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Encyclopedia > Solitary nucleus
Brain: Solitary nucleus
The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue.
Transverse section of medulla oblongata of human embryo.
Latin Tractus solitarius
Gray's subject #
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
Acronym(s) {{{Acronym}}}
NeuroNames hier-739
MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.406.750
Dorlands/Elsevier {{{DorlandsPre}}}/{{{DorlandsSuf}}}

The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). Image File history File links Gray696. ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. ... Image File history File links Gray648. ... Position of medulla oblangata in the human brain The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... Embryos (and one tadpole) of the wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... Taste is one of the most common and fundamental of the senses of animals. ... The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ...

Contents


Anatomy

The nucleus is located along the length of the medulla (with a small portion in the lower pons). The solitary tract runs in the middle of the nucleus, creating a speck of white matter (axons of the tract), surrounded by grey matter (the nucleus). This stands out on a stained section, which is where the name solitary comes from. Position of the pons in the human brain The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... Grey matter[1] is a category of nervous tissue with many nerve cell bodies and few myelinated axons. ...


Inputs to the solitary nucleus

As well as taste from nerves VII, IX and X, the solitary nucleus handles information from the carotid (from IX) and aortic bodies and baroreceptors (from X), which controls blood volume. The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. ... The aortic body is one of several small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located along the aortic arch. ... Baroreceptors (or baroceptors) in the human body detect the pressure of blood flowing though them, and can send messages to the central nervous system to increase or decrease total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. ...


Information about the gut wall, as well as stretch of the lungs and dryness of mucous membranes, also synapses at the solitary nucleus. The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ...


Outputs from the solitary nucleus

From the solitary nucleus, most information goes to the hypothalamus and cingulate gyrus, as well as to other nuclei in the brainstem (such as visceral motor or respiratory centres). There is not much conscious awareness of visceral sensation (visceral pain is not part of this system), most results are reflexes or unconscious. In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ...


External links

Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

MYELENCEPHALON/MEDULLA: arcuate nucleus of medulla, solitary nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, olivary body, cuneate nucleus, accessory cuneate nucleus, gracile nucleus, inferior salivatory nucleus, nucleus raphe obscurus, nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus raphe pallidus The University of California, Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, is one of the ten University of California campuses. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The myelencephalon is a developmental categorization of a portion of the central nervous system. ... Position of medulla oblangata in the human brain The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... Grays Fig. ... The hypoglossal nucleus extends the length of the medulla, and being a motor nucleus, is close to the midline. ... The nucleus ambiguus (literally ambiguous nucleus) is a region of histologically disperse cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper (rostral) medulla. ... In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. ... Cuneate nucleus is a wedge-shaped nucleus in the medulla. ... The accessory cuneate nucleus is located lateral to the cuneate nucleus in the medulla oblongata at the level of the sensory decussation (the crossing fibers of the posterior column/medial lemniscus tract). ... The swelling on the fasciculus gracilis is named the clava, and is produced by a subjacent nucleus of gray matter, the nucleus gracilis. ... The inferior salivatory nucleus is one of the components of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which stimulates secretion from the parotid gland. ... The nucleus raphe obscurus, despite the implications of its name, has some very specific functions and connections of afferent and efferent nature. ... The nucleus raphe magnus, located directly rostral to the raphe obscurus, is afferently stimulated from axons in the spinal cord and cerebellum. ... The nucleus raphe pallidus receives afferent connections from the periaqueductal gray, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus. ...


METENCEPHALON/CEREBELLUM: cerebellar vermis, flocculus, arbor vitae The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Part of the structure of animal brains, the cerebellar vermis is a narrow, wormlike structure between the hemispheres of the cerebellum. ... The flocculus is a small lobe of the cerebellum at the posterior border of the middle cerebellar peduncle anterior to the biventer lobule; it is associated with the nodulus of the vermis; together, these two structures compose the vestibular part of the cerebellum. ... The arbor vitae (Latin for Tree of Life) is the cerebellar white matter, so called for its branched, tree-like appearance. ...


METENCEPHALON/PONS: pontine tegmentum, superior salivary nucleus, trapezoid body, pontine nuclei (superior olivary nucleus, trigeminal nerve nuclei, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, cochlear nuclei, vestibular nuclei), locus ceruleus, paramedian pontine reticular formation, nucleus centralis superior The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. ... Position of the pons in the human brain The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem. ... The pontine tegmentum is a part of the pons of the brain involved in the initiation of REM sleep. ... The Superior salivary nucleus (or superior salivatory nucleus) of the facial nerve is a visceromotor cranial nerve nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum. ... The trapezoid body is part of the acoustic pathway. ... The pontine nuclei are a part of the pons which store the memory of intention during motor activity. ... // Anatomy The superior olivary nucleus (or superior olive) is a small mass of gray substance situated on the dorsal surface of the lateral part of the trapezoid body. ... The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla. ... The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve emerges - a cranial nerve nucleus. ... The cranial nerve motor nucleus of the facial nerve is located in the lower pons. ... The cochlear nuclei consist of: (a) the lateral cochlear nucleus, corresponding to the tuberculum acusticum on the dorso-lateral surface of the inferior peduncle; and (b) the ventral or accessory cochlear nucleus, placed between the two divisions of the nerve, on the ventral aspect of the inferior peduncle. ... The nuclei of the vestibular nerve. ... The Locus ceruleus, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus coeruleus (Latin for the blue spot), is a nucleus in the brain stem responsible for physiological responses to stress and panic. ... The paramedian pontine reticular formation, or PPRF, is a brain region, without clearly defined borders, in the center of the pons. ... The nucleus centralis superior is composed of polygonal, fusiform and pyriform neurons and exists rostral to the nucleus raphe pontis. ...


FOURTH VENTRICLE: obex, median aperture The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... IrOBEX (or just OBEX) is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects between devices. ... The Median Aperture of the brain (apertura medialis ventriculi quarte) or Foramen of Magendie is an opening in the hollow nerve tube, connecting the 4th ventricle of the brain with the subarachnoid space The median aperture along with the paired lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka) are the primary routes for...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Solitary Tract Nuclei in Acute Heart Failure -- Raffaele De Caro et al. 31 (5): 1187 -- Stroke (3337 words)
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Solitary nucleus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (230 words)
The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI).
The nucleus is located along the length of the medulla (with a small portion in the lower pons).
From the solitary nucleus, most information goes to the hypothalamus and cingulate gyrus, as well as to other nuclei in the brainstem (such as visceral motor or respiratory centres).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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