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Encyclopedia > Solomon's Temple

Solomon's Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


It functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. Completed in the 10th century BC, it was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BC. The reconstructed temple in Jerusalem, which stood between 516 BC and 70 AD, was the Second Temple. Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) in Judaism, is commonly called a religious sacrifice or an offering in English, but is known as a Korban in Hebrew because its Hebrew root K [a] R [o] V (קרב) (or K [o] R... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... For other uses, see number 70. ... A stone (2. ...

Artist depiction of the Temple (Drawing by Christiaan van Adrichem (1584).)
Artist depiction of the Temple (Drawing by Christiaan van Adrichem (1584).)

Contents

Download high resolution version (1497x1000, 634 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1497x1000, 634 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Ancient events and actions

David's first action as king of Israel was to conquer Jerusalem and declare it the capital of his kingdom. Even though the city was not the perfect choice from many points of view, a geopolitical constraint dictated this choice. According to Jewish tradition, Mount Moriah is an important place where Abraham bound Isaac and thus the Temple was to be built there. David conquered Jerusalem in approximately 1004 BC and made it a center of his government. He brought the Ark of the Covenant to the city. Jerusalem became the political and spiritual nexus of the Jewish people. King David was instructed not to build the Temple, leaving the task to his son Solomon. The concentration of religious ritual at the Temple made Jerusalem a place of pilgrimage and an important commercial center. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Ώ // ---- Insert non-formatted text here]] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional date) 1002 BC - Death... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


The city served as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, but became the capital of the less powerful of the two kingdoms (Judah) after the death of Solomon and the division of the country into two kingdoms. It regained its central status after the conquest and destruction of the northern Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians in 722 BC. It was in Jerusalem where most of the great prophets were writing, articulating spiritual and ethical principles that would transcend the city's narrow confines to become pillars of the Jewish spirit. In 586 BC the city was invaded by the Babylonians. At the order of Nebuchadnezzar, their king, the city was torched, the Temple was razed, and the people were taken into exile. A small number returned from exile, 70 years later. This was the first exile of the Jewish nation. This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Nebuchadnezzar has several meanings: Nebuchadnezzar (also Nebuchadrezzar), the name of several kings of Babylonia: Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, the best known of these kings, who conquered Aram and Israel. ...


Raids and destruction

According to the Bible, the temple was pillaged many times during the course of its history (dates before Ahaz are approximate):

  1. by king Shishak of Egypt, c.933 BC (1 Kings 14:25, 26);
  2. by king Asa of Judah, c.900 BC in order to persuade Ben-Hadad I of Damascus to come to his aid against Baasha of Israel (1 Kings 15:9-24);
  3. by king Jehoash of Judah, c. 825 BC, in order to pay Hazael of Damascus, who was besieging the city (2 Kings 12:17-18);
  4. by king Joash of Israel, c.790 BC (2 Kings 14:14);
  5. by king Ahaz of Judah, 734 BC, to persuade Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria to come to his aid against Pekah of Israel and Rezin II of Damascus (2 Kings 16:8, 17, 18);
  6. by king Hezekiah of Judah, 712 BC, to pay king Sennacherib of Assyria, who was besieging the city (2 Kings 18:15, 16).
  7. by king Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon who pillaged it twice- once in 597 BC, and again in 586 BC, after which he destroyed it (2 Kings 24:13; 2 Chr. 36:7). He burned the temple, and carried all its treasures with him to Babylon (2 Kings 25:9-17; 2 Chr. 36:19; Isaiah 64:11).

These sacred vessels were, at the end of the Babylonian Captivity, restored to the Jews by Cyrus in 538 BC (Ezra 1:7-11). Shishak (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian: []) or Shishaq is the biblical Hebrew form of the ancient Egyptian name of a pharaoh. ... Asa may refer to: Asa (name), given name Asa Shigure, character in the Shuffle! media franchise Asa Rāga, Indian format of musical rules Asa, god of the Kamba ethnic group, Kenya Ása, genitive of Æsir, the predominant group among the Norse gods Adaptive Security Appliance, made by Cisco Systems... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Baasha (Hebrew Basha; Baal hears) was the third king of the northern kingdom of Israel. ... Jehoash (Jehovah-given), was king of Judah, and sole surviving son of Ahaziah. ... Hazael (Hebrew Hazael, meaning God has seen) was a court official and later an Aramean king who appeared in the Bible. ... Jehoash (Jehovah-given), was king of Israel and the son of Jehoahaz, (2 Kings 14:1; compare 12:1; 13:10). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London) Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: TukultÄ«-Apil-EÅ¡arra) was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC)[1][2] and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Categories: People stubs | Kings of ancient Israel ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... Sennacherib during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh Sennacherib (in Akkadian Śïn-ahhe-eriba (The moon god) Śïn has Replaced (Lost) Brothers for Me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by country Jewish languages Hebrew: (Biblical / Modern... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ...


Modern influences and events

Modern temple architecture of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has influences from Solomon's Temple. Each of the 124 operating temples has a baptismal font which is supported by 12 oxen patterned after the brazen Sea described in 1 Kings 7:23-26. Three of the church's early temples exteriors were patterned loosely on the design of Solomon's Temple. The Layout of Masonic Lodges are also based on the layout of King Solomon's Temple. The Salt Lake Temple, operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the best-known Mormon temple. ... // On December 27, 1832 — two years after the organization of the Church of Jesus Christ — the movements founder, Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Baptismal font in Magdeburg Cathedral, Germany A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for the baptism of children and adults. ...


On December 27, 2004 it was reported that the Israel Museum in Jerusalem has alleged that the ivory pomegranate that some scholars believed had once adorned a sceptre used by the high priest in Solomon's Temple may not be related to the Temple. This artifact was the most important item of biblical antiquities in its collection; it had been part of a traveling exhibition at the Canadian Museum of Civilization in 2003. The report described the thumb-sized pomegranate, which is a mere 44 millimetres in height, as being inscribed "... with ancient Hebrew letters said to spell out the words "Sacred donation for the priests in the House of YHVH." The Israel Museum now believes that the artifact actually dates back to the 14th or 13th century BC, and there is much dispute over the age of the inscription. Some experts fear that this discovery is part of an international fraud in antiquities; Israeli authorities have charged five people[1]. December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The road sign The Shrine of the Book The Israel Museum (‎, Muzion Yisrael) in Jerusalem, was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ... Categories: Museums in Canada | Ottawa buildings | Canadian federal departments and agencies ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ...


In May 3, 2007, in Jerusalem a group of American, French and Israeli scholars met in attempt to resolve differences over whether the Ivory Pomegranate Inscription was authentic or a forgery with no conclusion. [2].


Location

Historically, the Temple was thought to be situated upon the hill which forms the site of the present-day Temple Mount, in the center of which area is the Dome of the Rock. Under the Jebusites the site was used as a threshing floor. 2 Sam. 24 describes its consecration during David's reign. It is noteworthy to mention that two slightly different sites for the Temple have also been proposed: one places the stone altar at the location of the rock which is now beneath the gilded dome, with the rest of the temple to the west; the Well of Souls was, in this theory, a pit for the remnants of the blood services of the korbanot. The other places the Holy of Holies atop this rock. The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... Jebus redirects here. ... Well of Souls can mean several things: 1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holy of Holies. ...


Archeological Evidence

There are two sources of archeological artifacts relevant to Solomon's temple. The first come from remains taken from refuse from an extensive construction project performed on the Temple Mount by the Islamic Wakf in November of 1999. It is not, however, clear whether these remains contain evidence of a Temple structure from this period.[1][2]. The second,more definitive source was discovered in the summer of 2007, as archeologists overseeing construction at the site reported artifacts most likely belonging to the first temple period. [3] Wakf One and a half thousand years ago, long before the birth of the doctrine of uses and trusts in English Law, Islamic Law recognized and developed a legal expedient under the name of wakf, which permitted an owner to settle his property for the use of beneficiaries in perpetuity. ...


Description

A sketch of Solomon's Temple based on descriptions in the Tanakh.
A sketch of Solomon' Temple facing East.
A sketch of Solomon' Temple facing East.

The detailed descriptions provided in the Tanakh and educated guesses based on the remains of other temples in the region are the sources for reconstructions of its appearance. Technical details are lacking, since the scribes who wrote the books were not architects or engineers.[3] Reconstructions differ; the following enumeration is largely based on Easton's Bible Dictionary and the Jewish Encyclopedia: Solomons Temple Description The temple consisted of: The oracle or most holy place (1 Kings 6:19; 8:6), called also the inner house (6:27), and the holiest of all (Heb. ... Solomons Temple Description The temple consisted of: The oracle or most holy place (1 Kings 6:19; 8:6), called also the inner house (6:27), and the holiest of all (Heb. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Solomons Temple eastern face File links The following pages link to this file: Solomons Temple Categories: Images with unknown source ... Solomons Temple eastern face File links The following pages link to this file: Solomons Temple Categories: Images with unknown source ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. ( 1823- 1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...

  1. The Kadosh Kadoshim, the Temple's Most Holy Place (1 Kings 6:19; 8:6), called also the "inner house" (6:27), and the "Holy of Holies" (Heb. 9:3). It was 20 cubits in length, breadth, and height. The usual explanation for the discrepancy between its height and the 30-cubit height of the temple is that its floor was elevated, like the cella of other ancient temples.[3] It was floored and wainscotted with Cedar of Lebanon (1 Kings 6:16), and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold (6:20, 21, 30). It contained two cherubim of olive-wood, each 10 cubits high (1 Kings 6:16, 20, 21, 23-28) and each having outspread wings 10 cubits from tip to tip, so that, since they stood side by side, the wings touched the wall on either side and met in the center of the room. There was a two-leaved door between it and the holy place overlaid with gold (2 Chr. 4:22); also a veil of blue purple and crimson and fine linen (2 Chr. 3:14; compare Exodus 26:33).It had no windows (1 Kings 8:12). It was considered the dwelling-place of God.

The reason for the color scheme of the veil was symbolic. In Jewish tradition, blue represented the heavens, while red or crimson represented the earth. Purple, a combination of the two colors represents a meeting of the heavens and the earth. Thus, purple can also be a representation of the Holy Messiah in Jewish and Christian traditions. One can thus conclude that the only way into the Holy of Holies (God's presence) is through the purple veil (the Messiah). #The Hekhal: the holy place, 1 Kings 8:8-10, called also the "greater house" (2 Chr. 3:5) and the "temple" (1 Kings 6:17); the word also means "palace".[3] It was of the same width and height as the Holy of Holies, but 40 cubits in length. Its walls were lined with cedar, on which were carved figures of cherubim, palm-trees, and open flowers, which were overlaid with gold. Chains of gold further marked it off from the Holy of Holies. The floor of the Temple was of fir-wood overlaid with gold. The door-posts, of olive-wood, supported folding-doors of fir. The doors of the Holy of Holies were of olive-wood. On both sets of doors were carved cherubim, palm-trees, and flowers, all being overlaid with gold (1 Kings 6:15 et seq.) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holy of Holies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy of Holies. ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... Binomial name Cedrus libani A. Rich. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... CHERUB is a series of childrens books written by the author Robert Muchamore about a group of children who are trained to be agents working for the British Government in the top secret organisation known as CHERUB. It is similar to the British security service MI5, and is based... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Crimson (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Hekhal, also known as the Sanctuary or Holy, was the part of Tabernacle and Temple in Jerusalem between the outer alter, where most sacrifices were performed, and the Holy of Holies originally containing the Ark of the Covenant. ...

  1. The Ulam: the porch or entrance before the temple on the east (1 Kings 6:3; 2 Chr. 3:4; 9:7). This was 20 cubits long (corresponding to the width of the Temple) and 10 cubits deep (1 Kings 6:3). 2 Chr. 3:4 adds the curious statement (probably corrupted from the statement of the depth of the porch) that this porch was 120 cubits high, which would make it a regular tower. The description does not specify whether a wall separated it from the next chamber. In the porch stood the two pillars Jachin and Boaz (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Kings 11:14; 23:3), which were 18 cubits in height and surmounted by capitals of carved lilies, 5 cubits high.
  2. The chambers, which were built about the temple on the southern, western, and northern sides (1 Kings 6:5-10). These formed a part of the building and were used for storage. They were probably one story high at first; two more may have been added later.[3]

According to biblical tradition, round about the building were: Boaz and Jachin were the name of the two pillars that stood on the eastern porch of Solomons Temple, the first temple in Jerusalem (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Kings 11:14; 23:3). ...

  1. The court of the priests (2 Chr. 4:9), called the "inner court" (1 Kings 6:36), which was separated from the space beyond by a wall of three courses of hewn stone, surmounted by cedar beams (1 Kings 6:36).
  2. The great court, which surrounded the whole temple (2 Chr. 4:9). Here the people assembled to worship God (Jeremiah 19:14; 26:2).

The inner court of the Priests contained the Altar of burnt-offering (2 Chr. 15:8), the brazen Sea (4:2-5, 10), and ten lavers (1 Kings 7:38, 39). From 2 Kings 16:14 it is learned that a brazen altar stood before the Temple; 2 Chr. 4:1 gives its dimensions as 20 cubits square and 10 cubits high. The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ...


The brazen Sea (Laver), 10 cubits wide brim to brim, 5 cubits deep and with a circumference of 30 cubits around about under the brim, rested on the backs of twelve oxen (1 Kings 7:23-26). The Book of Kings gives its capacity as "2,000 baths" (24,000 US gallons); the Chronicler inflates this to three thousand baths (36,000 US gallons) (2 Chr. 4:5-6) and states that its purpose was to afford opportunity for the purification by immersion of the body of the priests (in everflowing living source Waters). (According to Talmud tractate Mikwaoth, a "bath" of 40 seahs is the minimum permissible size for a Mikvah). The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ...


The lavers, each of which held "forty baths" (1 Kings 7:38), rested on portable holders made of bronze, provided with wheels, and ornamented with figures of lions, cherubim, and palm-trees. These vessels especially excited the admiration of the Jews. The author of the books of the Kings describes their minute details with great interest (1 Kings 7:27-37). Josephus reported that the vessels in the Temple were composed of Orichalcum in the Antiquities of the Jews. According to 1 Kings 7:48 there stood before the Holy of Holies a golden altar of incense and a table for showbread. This table was of gold, as were also the five candlesticks on each side of it. The implements for the care of the candles—tongs, basins, snuffers, and fire-pans—were of gold; and so were the hinges of the doors. For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... CHERUB is a series of childrens books written by the author Robert Muchamore about a group of children who are trained to be agents working for the British Government in the top secret organisation known as CHERUB. It is similar to the British security service MI5, and is based... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Orichalcum is a legendary metal mentioned in several ancient writings, most notably the story of Atlantis as recounted in the Critias dialogue, recorded by Plato. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Showbread, shewbread, Schaubrot, lechem (hap)pānÄ«m(לחם פנים) refers to the twelve cakes or loaves of bread which were continually present on the Table of Shewbread in the Jewish Temple as an offering to YHWH. // Composition and Presentation Biblical Data: Twelve cakes, with two-tenths of an ephah in each...


Comparison with other temples

According to De Vaux, the Temple has recognizable similarities to other regions: Syro-Phoenician, Egyptian, and Mesopotamian influences are visible, and a plaza or courtyard surrounding the sacred residence of the god, marked with stones, is a feature common throughout ancient Semitic religions. De Vaux found earlier evidence of this practice among the Hebrews surviving in the two stones that Joshua placed at Gilgal (Joshua 4:20) and the marking of Mount Sinai by Moses (Ex. 19:12), and in the forbidden zone surrounding the tent which was the predecessor of the Temple. According to De Vaux, contemporary Muslims' designation of certain areas, especially that surrounding Mecca, as inviolate haram represents a comparable practice.[3] In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Gilgal is a place name in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ...


The Biblical text states that Solomon received aid from Hiram, the King of Tyre, in the construction of his buildings. This aid involved not only material (cedar-wood, etc.), but architectural direction and skilled craftsmen. According to De Butt, the tripartite division of the Temple is similar to that found in 13th century BC temples at Alalakh in Syria and Hazor in the upper Galilee; a 9th century BC temple at Tell Tayinat also follows this plan.[3] Phoenician temples varied somewhat in form, but were similarly surrounded by courts.[citation needed] This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Alalakh, or Alalah, is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... The ancient city of Hazor (חצור), the largest and richest archeological remain in Israel, is located in the upper Galilee, north of the Sea of Galilee. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Tell Tayinat is a low-lying ancient occupation mound in the Hatay province of southeastern Turkey about 45 kilometres from Antakya. ...


Among the details which according to[specify] were probably copied from Tyre were the two pillars Jachin and Boaz. Herodotus (ii. 44) says that the temple at Tyre contained two such, one of of old tin. In the same way the ornamentation of palm trees and cherubim were probably derived from Tyre, for Ezekiel (28:13, 14) represents the King of Tyre, who was high priest also, as being in the "garden of God." Probably both at Tyre and at Jerusalem the cherubim and palm-tree ornaments were survivals of an earlier conception—that the abode of God was a "garden of Eden." The Tyrians, therefore, in their temple imitated to some extent the primitive garden, and Solomon borrowed these features.[citation needed] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (also known as Palmae or Palmaceae), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order Arecales. ...


Similarly, according to[specify], the bronze altar was a Phoenician innovation; and probably the same is true of the bronze implements which were ornamented with palm-trees and cherubim. The Orthodox Israelitish altar was of earth or unhewn stone. The Decalogue of Ex. 20 prohibited the making of graven images, while that of Ex. 34 prohibited the making of molten gods; and the Deuteronomic expansions prohibited the making of any likeness whatever. All these are, to be sure, later than Solomon's time; but there is no reason to believe that before that time the Hebrews had either the skill or the wealth necessary to produce ornamentation of this kind.[citation needed] This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ...


Other Near Eastern temples

Several temples in Mesopotamia, many in Egypt, and some of the Phoenicians are now known. In Babylonia the characteristic feature was a ziggurat, or terraced tower, evidently intended to imitate the mountains on which the gods resided. The chamber for the divine dwelling was at its top. The early Egyptian temples consisted of buildings containing two or three rooms, the innermost of which was the abode of the deity. A good example is the granite temple near the sphinx at Giza. The Middle Kingdom (12th dynasty) added obelisks and pylons, and the New Kingdom (18th dynasty) hypostyle halls. Solomon's Temple was not a copy of any of these, nor of the Phoenician buildings, but embodied features derived from all of them. It was on the summit of a hill, like the altar of Ba'al on Mount Carmel and the sanctuaries of Mount Hermon, and like the Babylonian idea of the divine abode. It was surrounded by courts, like the Phoenician temples and the splendid temple of Der al-Bakri at Thebes. Its general form is reminiscent of Egyptian sanctuaries and closely matches that of other temples in the region, as described above.[citation needed] Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Gizeh is also a popular brand in Germany of cigarette rolling papers; see Mascotte (rolling papers). ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ... Baal (בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʿal, Tiberian Hebrew Báʿal / Báʿal) is a northwest Semitic word signifying The Lord, master, owner (male), husband cognate with Akkadian Bēl of the same meanings. ... Mount Carmel is a coastal mountain in Israel overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ... Mount Hermon, viewed from Mount Bental Mount Hermon Panoramic, from Manara on the Naftali heights Mount Hermon Panoramic from Nimrod (Israel) Panoramic view from the Mountain Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan Rivers water Mount Hermon (; Hebrew: , Har Hermon; Arabic: ‎, Jabal el-Shaiykh, Djabl... Thebes Thebes (, ThÄ“bai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome...


According to[specify], the two pillars Jachin and Boaz had their parallel not only at Tyre but at Byblos, Paphos, and Telloh. In Egypt the obelisks expressed the same idea.[citation needed] The Jewish Encyclopedia stated that "All these were phallic emblems, being survivals of the primitive Hamito-Semitic 'maẓẓebah'"[4], Jachin and Boaz were really isolated columns, as Schick has shown[5], and not, as some have supposed, a part of the ornamentation of the building. Their tops were crowned with ornamentation as if they were lamps; and W. R. Smith supposed (l.c. p. 488[specify]) that they may have been used as fire-altars, positing that they may have contained cressets for burning the fat. The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... District Paphos Government  - Mayor Savvas Vergas Population (2001)  - City 47,300 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...


A miniature world

The chambers which surrounded the Holy Place in Solomon's Temple are said in 1 Chr. 28:12 to have been storehouses for the sacred treasure. According to[specify], these are paralleled in Babylonian and Egyptian temples by similar chambers, which surrounded the naos, or hypostyle hall, and were used for similar purposes. The "molten sea" finds its parallel in Babylonian temples in a great basin called the "apsu" ('deep'). As the ziggurat typified a mountain, so the apsu typified the sea.[specify] thus characterizes the Temple as "a miniature world".[citation needed] In Babylonian temples, an apsu was used as early as the time of Gudea and continued in use till the end of Babylonian history; it was made of stone and was elaborately decorated. According to[specify], in Solomon's Temple there was nothing to correspond to the hypostyle hall of an Egyptian temple; but this feature was introduced into Solomon's palace.[specify] states that the "house of the forest of Lebanon" and the "porch of pillars" are strongly reminiscent of the outer and the inner hypostyle hall of an Egyptian temple.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ...


See also

General
Temple in Jerusalem, Temple Mount, Western Wall, Most Holy Place, Second Temple Period, "Solomonic column"
Persons
The most prominent personalities of the First Temple period
King David, King Solomon, the Prophet Isaiah, King Hezekiah, and the Prophet Jeremiah.
Places
Major sites and places of the First Temple period
The City of David, Mount Moriah, Area G, Hinnom Flank, The Broad Wall, Siloam Inscription & Hezekiah's Tunnel, Warren’s Shaft

The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... The Western Wall by night. ... Kodesh Hakodashim, in Hebrew: (Biblical: קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים ), Holy of Holies, the Most Holy Place in traditional Judaism, is the inner sanctuary within the Tabernacle and Temple in Jerusalem when Solomons Temple and the Second Temple were standing. ... The Second Temple Period is the time of Jewish history where the second Temple of Solomon existed in Jerusalem. ... Solomonic columns applied with gilded vines in Poland The Solomonic column is characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Silwan. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Siloam inscription The Siloam inscription or Silwan inscription is a passage of inscribed text in the Hezekiah tunnel in Jerusalem, written in Hebrew (related to Aramaic), the passage reads: The tunneling was completed. ... Hezekiahs tunnel is a tunnel that was dug underneath Ophel in Jerusalem about 701 BC during the reign of Hezekiah. ...

External articles and links

Citations and notes

  1. ^ The New York Times, December 30, 2004 (subscription required)
  2. ^ Pomegranate Inscription: Forgery or Authentic?, May 3, 2007
  3. ^ a b c d e f De Vaux, 1961.
  4. ^ W. R. Smith, "Rel. of Sem." 2d ed., p. 208, and Schmidt, "Solomon's Temple," pp. 40 et seq.
  5. ^ "Die Stiftshütte, der Tempel in Jerusalem," etc., pp. 82 et seq.

General references

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897.

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Father Roland Guérin de Vaux OP (17 December 1903 – 1971) was a French Dominican priest who led the Catholic team that initially worked on the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Benjamin Mazar (June 28, 1906 - September 9, 1995) was a pioneering Israeli archaeologist who shared the national passion for the archaeology of Israel that also attracts considerable international interest due to the regions Biblical links. ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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