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Encyclopedia > Solidarity
Solidarity
Image:Solidarnosc.png
Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity"
Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy "Solidarność"
Founded September 1980
Members 1,185,000 (2006)[1]
Country Poland
Affiliation ITUC, ETUC, TUAC
Office location Gdańsk, Poland
Website www.solidarnosc.org.pl
(In English)

Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity"Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy "Solidarność") is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. It was the first non-communist trade union in a communist country. In the 1980s it constituted a broad anti-communist social movement. The government attempted to destroy the union with the martial law of 1981 and several years of repressions, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union. The Roundtable Talks between the weakened government and Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December Wałęsa was elected president. Since then it has become a more traditional trade union, and had relatively little impact on the political scene of Poland in the early 1990s. A political arm was founded in 1996 as Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) won the Polish parliamentary election, 1997, but lost the following Polish parliamentary election, 2001. Currently, Solidarity, or the remnants of it, has little political influence in modern Polish politics. Image File history File links Solidarity Logo Project: Jerzy Janiszewski [[en:en:Image:Solidarnosc. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) was established in 1973 to provide a trade union counterbalance to the economic forces of European integration. ... The Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC) is a trade union advisory committe with consultative status with the OECD, as well as providing input to G-8 economic summits. ... GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Image File history File links Solidarnosc. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... GdaÅ„sk Shipyard, the birthplace of Solidarity. ... Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa (IPA: ; born September 29, 1943, Popowo, Poland) is a Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... Round-table negotiations. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Solidarity Electoral Action (Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność, AWS) is a political party coalition in Poland. ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ...

Contents

History

"High Noon, 4 June 1989"
Solidarity Citizens' Committee election poster by Tomasz Sarnecki
Main article: History of Solidarity

Solidarity began in September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyards, where Lech Wałęsa and others formed a broad anti-communist social movement ranging from people associated with the Catholic Church[2] to members of the anti-communist Left. Solidarity advocated nonviolence in its members' activities.[3][4] The government attempted to destroy the union with the martial law of 1981 and several years of repressions, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union. In Poland, the Roundtable Talks between the weakened government and Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December Wałęsa was elected president. Since 1989 Solidarity has become a more traditional trade union, and had relatively little impact on the political scene of Poland in the early 1990s. A political arm founded in 1996 as Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) won the parliamentary election in 1997, but lost the following 2001 election. Currently Solidarity has little political influence in modern Polish politics. Image File history File links W_samo_poludnie_4_6_89-Tomasz_Sarnecki. ... Image File history File links W_samo_poludnie_4_6_89-Tomasz_Sarnecki. ... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... GdaÅ„sk Shipyard, the birthplace of Solidarity. ... Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa (IPA: ; born September 29, 1943, Popowo, Poland) is a Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... Round-table negotiations. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Solidarity Electoral Action (Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność, AWS) is a political party coalition in Poland. ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ...

Gdańsk on 25th anniversary of Solidarity, summer 2005.
Gdańsk on 25th anniversary of Solidarity, summer 2005.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2281x741, 530 KB) Author: taken by Valdoria Caption: Gdańsk, Poland, August 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2281x741, 530 KB) Author: taken by Valdoria Caption: Gdańsk, Poland, August 2005. ...

Influence abroad

The survival of Solidarity was an unprecedented event not only in Poland, a satellite state of the USSR ruled (in practice) by a one-party Communist regime, but the whole of the Eastern bloc. It meant a break in the hard-line stance of the communist Polish United Workers' Party, which had bloodily ended a 1970 protest with machine gun fire (killing dozens and injuring over 1,000), and the broader Soviet communist regime in the Eastern Bloc, which had quelled both the 1956 Hungarian Uprising and the 1968 Prague Spring with Soviet-led invasions. Solidarity's influence led to the intensification and spread of anti-communist ideals and movements throughout the countries of the Eastern Bloc, weakening their communist governments. The 1989 elections in Poland where anti-communist candidates won a striking victory sparked off a succession of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe[2] known as the Revolutions of 1989 (Jesień Ludów). Solidarity's example was in various ways repeated by opposition groups throughout the Eastern Bloc, eventually leading to the Eastern Bloc's effectual dismantling, and contributing to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the early 1990s. Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic President  - 1947-1952 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1983-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981 Józef... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist_ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes electoral... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist_ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes electoral... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Soviet redirects here. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hungarians investigate a disabled Soviet tank in Budapest The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, also known as the Hungarian Uprising, was a popular revolt against Soviet influence and control in Hungary. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


Organization

Formed in 1981, the union's supreme powers were vested in a legislative body, the Convention of Delegates (Zjazd Delegatow). The executive branch was the National Coordinating Commission (Krajowa Komisja Porozumiewawcza), later renamed the National Commission (Komisja Krajowa). The Union had a regional structure, comprising 38 regions (region) and two districts (okręg).[5] A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...


Currently, Solidarity has more than 1.1 million members. National Commission of Independent Self-Governing Trade Union is located in Gdańsk and is composed of Delegates from Regional General Congresses. GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ...


See also

Portal:Organized Labour
Organized Labour Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Leslie Woodhead is an award-winning British documentary filmmaker. ... Józef StanisÅ‚aw Tischner born 12 March 1931 in Stary SÄ…cz, died on 28 June 2000 in Kraków was a Polish priest and philosopher. ... The One Big Union was a concept which emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century amongst working class trade unionists. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Jarre playing the laser harp Space of Freedom was a concert performed by French musician Jean-Michel Jarre in GdaÅ„sk Shipyard in GdaÅ„sk, Poland on August 26, 2005 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Solidarity trade unions founding. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (239th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ WHAT IS THE NSZZ SOLIDARNOSC ?. Solidarnosc.org. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  2. ^ a b Steger, Manfred B (Jan 2004). Judging Nonviolence: The Dispute Between Realists and Idealists (ebook), Routledge (UK), p114. ISBN 0-415-93397-8. Retrieved on 2006-07-09. 
  3. ^ (Feb 1994) in Paul Wehr, Guy Burgess, Heidi Burgess: Justice Without Violence (ebook), Lynne Rienner Publishers, p28. ISBN 1-55587-491-6. Retrieved on 2006-07-06. 
  4. ^ Cavanaugh-O'Keefe, John (Jan 2001). Emmanuel, Solidarity: God's Act, Our Response (ebook), Xlibris Corporation, p68. ISBN 0-7388-3864-0. Retrieved on 2006-07-06. 
  5. ^ (Polish) Solidarność NSZZ in WIEM Encyklopedia. Last accessed on 10 October 2006

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... WIEM Encyklopedia (full name in Polish: - Great Interactive Multimedia Encyclopedia; wiem in Polish language also means I know) is a Polish Internet encyclopedia. ...

External links

Wikisource
Polish Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Solidarity
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Solidarność

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... Colin Barker (born 1939) is a British Marxist writer and historian, a longstanding member of the Socialist Workers Party in Manchester and author of numerous articles and works on Marxism, most notably a history of Solidarity, Festival of the Oppressed. ... International Socialism (ISJ) is a quarterly journal of socialist theory published by the Socialist Workers Party (Britain) and currently edited by Chris Harman. ... Daniel Singer (September 26, 1926 – December 2, 2000) was a socialist writer and journalist. ...

Further reading

  • Garton Ash, Timothy (2002). The Polish Revolution: Solidarity. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09568-6. 
  • Eringer, Robert (1982). Strike for Freedom: The Story of Lech Walesa and Polish Solidarity. Dodd Mead. ISBN 0-396-08065-0. 
  • Kaminski, Marek M. (2004). Games Prisoners Play. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11721-7. 
  • Kenney, Patrick (2003). A Carnival of Revolution : Central Europe 1989. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11627-X. 
  • Kenney, Patrick (2006). The Burdens of Freedom. Zed Books Ltd.. ISBN 1-84277-662-2. 
  • Osa, Maryjane (2003). Solidarity and Contention: Networks of Polish Opposition. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3874-8. 
  • Ost, David (2005). The Defeat Of Solidarity: Anger and Politics in Postcommunist Europe (ebook), Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-4318-0. 
  • Penn, Shana (2005). Solidarity's Secret : The Women Who Defeated Communism in Poland. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11385-2. 
  • Perdue, William D. (1995). Paradox of Change: The Rise and Fall of Solidarity in the New Poland. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-95295-9. 
  • Pope John Paul II, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, on Vatican website

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