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Encyclopedia > Solitary bee
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Bees
Osmia ribifloris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Apoidea
Families
Andrenidae
Apidae
Colletidae
Halictidae
Megachilidae
Melittidae
Stenotritidae
Bee collecting pollen
Enlarge
Bee collecting pollen

Bees (Apoidea superfamily) are flying insects, closely related to wasps and ants. There are approximately 20,000 species of bees, and they may be found on every continent except Antarctica. Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source, and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used for food for the brood. Download high resolution version (640x946, 180 KB)This bee, Osmia ribifloris (on a barberry flower), is an effective pollinator of commercial blueberries and is one of several relatives of the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria. ... Blueberry bee Blueberry bee (Osmia ribifloris) is native to the coastal mountains of southern California. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (parasitic to flatworms, echinoderms, etc. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Many families, see article Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of Insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies Apoidea Ceraphronoidea Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Cynipoidea Evanioidea Ichneumonoidea Megalyroidea Proctotrupoidea Sphecoidea Stephanoidea Triganalyoidea Vespoidea Many families, see article Apocrita is a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Subfamilies Colletinae Diphaglossinae Euryglossinae Hylaeinae Xeromelissinae Colletidae is a family of bees. ... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae are a family of the order Hymenoptera of small to midsize bees which are usually dark colored, often metallic. ... Subfamilies Fideliinae Megachilinae Some of the genera Anthidium Coelioxys Heriades Hoplitis Megachile Osmia Stelis The Megachilidae are a cosmopolitan family of (mostly) solitary bees that carry pollen in specialized structures called scopae located under the abdomen (rather than on the hind legs like in the honey bee). ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 142 KB) http://pdphoto. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 142 KB) http://pdphoto. ... Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... WASP (an acronym for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) is a term, sometimes derogatory, that denotes either an ethnic group, or the culture, customs, and heritage of the Yankee ethnic group in the United States, or more specifically to the American elite establishment, a large proportion of whom have been Yankees. ... Subfamilies Dorylomorph subfamilies Apomyrminae Cerapachyinae Dorylinae Ecitoninae Formicomorph subfamilies: Aneuretinae Dolichoderinae Formicinae - e. ... Nectar, in botany, is a juice produced by flowering plants which serves to lure pollinators (though sometimes to lure prey). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), hollyhock (Sildalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


Bees have a long proboscis that enables them to obtain the nectar from flowers. Bees have antennae made up of thirteen segments in males and twelve in females. They have two pairs of wings, the back pair being the smaller of the two. In general, a proboscis (from Greek pro before and baskein to feed) is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. ... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ... Antennae (singular antenna), are the paired appendages connecting to the first (and in crustaceans also to the second) segment of the head of the members of all subphyla of the arthropods except Chelicerata. ...


Bees play an important role in pollinating flowering plants, and are called pollinators. Bees may focus on gathering nectar or on gathering pollen, depending on their greater need at the time. Bees gathering nectar may accomplish pollination, but bees that are deliberately gathering pollen are more efficient pollinators. It is estimated that one third of the human food supply depends on insect pollination, most of this accomplished by bees. A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Classes Magnoliopsida- Dicots Liliopsida- Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ...


Bees are fuzzy and carry an electrostatic charge, thus aiding in the adherence of pollen. Bees periodically stop foraging and groom themselves to pack the pollen into specialized pollen baskets which are on the legs of honeybees and some other species, and on the ventral abdomen on other species. honeybee pollen basket The pollen basket or corbicula is part of the hind tibia of the back (posterior) legs of the honeybee. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ...


Bees are extremely important as pollinators in agriculture, with contract pollination having overtaken the role of honey production for beekeepers in many countries. Monoculture and pollinator decline have increasingly caused honeybee keepers to become migratory so that bees can be concentrated in areas of pollination need at the appropriate season. Many other species of bees are increasingly cultured and used to meet agricultural pollination need. Bees also play a major, though not always understood, role in providing food for birds and wildlife. Many of these bees survive in refuge in wild areas away from agricultural spraying, only to be poisoned in massive spray programs for mosquitoes, gypsy moths, or other pest insects. Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by honeybees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ... Seasonal human migration is very common in agricultural cycles. ... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 This article deals with the moth Lymantria dispar. ... Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ...


Many species of bees are poorly known. The smallest bee is a dwarf bee (Trigona minima) and it is about 2.1 mm (5/64") long. The largest bee in the world is the Megachile pluto, which can be as large as 39 mm (1.5"). Species Megachile pluto The Megachile pluto is a very large Indonesian resin bee (a solitary bee that uses resin to make compartments in its nest). ...

Contents


Eusocial and quasisocial bees

Bees may be solitary, or may live in various sorts of communities. The most advanced of these are eusocial colonies, found among the honeybees and stingless bees. Sociality is believed to have evolved separately in different groups of bees. Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ... Species A. mellifera— western honeybee A. cerana— eastern honeybee Honeybees are a subset of bees which fall into the Order Hymenoptera and Suborder Apocrita. ... // General Stingless bees belong to the subfamily Meliponinae in the family Apidae, which comprise the common honeybees, carpenter bees, orchid bees and the bumblebees. ...


Eusocial bees live in colonies, each of which has a single queen, together with workers and drones. When humans provide a home for a colony, the structure is called a hive. A hive can typically contain up to about 40,000 individual bees at their annual peak, which occurs in the spring, but usually have fewer. For the Queen bee in clique & social groups, see Clique Peanut-like queen brood cells extend outward and downward from the broodcomb. ... A worker bee is a female honeybee which performs certain tasks in support of a bee colony (bees within a beehive). ... Drones are male honeybees. ... It has been suggested that Langstroth hive be merged into this article or section. ...


Visiting flowers is a dangerous occupation, with very high mortality rates. Many assassin bugs and crab spiders hide in flowers to capture unwary bees. Others are lost to birds in flight. Insecticides used on blooming plants can kill large numbers of bees, both by direct poisoning and by contaminating their food supply. A honeybee queen may lay 2000 eggs per day during spring buildup, but she also must lay 1000 to 1500 eggs per day during the foraging season, simply to replace daily casualties. Subfamilies Harpactorinae Peiratinae Tegeinae Triatominae etc. ... Genera Misumena Misumenops Misumenoides Thomisius Xysticus Tmarus The true Crab spiders are a group of spiders constituting the family Thomisidae or thomisids. ... A insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all development forms. ...


Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris, B. pratorum, et al.) are referred to as quasisocial because the queen bee is typically able to survive on her own for at least a short time (unlike queens in eusocial species who must be cared for at all times). Bumblebee colonies typically have from 50 to 200 individual bees at peak population, which occurs in mid to late summer. Species see text A bumblebee in flight The bumblebee, or more commonly bumble bee, is a flying insect of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ...


The population value of bees depends partly on the individual efficiency of the bees, but also on the population. Thus, while bumblebees have been found to be about ten times more efficient pollinators on cucurbits, the total efficiency of a colony of honeybees is much greater, due to greater numbers. Likewise, during early spring orchard blossoms, bumblebee populations are limited to only a few queens, thus they are not significant pollinators of early fruit.

The life cycle of bumblebees begins in the spring when the queen bee rises from hibernation. At this time the queen bee is the one who does all the work as there are no worker bees to do the work yet. She searches for a place to build her nest and she builds the honeypots. She also does the foraging to collect nectar and pollen. Bumblebee colonies die off in the autumn, after raising a last generation of queens, which survive individually. Interestingly bumblebee queens sometimes seek winter safety in honeybee hives, where they are sometimes found dead in the spring by beekeepers, presumably stung to death by the honeybees. It is not known whether any succeed in winter survival in such an environment. Download high resolution version (517x640, 66 KB)Close up photograph of a bumblebee taken by Mark Burnett File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (517x640, 66 KB)Close up photograph of a bumblebee taken by Mark Burnett File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species see text A bumblebee in flight The bumblebee, or more commonly bumble bee, is a flying insect of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ...


With honeybees, which survive winter as a colony, the queen begins egg laying in mid to late winter, to prepare for spring. This is most likely triggered by longer day length. She is the only fertile female, and deposits all the eggs from which the other bees are produced. Except a brief mating period when she may make several flights to mate with drones, or if she leaves in later life with a swarm to establish a new colony, the queen rarely leaves the hive after the larvae have become full grown bees. The queen deposits each egg in a cell prepared by the worker bees. The egg hatches into a small larva which is fed by nurse bees (worker bees who maintain the interior of the colony). After about a week (depending on species), the larva is sealed up in its cell by the nurse bees and begins the pupal stage. After another week (again, depending on species), it will emerge an adult bee. Species A. mellifera— western honeybee A. cerana— eastern honeybee Honeybees are a subset of bees which fall into the Order Hymenoptera and Suborder Apocrita. ... The mirror of the Roman Goddess Venus is often used to represent the female sex. ... An average Whooping Crane egg is 102 mm long, and weighs 208 grams In some animals, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... New honeybee colonies are formed when queen bees leave the colony with a large group of worker bees, a process called swarming. ... In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) means several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual benefit, such as stronger defences, the ability to attack bigger prey etc. ... A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


The larvae and pupae in a frame of honeycomb are referred to as frames of brood and are often sold (with adhering bees) by beekeepers to other beekeepers to start new beehives. Chrysalis of Gulf Fritillary in Georgetown, South Carolina Pupation of Inachis io A pupa (plural: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... Recently hatched honeybee larvae are feeding on royal jelly for three days. ...

Peanut-like queen brood cells are extended outward from the brood comb
Peanut-like queen brood cells are extended outward from the brood comb

Both workers and queens are fed royal jelly during the first three days of the larval stage. Then workers are switched to a diet of pollen and nectar or diluted honey, while those intended for queens will continue to receive royal jelly. This causes the larva to develop to the pupa stage more quickly, while being also larger and fully developed sexually. Queen breeders consider good nutrition during the larval stage to be of critical importance to the quality of the queens raised, good genetics and sufficient number of matings also being factors. During the larval and pupal stages, various parasites can attack the pupa/larva and destroy or damage it. Honeybee queen cells Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 13:22, Sep 23, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Honeybee queen cells Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 13:22, Sep 23, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Royal jelly is a type of bee secretion that aids in the development of immature or young bees. ... It has been suggested that Copulation be merged into this article or section. ...


Queens are not always raised in the typical horizontal brood cells of the honeycomb. The typical queen cell is specially constructed to be much larger, and have a vertical orientation. However, should the workers sense that the old queen is weakening, they will produce emergency cells known as supercedre cells. These cells are made from a cell with an egg or very young larva. These cells protrude from the comb. As the queen finishes her larval feeding, and pupates, she moves into a head downward position, from which she will later chew her way out of the cell. At pupation the workers cap or seal the cell. Just prior to emerging from their cells, young queens can often be heard "piping." This is considered likely to be a challenge to other queens for battle. Honeycomb on a Langstroth frame A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honeybees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen. ...

Bee Swarm- bees are remarkably non aggressive in this state as they have no hive to protect, and can be captured with ease
Bee Swarm- bees are remarkably non aggressive in this state as they have no hive to protect, and can be captured with ease

Worker bees are infertile females, however in some circumstances they may lay infertile eggs. Worker bees secrete the wax used to build the hive, clean and maintain the hive, raise the young, guard the hive and forage for nectar and pollen. Download high resolution version (1024x1040, 442 KB)Swarm of bees Taken by fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1040, 442 KB)Swarm of bees Taken by fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Beeswax is a product from a bee hive. ...


In honeybees, the worker bees have a modified ovipositor called a stinger with which they can sting to defend the hive. Contrary to popular belief, the bee will not always die soon after stinging: this is a misconception based on the fact that a bee will always die shortly after stinging a mammal; however, the stinger evolved primarily for inter-bee combat. The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... The ovipositor is an organ used by some of the arthropods for oviposition, i. ... It has been suggested that sting (biology) be merged into this article or section. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes...


Drone bees are the male bees of the colony. Since they do not have ovipositors, they also do not have stingers. Drone honeybees do not forage for nectar or pollen. In some species, drones are suspected of playing a contributing role in the temperature regulation of the hive. The primary purpose of a drone bee is to fertilize a new queen. Drones mate with the queen in flight, then die immediately after mating. The shield and spear of the Roman God Mars are often used to represent the male sex In heterogamous species, male is the sex of an organism, or of a part of an organism, which typically produces smaller, mobile gametes (spermatozoa) that are able to fertilise female gametes (ova). ... Categories: Biology stubs ...


Queens live for up to three years, while workers have an average life of only three months (during the foraging season, but longer in places with extended winters).


Honeybee queens release pheromones to regulate hive activities, and worker bees also produce pheromones for various communications. Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical or set of chemicals produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ...

Honeybee with tongue partly extended
Honeybee with tongue partly extended

By collecting nectar from flowers, bees produce honey, which is a clear liquid consisting of nearly 80% water with complex sugars. The collecting bees store the nectar in a second stomach and return to the hive where worker bees remove the nectar. The worker bees digest the raw nectar for about 30 minutes using enzymes to break up the complex sugars into simpler ones. Raw honey is then spread out in empty honeycomb cells to dry, which reduces the water content to less than 20%. When nectar is being processed, honeybees create a draft through the hive by fanning with their wings. Once dried, the cells of the honeycomb are sealed (capped) with wax to preserve the honey. Bee1. ... Bee1. ... Species A. mellifera— western honeybee A. cerana— eastern honeybee Honeybees are a subset of bees which fall into the Order Hymenoptera and Suborder Apocrita. ... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by honeybees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract used to digest food. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... Ventilation good and very bad Ventilation is air circulation of air, typically between a room, a tunnel, etc. ... A Laughing Gull on the beach in Atlantic City. ...


When a hive detects smoke, many bees become remarkably non aggressive. It is speculated that this is a defense mechanism; wild colonies generally live in hollow trees, and when bees detect smoke it is presumed that they prepare to evacuate from a forest fire, carrying as much food reserve as they can. In this state, defense from predation is relatively unimportant; saving as much as possible is the most important activity.


Honeybee queens

Periodically, the colony determines that a new queen is needed. There are three general triggers.

  1. The colony becomes space-constrained because the hive is filled with honey, leaving little room for new eggs. This will trigger a swarm where the old queen will take about half the worker bees to found a new colony, leaving the new queen with the other half of worker bees to continue the old colony.
  2. The old queen begins to fail. This is thought to be recognized by a decrease in queen pheromones throughout the hive. This situation is called supersedure. At the end of the supersedure, the old queen is generally killed.
  3. The old queen dies suddenly. This is an emergency supersedure. The worker bees will find several eggs or larvae in the right age-range and attempt to develop them into queens. Emergency supersedure can generally be recognized because the queen cell is built out from a regular cell of the comb rather than hanging from the bottom of a frame.

Regardless of the trigger, the workers develop the larvae into queens by continuing to feed them royal jelly. This triggers an extended development as a pupa. Supersedure is a term used in beekeeping. ... Supersedure is a term used in beekeeping. ...


When the virgin queen emerges, she is commonly thought to seek out other queen cells and sting the infant queens within and that should two queens emerge simultaneously, they will fight to the death. Recent studies, however, have indicated that colonies may maintain two queens in as many as 10% of hives. The mechanism by which this occurs is not yet known. Regardless, the queen asserts her control over the worker bees through the release of a complex suite of pheromones called queen scent.


After several days of orientation within and around the hive, the young queen flies to a drone congregation point - a site near a clearing and generally about 30 feet above the ground where the drones from different hives tend to congregate. Drones find the queen by sight and mate with her in midair. After mating, the drone dies. A queen will mate multiple times and may return several days in a row, weather permitting, until her spermathrecea is full.


The queen lays all the eggs in a healthy colony. The number and pace of egg-laying is controlled by weather and availability of resources and by the characteristics of the specific race of honeybee. Honeybees queens generally begin to slow egg-laying in the early-fall and may even stop during the winter. Egg-laying will generally resume in late winter as soon as the days begin to get longer. Egg-laying generally peaks in the spring. At the height of the season, she may lay over 2500 eggs per day - more than her own body mass.


The queen fertilizes each egg as it is being laid using stored sperm from the spermatheca. The queen will occasionally not fertilize an egg. These eggs, having only half as many genes as the queen or the workers, develop into drones.


Honeybee pheromones

Honeybees use special pheromones, or chemical communication, for almost all behaviors of life. Such uses include (but are not limited to): mating, alarm, defense, orientation, kin and colony recognition, food production, and integration of colony activities. Pheromones are thus essential to honeybees for their survival. Honey bee pheromones (Greek:“carrier of excitement”) are mixtures of chemical substances released by individual bees into the hive or environment that cause changes in the physiology and behaviour of other bees. ... It has been suggested that Copulation be merged into this article or section. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... Kin has multiple meanings: It can refer to family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


Solitary and communal bees

Other species of bee such as the carpenter bee, Orchard Mason bee (Osmia lignaria) and the hornfaced bee (Osmia cornifrons) are solitary in the sense that every female is fertile. There are no worker bees for these species. Solitary bees typically produce neither honey nor beeswax. They are immune from acarine and varroa mites, but have their own unique parasites, pests and diseases. (See diseases of the honeybee.) Genera Many Carpenter bees (Xylocopinae subfamily) are important pollinators, especially of open-faced flowers, though the larger species are also known to rob nectar by boring holes in the sides of flowers with deep corollas (thus not accomplishing pollination). ... Red Mason Bee (Osmia rufa) Mason bee is a general term for species of bees such as the orchard mason bee (Osmia lignaria) and the hornfaced bee (Osmia cornifrons). ... Osmia cornifrons Used commercially for several decades in Japan to pollinate apples, its now in the U.S. A single hornfaced bee can visit 15 flowers in a minute. ... Beeswax is a product from a bee hive. ... Acarina or acari is an order of arachnids that consists of mites and ticks. ... Binomial name Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, 2000 Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that attacks honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, the bumblebee Bombus pennsylvanicus, the scarab beetle Palpada vinetorum and the flower-fly Phanaeus vindex. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ... A disease is an abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honeybee include: // Varroa mites Varroa mite on a honeybee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ...


Solitary bees are important pollinators, as pollen is gathered for provisioning the nests with food for their brood. Often it is mixed with nectar to form a paste-like consistency. Many solitary bees have very advanced types of pollen carry structures on their bodies. Most solitary bees are wild, with a few species being increasingly cultured for pollination.


Solitary bees are often specialists, in that they only visit one or more species of plant (unlike honeybees and bumblebees which are generalists). In some cases only one species of bee can pollinate a plant species, and some plants are endangered because their pollinator is dying off. Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (frequently but not always a taxonomic species) which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ...


Solitary bees create nests in hollow reeds, bored holes in wood, or in tunnels in the ground. The female typically creates a compartment with an egg and some provisions for the resulting larva, then seals it off. A nest may consist of numerous compartments, usually the last (the closest to the entrance) being eggs that will become males. The adult does not care for the brood, and usually dies after making one or more nests. The males emerge first and are ready for mating when the females emerge. Providing nest boxes for solitary bees is increasingly popular for gardeners. Solitary bees are usually stingless or very unlikely to sting. Reed may mean: Reed (plant), a plant with a tall strong hollow stem that grows in large groups in shallow water or on marshy ground Reed (music), a thin strip of material which vibrates to make music, often made from the stem of the reed plant Reed College, a college... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood derives from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... A gardener is any person involved in the growing and maintenance of plants, notably in a garden. ...


While solitary females each make individual nests, some species are gregarious, preferring to make nests near others of the same species, giving the appearance to the casual observer that they are social.


Cleptoparasitic bees

Cleptoparasitic bees, commonly referred to as "cuckoo bees" because their behavior is similar to that of cuckoo birds, occur in several bee families, though the name is technically best applied to the apid subfamily Nomadinae. Females of these bees lack pollen-collecting structures (the scopa) and do not construct their own nests. Rather, they typically enter the nests of pollen-collecting species, and lay their eggs in cells provisioned by the host bee. When the cuckoo bee larva hatches, it consumes the host larva's pollen ball, and (if the female cleptoparasite has not already done so) kills and eats the host larva itself. In a few cases where the hosts are social species, the cleptoparasite remains in the host nest and lays many eggs, sometimes even killing the host queen and replacing her. Kleptoparasitism or cleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it, including stored food provisions, as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees. ... Genera See text. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Genera Many The subfamily Nomadinae is the largest and most diverse group of cleptoparasitic cuckoo bees; they occur worldwide, and utilize many different types of bees as hosts. ... Abdominal scopa of a Megachilid bee The term scopa is used to refer to any of a number of different modifications on the body of a bee that form a pollen-carrying apparatus. ...


Many cleptoparasitic bees are closely related to, and resemble, their hosts (i.e., the subgenus Psithyrus, which are parasitic bumble bees that infiltrate nests of species in the subgenus Bombus); this common pattern gave rise to the ecological principle known as "Emery's Rule". Others parasitize bees in different families, like Townsendiella, a nomadine apid, one species of which is a cleptoparasite of the melittid genus Hesperapis, while the other species attack halictid bees. Species see text A bumblebee in flight The bumblebee is a flying insect of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ... In 1909, the entomologist C. Emery noted that social parasites among insects (e. ... Genera Many The subfamily Nomadinae is the largest and most diverse group of cleptoparasitic cuckoo bees; they occur worldwide, and utilize many different types of bees as hosts. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae are a family of the order Hymenoptera of small to midsize bees which are usually dark colored, often metallic. ...


Learning and communication

"The general story of the communication of the distance, the situation, and the direction of a food source by the dances of the returning (honeybee) worker bee on the vertical comb of the hive, has been known in general outline from the work of Karl von Frisch in the middle 1950s."

For a discussion of bees' cognition, response to training, varieties of dance, and use of odors, see Bee learning and communication. Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886-1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... Bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ...


Trivia

Bees figure more prominently in myth than any other insect. See Bee (mythology). Bees are universally the most symbolic of insects. ...


Bees are the favorite meal of Merops apiaster, a bird. Other common predators are kingbirds, mockingbirds, and dragonflies. Genera Nyctyornis Meropogon Merops The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Species See text. ... Genera Melanotis Mimodes Mimus Nesomimus Mockingbirds are a group of New World passerine birds best known for the habit of some species of mimicking the songs of other birds, often loudly and in rapid succession. ... Families Aeshnidae Austropetaliidae Cordulegastridae Corduliidae Gomphidae Libellulidae Macromiidae Neopetaliidae Petaluridae A dragonfly is any insect belonging to the order Odonata, the suborder Epiprocta or, in the strict sense, the infraorder Anisoptera. ...


Bee stings have also been reputed to help alleviate the associated symptoms of Multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases. This is an area of ongoing research. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation) is a group of conditions that affect the health of the bone joints in the body. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...


Honey is so sweet that bacteria cannot grow on it, and dry enough that it does not support yeasts. Anaerobic bacteria may be present and survive in spore form in honey, however, as well as anywhere else in common environments. Honey (or any other sweetener) which is diluted by the non-acidic digestive fluids of infants, can support the transition of botulism bacteria from the spore form to the actively growing form which produces a toxin. When infants are weaned to solid foods, their digestive system becomes acidic enough to prevent such growth and poisoning. No sweeteners should be given to infants prior to weaning. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Closeup of yeast cells Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An infant Infant is a slightly more formal word for baby, the youngest category of child. ... Botulism (from Latin botulus, sausage) is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... It has been suggested that strong acid be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ...


Bees are capable of perceiving the polarization of light. They use this information to orient their communicative dances. In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is a property of waves, such as light and other electromagnetic radiation. ... Bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ...


Yellowjackets and hornets, especially when encountered as flying pests, are often mischaracterized as "bees". Wasp eating an apple Yellowjackets are black-and-yellow wasps of the genus Vespula or Dolichovespula (though some can be black-and-white, the most notable of these being the bald-faced hornet, Dolichovespula maculata). ... This article is about the insect. ... While easily confusable at a distance or without close observation, there are many different characteristics of bees and wasps which can be used to identify them. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Africanized honey bees (AHB), also known as “killer” bees, are hybrids of the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii (or by other reports ), with various European honeybees such as the Italian bee Apis mellifera ligustica. ... The mouth of a bees anatomy is complex. ... Bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ... It has been suggested that Honey flow be merged into this article or section. ... Bee venom therapy is a therapeutical use of love bee stings. ... While easily confusable at a distance or without close observation, there are many different characteristics of bees and wasps which can be used to identify them. ... Species A. mellifera— western honeybee A. cerana— eastern honeybee Honeybees are a subset of bees which fall into the Order Hymenoptera and Suborder Apocrita. ... Honeybees are social insects that live in a colony. ... Binomial name Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 The Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honeybee comprised of several subspecies or races. ... Die Biene Maja und ihre Abenteuer book cover The Adventures of Maya the Bee (in German Die Biene Maja und ihre Abenteuer) is a book written by Waldemar Bonsels and first published in 1912. ...

External links

See also

  • The Bees of the World, C. D. Michener (2000)



  Results from FactBites:
 
Bee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2157 words)
Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source, and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients.
Bees periodically stop foraging and groom themselves to pack the pollen into the scopa, which is on the legs in most bees, and on the ventral abdomen on others, and modified into specialized pollen baskets on the legs of honeybees and their relatives.
Certain species of allodapine bees (relatives of carpenter bees) also have primitively eusocial colonies, with unusual levels of interaction between the adult bees and the developing brood; this is called "progressive provisioning", when a larva's food is supplied gradually as it develops, and this system is also seen in honeybees and some bumblebees.
World Almanac for Kids (1839 words)
A few kinds of bees are semisocial; they live in small colonies of two to seven bees of the same generation, one of which is the queen, or principal egg layer, and the others workers.
Social parasites are bees that kill the resident queen and force the workers to raise the young parasitic bees.
Bees are divided into a number of families, largely on the basis of mouthparts and other characteristics that are difficult to see without dissection.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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