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Encyclopedia > Solon
Solon
Solon

Solon (Greek: Σολων,[1] ca. 638 BC558 BC) was a famous Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and Lyric poet. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Solon was an early pre-Socratic thinker, however there are four places in the United States bear the name of Solon, probably in honor of this figure: Solon, Iowa Solon, Maine Solon, Ohio Solon, New York There is also a town called Solon Springs south of Superior, Wisconsin which was... Solon, Athenian law maker File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Solon, Athenian law maker File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC Events and Trends 637 BC - Josiah becomes king of Judah. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of Southern Greece. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... // Lyric poetry is a form of poetry that does not attempt to tell a story, as do epic poetry and dramatic poetry, but is of a more personal nature instead. ...


Solon first achieved prominence as a philosopher, but, perceiving that Athens faced many problems, chose to enter politics. Beside being quite poor, the city was in the middle of a civil war as a consequence of an oppressive financial system imposed by a few wealthy citizens.


Solon's main quality was that, although he was of the patrician class by birth, he was not wealthy, so while the rich did not perceive him as a commoner, the poor did not perceive him as an oppressor. Consequently, by popular request, Solon was appointed Eponymous Archon, and given the task of reforming the traditional political system. Eventually he revamped most aspects of Athenian life, both modifying the code of laws and writing a definitive Constitution.


He said that he "stood with a strong shield before both parties, the common people and the powerful, and allowed neither to win an unfair victory". Thus his law code was not biased towards either class, and the common Athenian was integrated into his Constitution, which is considered the first foreshadowing of the modern bicameral parliamentary system in history. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


These democratic reforms were ultimately overturned in a coup, and the Solonian Constitution was revoked. His code of civil laws survived, however. The Solonian Constitution was the earliest Athenian constitution, created by Solon in the early 6th century BC. Solon wanted to revise or abolish the older laws of Draco, which had not solved any of the problems in Athens despite inflicting harsh penalties for almost every crime. ...

Contents

Early life

Solon was born in 638 BC in Athens. He was son of Execestides, descended from Codrus, who had been the last King of Athens. Solon's mother was cousin to Peisistratos' mother, so both Solon and Peisistratos were friends since childhood. However, although Solon's family was among the Athenian nobles, they only possessed moderate amounts of fortune and power.[2] Codrus - King of Athens (r. ... Before the Athenian democracy, the tyrants, and the archons, Athens was ruled by kings. ... In Greek mythology, Pisistratus (also transliterated as Peisístratos) was a friend of Telemachus and a son of Nestor. ...


Merchant

Initially, Solon worked as a foreign merchant. Beside any other personal motivation which could have driven him into this activity, Solon was eager to learn things. Indeed, this activity had quite a good reputation because it allowed people to civilize barbaric tribes, to befriend kings, and to learn many things. For these reasons, many important Athenians engaged in trade.[3]


His Poetry

Solon began writing poetry for his own entertainment, although he introduced a philosophical element. The poetry reflected Solon's political activities, instructing Athens about the best political course under a variety of circumstances. By his poems, Solon expressed reluctance, for money, because:

"Both types of people are equally rich.
"Whereas some have Gold, broad acres, corn, and wine;
"the other people have clothes, food, wife, and youthful strength."

Also, Solon wrote:

"I desire wealth, which isn't obtained, by deception,
"because people, whose money is basely gained, end cursed."[4]

Being among the Greek Wise Men

Solon was among the greatest men of the Seven Sages of Greece. They met mostly at at Apollo's temple, Delphi, which was central to Greece. Mainly, the Wise Men formulated the maxims which interpreted the Greek Pythias' sayings. At that time, another important Wise Man was Thales of Miletus.[5] The Seven Sages (of Greece) (c. ... Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt). ... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί — Delphee) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... Aegeus, a mythical king of Athens, consults the Pythia, who sits on a tripod. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now the Aydin Province of Turkey...


Pleading for Salamis

Already, Athens had surrendered Salamis Island to Megara, after years of bloody war. The Athenians were so tired that a law forbade any Athenian to suggest warring again or the death penalty would be suffered. However, Solon noted that many youngsters were eager to fight so, feigning insanity before his family by political fear, he began writing a poem, which urged recapturing Salamis. After it was finished, Solon rushed to the marketplace where he read the poem, before a crowd. Afterward, his friends congratulated him. Peisistratos also improvised a speech, which stirred the attending people. Consequently, abrogating the old law, they renewed the war and Solon was named the expedition's leader. Solon captured a Megarian vessel and it was boarded by concealed Greek soldiers who struck Salamis city by surprise. Among the commanders, Peisistratos was. After his victory, Solon built a temple which worshipped Ares, at Skiradion hill, at which the Athenians had gathered victoriously. However, Megara insisted on Spartan mediation. After agreeing to this, Solon defended the Athenian claim, winning the dispute in court. Consequently, Salamis was given to Athens and Solon gained reputation and power.[6] The Greek island of Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamina, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamis) is the largest island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ... In Greek mythology, Ares (in Greek: - Aris (Battle Strife))[1] is the son of Zeus (king of the gods) and Hera. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ...


Political career

Subsequently, from Delphi, Solon called for retaliation, against Kirra, which had offended Delphi's temple. All Greece was stirred by this request although the military campaign wasn't led by Solon, being led instead by Alcmaeon.[7] Kirra may refer to, Kirra, Queensland, coastal suburb and surf break Kirra, Phocis, a village in Greece Category: ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


By his already overwhelming political power, Solon resolved the Cylon crisis, which had divided Athens, into two factions. The nine Athenian Archons had repressed Cylon's revolutionary fellows so bloodily that the horrified Athenians believed that these Archons were evilly accursed. While Cylon's party was regaining popular support, Solon mustered the noblest Athenians and, by his great reputation, Solon prevailed politically against the accused Archon's stand, organizing a public trial, with a 300 individual jury --which was picked, from the Athenian cream--. The Archons were found guilty. The sentence stipulated that the living Archons had to leave Attica whereas the dead ones had to be reburied abroad.[8] Cylon (also spelled Kylon) was an Athenian associated with the first reliably dated event in Athenian history, the Cylonian affair. ...


Meanwhile, Megara counterattacked, recapturing both Nisaea and Salamis.[9]


Additionally, the Athenians believed that the urban center was suffering much bad religious experience, among which examples were both mystical terrors and apparitions. For purification, people resorted to Epimenides. He became Solon's friend, assisting in his legislation. They decided both softening the Athenian rites and building more temples throughout Athens. Thus, the Athenians would begin dedicating rather to political duties, accordingly with the law. These reforms were quite successful.[10] Epimenides of Knossos Epimenides of Knossos (Crete) (Greek: Επιμενίδης) was a semi-mythical 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet, who is said to have fallen asleep for fifty-seven years in a Cretian cave sacred to Zeus, after which he reportedly awoke with the gift of prophecy. ...


Chief Archon

Athens was submerged in a serious crisis. There was great unrest about the loan system, which was ruled by unscrupulous wealthy creditors. From their annual revenues, all farmers earmarked a sixth to their creditors. A better land redistribution was needed. In Athens, the poor people were usually sold as slaves abroad if they didn't pay their loans. Simultaneously, the nation wanted to agree on a Constitution but each Athenian political party desired a different government system, ranging from democracy, to oligarchy, including mixed systems. Solon described this chaotic political situation:

"If the state might be either disturbed or upset;
"Athens won't be able, either to reconstitute or to reorganize."[11]

People believed that Solon was the balanced political figure for reforming since he was neither a repressive rich Athenian nor was he poor. Thus, in 594 BC, after Archon Philombrotus, Solon was named Eponymous Archon, of Attica. Indeed, all Athenians were so enthusiastic that people began requesting that Solon might be made king. Though, --unfalteringly-- Solon refused, explaining that This is a list of the eponymous archons of Athens. ... This article is about Attica in Greece. ...

"although monarchy is a pleasant place; no way out exists."[12]

Solon's first reforms spurned the traditional Athenian loan system. He softened its general terms and --henceforth-- he forbade that people's lives guaranteed the contract. Accordingly, the interest rates were reduced by the "Relief from Burden" --Seisachtheia--. For this, Solon enlarged both the Athenian measure system and its currency's value. Now, a mina represented 100 drachmas, instead of 73 and this reduced all debts' value. Additionally, Solon recalled all Athenians who had been enslaved and exiled, freeing them. However, Solon suffered public humiliation because some of his upper class friends enriched themselves. Knowing the impending reform, they rushed to get credit and bought land. Popularly, these people were called "The Swindlers." Personally, Solon could avoid the scandal, repaying a great loan, which was of 10 talents.[13] Seisachtheia (Greek: seiein, to shake, and achthos, burden, i. ... Mina can refer to: // Mina, Gabon Mina, Greece Mina, Iloilo, in the Philippines. ... Drachma, pl. ...


Initially, the Athenian aristocrats were furious against Solon, by the guarantee nullifying, whereas, simultaneously, the peasants felt deceived for the land hadn't been redistributed. Solon depicted the situation:

"Once, they speculated gaily that good luck might befall, for them.
"Now, they look coldly, toward me.
"They deem that I am the traitor, to them all."

About the land claiming, Solon referred:

"So they came, searching plunder.
"They deemed that endless wealth would be found.
"They dreamed --vainly--.
"Now, they rise an angry din."

However, people began perceiving that the Seisachteia worked and, even, a public sacrifice was performed, honoring the reforms.[14] Solon's constitution was later called the Solonian Constitution. The Solonian Constitution was the earliest Athenian constitution, created by Solon in the early 6th century BC. Solon wanted to revise or abolish the older laws of Draco, which had not solved any of the problems in Athens despite inflicting harsh penalties for almost every crime. ...


After this initial success Athens committed Solon to a reform spate, comprising all Athenian institutions. Solon's first decision was to repeal Draco's laws, which prescribed capital punishment, for virtually any crime. Solon limited capital punishment only for murder convictions.[15]


Subsequently, Solon ordered a national census, measuring Athens wealth. Already, the Athenian population was divided, into four classes, constituting a Timokratia, which is an oligarchic social system. Solon redistributed political duties more popularly, among these classes:[16]

  • Pentakosiomedimnol
    • "men of 500 bushel"
    • Annually, these people produced 500 bushel --either of dry things or of liquid ones--.
  • Hippeis
    • "knights"
    • For war, these people could support both their own equipment and a horse.
    • This was valued, at a 300 bushel production --annually--.
  • Zeugital
    • For working, these people had two beasts --minimally--.
    • This was valued, at a 200 bushel production --annually--.
  • Thetes
    • These people were manual workers.

N.G.L. Hammond supposes that he instituted a graduated tax upon these upper classes at a rate of 6:3:1, with the lowest class of thetes paying nothing in taxes but being ineligible for elected office. Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond (born November 15 1907; died March 24 2001) was a British scholar of ancient Greece of great accomplishment and an operative for the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) in occupied Greece during World War Two. ... A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ...


Solon distributed the Athenian magistracies among the aristocracy, although he integrated the common Athenian, into their Constitution. Solon described this in a poem.

"I gave all needed strength, to the common people.
"Yet, I kept the nobles, with strong power.
"Thus, they are reciprocally shielded, from any violence.
"They can't do wrong, to each other."[17]

Accordingly, Solon didn't allow that a Thete might be magistrate but a Thete could attend public assembies and a Thete could be juryman. The latter was extremely important because most disputes were settled by jury. Additionally, after a magistrate settled a case, people had a final appeal.[18] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Solon instituted the Areopagus, which was formed by politicians, who had already been Eponymous Archon. It was the Athenian Senate. However, --simultaneously-- Solon created the Athenian lower chamber, whose name was "Council of the Four Hundred" or Boule. It was constituted by all four Athenian tribes, which sent a hundred men apiece. The lower chamber deliberated about all the issues which would be considered by the Areopagus. It is generally accepted that these institutions were the origin of the modern Occidental democratic system.[19]


Solon encouraged foreign trade for Attica, which was submerged in poverty. He ruled the Areopagus could inquire about each Athenian's property, punishing any unproductive resource.[20]


Other issues were:

  • regulation of marriages
  • regime of copulation, inside marriage
  • conduct, toward dead people
  • conduct, in public places
  • institution of personal testament
  • social female conduct
  • women's lives, in general
  • regulation of filial obligation, to maintain a father economically
  • adultery
  • prizes, for winners in international sporting contests
  • rewards, for killing regional savage animals
  • placing of wells, trees, trenches, pits, and industrial hives
  • domestic animals
  • regime for migrants, who arrived, to live in Athens
  • regime for the Athenian community dinning table

Additionally, Solon modified the Athenian calendar.[21]


Solon ordered that, in effect, his laws had to endure for 100 years and, effectively, they were sworn by all Athenian institutions, both at the Areopagus and at the Agora. The cylinders were kept, in the Acropolis.[22]


Traveling for Ten Years

Soon Solon felt harrassed because overmuch Athenian was questioning and criticizing him. As a result, Solon took a 10 year commercial excursion abroad. He expected that, afterward, people would be finally accustomed to his code of laws.[23] Solon exacted the promise of the city that his constitution would not change unless he were to change it himself. In his travels he visited Egypt, Cyprus and Lydia. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ...


Solon began his trip in Egypt, spending some time at the Nile's outlet. Then, he visited Heliopolis where he discussed philosophy, with Psenophis. Subsequently, at Sais, Solon visited Neith's temple where the local priests, who were quite renowned in Egypt, described the Atlantis' island tale to him. Solon wrote this history as a poem to bring home to Athens. Plato used this manuscript, in his dialogues Timaios and Critias.[24] The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Look up sais in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Timaeus is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 B.C. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ...


Then, Solon sailed toward Cyprus. A local king, whose name was Philocyprus, received him at his royal capital, which was on the Clarius river. As the city was too congested geografically, Solon suggested that a whole new one be erected elsewhere. Solon oversaw the building. When it was finished, the new city was envied and many individuals wanted to live there. The new royal city was baptized Soloi, after Solon.[25] For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The swan mosaic at Soli Soli or Soloi (Greek: Σόλοι) is an ancient city on the island of Cyprus, located south-west of Morphou and on the coast in the gulf of Morphou. ...


Afterward, Solon was invited to Sardis, Lydia, by King Croesus. The following story is well known, particularly in ancient times. Among other historians, both Herodotus and Plutarch have presented it. Solon walked through the lavishly magnificent palace, with unexcited attitude. At this behavior, Croesus was so surprised that he began blustering, exhibiting all his treasures to Solon. Solon maintained a cool demeanor. Then, Croesus asked Solon whether Solon had known any other person, who had been happier than the Lydian king. Solon told about an Athenian, who had been happy by his own virtuous life, reasoning as follows: A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ...

"There are good reasons—first, his city was prosperous, and he had fine sons, and lived to see children born to each of them, and all these children surviving; secondly, he had wealth enough by our standards; and he had a glorious death."

Desperately, the surprised king asked again whether Solon had known another person, excluding this Athenian. Consequently, Solon told a similar Athenian tale. It was about two individuals, who had loved their mother intensely, until death. Ultimately, Croesus asked directly whether Solon considered that the Lydian king was happy or not. Solon responded:

"Heaven endowed the Greeks with moderate gifts. Thus, our wisdom is both cautious and homely cast. It bears neither royal nor magnificent character. Besides, strange things await every man, in the unknown future, and we think that a man has only been happy if his life had a fortunate death."

Croesus was quite angered, although it was recalling this story that Croesus saved himself from execution when his kingdom was overcome by Cyrus, who led the Persians.[26][27] The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Returning to Athens

Solon returned to Athens, in the 560s BC, and he was received respectfully. However, he found that, again, chaos dominated. Each political party was eager, to overpower its other rivals definitively, by any means. Many people wanted other revolution. Already, Solon was quite aged but, still, he mediated between the three rivaling political leaders. Among them, only Peisistratos showed some interest on Solon's striving. Peisistratos was leading the Highlands political party, Diakril, which congregated mountain people. With them, the Athenian poorer classes were ready, to revolt against the Athenian aristocracy.[28] Accordingly with Aristotle, Peisistratos was an extreme democrat.[29]


Early, Solon had detected Peisistratos' tough plans and Solon attempted stopping him. However, Peisistratos did his first move toward revolution, injuring himself. Then, he lied that he had been attacked by political enemies so a personal army may be created. Peisistratos was surrounded by political fellows when Solon said to him:

"Dishonorably, you are imitating Homer's Odysseus but you do this, deceiving your own fellow citizens. Instead, Odysseus had mutilated himself, deceiving the enemy."

Also, Solon said:

"I'm wiser than the Athenians, who don't understand the situation, yet I'm braver than those Athenians, who understand the situation, but don't oppose."[30]

Effectively, the Highlands party took the Athenian government, overthrowing Solon's constitution by force.[31] Opposing this, the aged Solon addressed the Agora, against. He reproached the Athenians and one comment was largely remembered, historically.

"In the past, the Athenians would have been able to combat any possible despotic coup. Nowadays, it would be more glorious to depose it while it's at its full growth."

However, the fearful Athenians didn't listen.[32]


In these difficult days, Solon wrote a poem too, reproaching the Athenians.

"By your own cowardice, you are suffering wrong.
"Blame yourselves. Don't blame the gods, for this.
"You have strengthened this tyrant
"so, rightly, you have lost your freedom."

Solon dressed in an armor and he stood on the street, before his home, so all Athenians might resist the government so. Eventually, Solon's friends warned him that Peisistratos might kill him by such insolences.[33]


Nonetheless, Peisistratos, whose government was rather like a constitutional one,[34] began dispensing much favor, to Solon. Indeed, Solon's code was kept severely in effect. Even, once during his mandate, the tyrant appeared in the Areopagus, responding a murder accusation.[35] He showed Solon considerable respect, either out of respect for the older man's wisdom, or out of regard for their former love.[36]


Thus, --eventually-- Solon became advisor and much suggestion ended even approved by this government.[37]


His Death

Accordingly with ancient sources, Solon died during Peisistratos' dominion. This meant a 2 year margin, after the coup.[38]


During these months, Solon was completely dedicated, to leisure activities. This was reflected in a poem:

"Both Aphrodite and Dionysus are my lone care,
"together with the muses, which charm the human heart."

Among his final projects, the Atlantis' poem was although Solon couldn't finish it, by his extreme age.[39] The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 Aphrodite (Greek: Αφροδίτη; Latin: Venus) (IPA: English: , Ancient Greek: , Modern Greek: ) was the Greek goddess of love, lust, and beauty. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus (Latin) or Dionysos (Greek) (from Ancient Greek: or ; both Greek and Roman mythology and associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think, from which mind and mental are also derived[1]) are fifty goddesses or spiritual guides who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing...


Most ancient writers, among whom Aristotle was, pointed that, after Solon died, his ashes were spread, around Salamis.[40]


Accomplishments

Politics

Solon introduced the trial by jury; military obligations were codified based on class; the Council of the Four Hundred (or Boule) and the Areopagus were established as the main consultative and administrative bodies; he introduced many new laws, especially those covering debt and taxation; he remodeled the calendar; he created a court for the lowest classes called the Heliaia and allowed it to audit those passing from the office of archon for each year; he regulated weights and measures. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jury. ... The term boule can also be used to describe a large block of synthetically produced crystal material. ... The term boule can be used to describe a large block of synthetically produced crystal material. ... This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Heliaia ( Greek: ἡλιαία) or Halia ( Greek: ἁλία) was the supreme court of ancient Athens. ... Weights and measures is a term used by legal authorities in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom for a function related to units of measurement in trade. ...


Solon also encouraged a growth in industry by offering citizenship to skilled foreign laborers and created a law which ensured fathers, unless farmers, passed on the skills of their profession to their sons. His laws were written onto special wooden cylinders and placed in the Acropolis. The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...


Pederasty

He is also is credited with being the founder of the pederastic educational tradition in Athens. He composed poetry praising the love of boys and instituted legislation to control abuses against freeborn boys. Specifically, he excluded slaves from the wrestling halls and from pederasty.[41] According to the later histories of Plutarch and Aelian, Solon had the future Tyrant Peisistratus as an eromenos and later appointed him as a commander in the conquest of Salamis in 590s BC, however Aristotle claims that Peisistratus would have been too young at the time.[42][43][44] Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Peisistratos or Peisistratus (Greek: )[1] (ca. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... The Greek island of Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamina, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamis) is the largest island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC Events and trends 598 BC - Jehoiachin succeeds Jehoiakim as King of Judah 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


Trivia

  • Almost, Solon put his laws down as a poem. Indeed, he wrote the first lines, which said:
"To Zeus --who is the great divine Cronus' son--, I pray
"so my laws are favored, by him."[45]
  • Solon wrote his laws onto triangular wooden tables, which folded around an axis.[46]
  • Right after returning from this 10 year trip, Solon spent some time at theaters. There, he met Thespis, who had created the Greek tragedy. To him, Solon questioned whether he was ashamed by telling so many lies, before so many people. Thespis responded that he wasn't for all was a jest. Becoming angered, Solon struck the floor with his cane and he said:
"By praising and approving such jests, soon we will find people, who will be jesting with our businesses."[47]
  • Being Archon, Solon conversed with Anacharsis while he was writing his code. The man criticized Solon because, generally, laws were evaded by the most powerful citizens. Solon responded: "Inside a nation, people keep their covenants because nobody would profit if these may be broken. Besides, I have suited my laws so all inhabitants will prefer, abiding by them, instead of breaking them."[48]
  • Into his new constitution, Solon introduced new denominations, which were more polite and which have been universally used thereafter.
"Harlots" were now called "Mistresses"
"Taxes" were called "Contributions"
"Garrisons" were called "Protectors"
"Prison" was called "The House"[49]

Thespis of Icaria (6th century BCE) is claimed to be the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor in a play although the reality is undoubtedly more complex. ... Anacharsis He marvelled that among the Greeks, those who were skillful in a thing vie in competition; those who have no skill, judge —Diogenes Laertius, of Anacharsis. ...

Editions

Solon's works are preserved only in fragments.

  • Martin Litchfield West, Iambi et elegi Graeci ante Alexandrum cantati2 : Callinus. Mimnermus. Semonides. Solon. Tyrtaeus. Minora adespota,, Oxonii: e typographeo Clarendoniano 1972, revised edition 1992 x + 246 pp.
  • T. Hudaon-Williams, Early Greek Elegy: Ekegiac Fragments of Callinus, Archilochus, Mimmermus, Tyrtaeus, Solon, Xenophanes, and Others, # Taylor and Francis (1926), ISBN 0824077733.
  • Christoph Mülke, Solons politische Elegien und Iamben : (Fr. 1 - 13, 32 - 37 West), Munich (2002), ISBN 3598777264.
  • Eberhard Ruschenbusch Nomoi : Die Fragmente d. Solon. Gesetzeswerkes, Wiesbaden : F. Steiner (1966).
  • H. Miltner Fragmente / Solon, Vienna (1955)
  • Eberhard Preime, Dichtungen : Sämtliche Fragmente / Solon Munich (1940).

Martin Litchfield West (b. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Pronounced probably ['sɔlɔ:n] - see Ancient Greek phonology
  2. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  3. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  4. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  5. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  6. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  7. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  8. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  9. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  10. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  11. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  12. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  13. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  14. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  15. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  16. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  17. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  18. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  19. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  20. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  21. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  22. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  23. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  24. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  25. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  26. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, 1.30
  27. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  28. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  29. ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, 2.14
  30. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  31. ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, 2.16
  32. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  33. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  34. ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution
  35. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  36. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia, 8.16
  37. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  38. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  39. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  40. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  41. ^ Aeschines, Against Timarchus, 138f
  42. ^ Plutarch, The Lives, "Solon"
  43. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia, 8.16
  44. ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, 2.17
  45. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  46. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  47. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  48. ^ Solon by Plutarch
  49. ^ Solon by Plutarch

Ancient Greek phonology is the study of the phonology, or pronunciation, of Ancient Greek. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... Aeschines (389 - 314 BC), Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators, was born at Athens. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...

See also

The Solonian Constitution was the earliest Athenian constitution, created by Solon in the early 6th century BC. Solon wanted to revise or abolish the older laws of Draco, which had not solved any of the problems in Athens despite inflicting harsh penalties for almost every crime. ... The Seven Sages (of Greece) (c. ... Seisachtheia (Greek: seiein, to shake, and achthos, burden, i. ... In the cities (Gr. ... This article concerns the Classical judicial body. ... Soli is an ancient city on the island of Cyprus, located west of Kyrenia. ...

External links

The Works of Plutarch
The Works Parallel Lives | The Moralia | Pseudo-Plutarch
The Lives

Alcibiades and Coriolanus1Alexander the Great and Julius CaesarAratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2Aristides and Cato the Elder1
Crassus and Nicias1Demetrius and Antony1Demosthenes and Cicero1Dion and Brutus1Fabius and Pericles1Lucullus and Cimon1
Lysander and Sulla1Numa and Lycurgus1Pelopidas and Marcellus1Philopoemen and Flamininus1Phocion and Cato the Younger
Pompey and Agesilaus1Poplicola and Solon1Pyrrhus and Gaius MariusRomulus and Theseus1Sertorius and Eumenes1
Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1Themistocles and Camillus
Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Gaius Marcius Coriolanus is widely believed to be a legendary figure who is said to have lived during the 5th century BC. He was given the agnomen Coriolanus as a result of his action in capturing the Volscian town of Corioli in 493 BC. Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... Aratus (271 BC - 213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC. He deposed Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was a supporter of Greek unity and integrated Sicyon into the Achaean League, which was led by him to his maximum extent. ... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Nicias (d. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators and prose stylists. ... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lysander (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... // Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?–630 BC) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Philopoemen (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom. ... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Marcus Porcius Catō UticÄ“nsis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder, was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II (Greek Ἀγησιλάος), king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger step-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing... Publius Valerius Publicola (or Poplicola, his surname meaning friend of the people) was a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... This page describes the ancient heroes that founded the city of Rome. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... Son of Eudamidas II., of the Eurypontid family, commonly called Agis IV. He succeeded his father probably in 245 BC, in his twentieth year. ... Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II. In keeping with the Spartan agoge and the native pederastic tradition he was the hearer (aites) of Xenares and later the inspirer (eispnelos) of Panteus. ... Timoleon (c. ... Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a Roman general and politician. ... Themistocles (ca. ... Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. ...

The Translators John Dryden | Thomas North | Jacques Amyot | Philemon Holland | Arthur Hugh Clough
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1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Solon - LoveToKnow 1911 (2562 words)
SOLON (7th and 6th century B.C.), Athenian statesman, the son of Execestides of the family of Codrus, was born about 638 B.C. The prodigality of his father made it necessary for Solon to maintain himself by trade, especially abroad.
The story that Solon visited Croesus in Lydia, and made to him the famous remark-" Call no man happy till he is dead " -is unfortunately discredited by the fact that Croesus seems to have become king nearly thirty years after Solon's legislation, whereas the story must be dated within ten years of it.
Solon also regulated intestate succession, the marriage of heiresses, adoption, the use and sinking of wells, bee-farming, the planting of olives and figs, the cutting down of olive trees, the calendar.
Solon - The Lawmaker of Athens (3873 words)
Solon arrived, and upon entering the palace he saw a man magnificently dressed and accompanied by a retinue of slaves and soldiers, so he assumed that this man must be Croesus.
Solon was too old to take an active role when he arrived back in Athens, but he met privately with the leaders and tried to calm down the partisan rancor.
Solon was weak and old, and he had no man willing to stand by him, but he went to the marketplace and scolded the Athenians for being too afraid of Pisistratus and his gang to take back their liberty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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