases in liquids as a function of the gas's partial pressure. In chemistry, Henrys law is one of the gas laws, formulated by William Henry. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ...


The Flory-Huggins solution theory is a theoretical model describing the solubility of polymers. The Hansen Solubility Parameters and the Hildebrand solubility parameters are empirical methods for the prediction of solubility. it is also possible to predict solubility from other physical constants such as the enthalpy of fusion. ... Hansen Solubility Parameters were developed by Charles Hansen as a way of predicting if one material will dissolve in another and form a solution. ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ...


The partition coefficient (Log P) is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in a hydrophobic solvent (octanol) and a hydrophilic solvent (water). The logarithm of these two values enables compounds to be ranked in terms of hydrophilicity (or hydrophobicity). A partition coefficient is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in two solvents. ... A partition coefficient or distribution coefficient is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in two solvents. ... Hydrophobe (from the Greek (hydros) water and (phobos) fear) in chemistry refers to the physical property of a molecule that is repelled by water. ... Octanol is a straight chain fatty alcohol with eight carbon atoms and the molecular formula CH3(CH2)7OH. Although the term octanol usually refers exclusively to the primary alcohol 1-octanol, there are other less common isomers of octanol such as the secondary alcohols 2-octanol, 3-octanol and 4... Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros) water and φιλια (philia) friendship, refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Applications

The solubility of a substance is very useful when separating mixtures of compounds. For example, a mixture of salt (sodium chloride) and silica may be separated by dissolving the salt in water, and filtering off the undissolved silica. The synthesis of chemical compounds, by the milligram in a laboratory, or by the ton in industry, both make use of the relative solubilities of the desired product, as well as unreacted starting materials, byproducts, and side products to achieve separation. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is an chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ...


Another example of this would be the synthesis of benzoic acid from phenylmagnesium bromide and dry ice. Benzoic acid is more soluble in an organic solvent such as dichloromethane or diethyl ether, and when shaken with this organic solvent in an separatory funnel, will preferentially dissolve in the organic layer. The other reaction products, i.e. the magnesium bromide will remain in the aqueous layer, clearly showing that separation based on solubility is achieved. (On a practical note, the benzoic acid obtained after evaporating the organic solvent should ideally be purified by recrystallizing from hot water.) Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Phenylmagnesium bromide, with the simplified formula C6H5MgBr, is a a magnesium-containing organometallic compound. ... Dry ice is a genericized trademark for solid (frozen) carbon dioxide. ... Dichloromethane or Methylene chloride is a chemical compound widely used as a solvent for organic materials. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Separating funnel. ...


Solubility of ionic compounds in water

The solubility of a salt which ionizes in water is determined by the solubility product (Ksp) which is a constant at a given temperature. Silver chloride is a relatively insoluble salt in water. It ionizes: Solubility equilibrium is any chemical equilibrium between solid and dissolved states of a compound at saturation. ... Related Compounds Other anions silver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. ...

Ag+ + Cl- ↔ AgCl (s)

The solubility product of AgCl, 1.8E-10 is also the equilibrium constant of this reaction which is calculated by multiplying the concentrations of silver and chloride ions in a saturated solution, i.e. [Ag+][Cl-]. Thus the maximum concentration of a pure solution of silver chloride possible is sqrt(1.8E-10) = 1.34 E-5 M. However, if there chloride ions were added, perhaps as a sodium chloride solution, the equilibrium will shift according to le Chatelier's principle, and silver chloride will precipitate from the solution. In chemistry, the equilibrium constant is a quantity characterizing a chemical equilibrium in a chemical reaction. ... In chemistry, Le Chateliers principle, also called the Le Chatelier-Braun principle, can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. ...

Main article: Solubility chart
Soluble Insoluble
Group I and NH4+ compounds carbonates (except Group I, NH4+ and uranyl compounds)
nitrates sulfites (except Group I and NH4+ compounds)
acetates (ethanoates) phosphates (except Group I and NH4+ compounds)
chlorides, bromides and iodides (except Ag+, Pb2+, Cu+ and Hg22+) hydroxides and oxides (except Group I, NH4+, Ba2+, Sr2+ and Tl+)
sulfates (except Ag+, Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+) sulfides (except Group I, Group II and NH4+ compounds)

A solubility chart refers to a chart with a list of ions and how, when mixed with other ions, they can become precipitates or remain aqueous. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... The uranyl ion, showing the U-O bond order of 3 Diagram of a uranyl ion. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... An acetate, or ethanoate, is a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 204. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are the series of elements in Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra) (not always considered due to its radioactivity and very short half-life). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ...

Solubility of organic compounds

The principle outlined above under polarity, that like dissolves like, is the usual guide to solubility with organic systems. For example, vaseline will dissolve in gasoline; both of which are lipophilic. This is because vaseline jelly consists of long carbon chains, as does the gasoline. It will, on the other hand, not dissolve in alcohol or water, since the polarity of these solvents is too high. Sugar will not dissolve in gasoline, since sugar is too polar in comparison with gasoline. A mixture of gasoline and sugar can therefore be separated by filtration, or extraction with water. Petroleum jelly or petrolatum is a byproduct of the refining of petroleum, made from the residue of petroleum distillation left in the still after all the oil has been vaporized. ... “Petrol” redirects here. ... In chemistry, alchemy and water treatment, filtration is the process of using a filter to mechanically separate a mixture. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ...


Solid solubility

The term is often used in the field of metallurgy to refer to extent that an alloying element will dissolve into the base metal without forming a separate phase. The Solubility Line (or curve) is the line (or lines) on a phase diagram which give the limits of solute addition. That is, the lines show the maximum amount of a component that can be added to another component and still be in solid solution. In microelectronic fabrication, solid solubility refers to the maximum concentration of impurities one can can place into the substrate. In physical chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a phase diagram is a type of graph used to show the equilibrium conditions between the thermodynamically-distinct phases. ...


See also

Look up soluble, solubility in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... This system is a guidance provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration [1]. According to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS_(disambiguation)), drug substances are classified as follows: Class I - High Permeability, High Solubility Class II - High Permeability, Low Solubility Class III - Low Permeability, High Solubility Class IV - Low... The Hot Water Extraction (HWE) method, is a method used in chemistry for extraction and for steam cleaning (e. ...

External links

  • ALOGPS interactive calculation of aqueous solubility of compounds at Virtual Computational Chemistry Laboratory using several algorithms
  • QUANTUM web based calculation of aqueous and DMSO solubility of compounds QUANTUM web based prediction of aqueous and DMSO solubility of compounds
  • ACD/Solubility DB aqueous solubility prediction

References

  1. ^ Atkins' Physical Chemistry, 7th Ed. by Julio De Paula, P.W. Atkins ISBN 0198792859
  2. ^ a b John W. Hill, Ralph H. Petrucci, General Chemistry, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 1999.
  3. ^ Data taken from the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 27th edition, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1943.
  4. ^ Salvatore Filippone, Frank Heimanna and André Rassat. "A highly water-soluble 2+1 b-cyclodextrin–fullerene conjugate". Chem. Commun. 2002: 1508 - 1509. DOI:10.1039/b202410a. 
  5. ^ Kenneth J. Williamson, Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, p40, 2nd edition, D. C, Heath, Lexington, Mass., 1994.
  6. ^ Data taken from the Merck Index, 7th edition, Merck & Co., 1960.

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