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Encyclopedia > Solid solution
Fig. 1 A binary phase diagram displaying solid solutions over the full range of relative concentrations.
Fig. 1 A binary phase diagram displaying solid solutions over the full range of relative concentrations.

A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent. Such a mixture is considered a solution rather than a compound when the crystal structure of the solvent remains unchanged by addition of the solutes, and when the mixture remains in a single homogeneous phase. The solute may incorporate into the solvent crystal lattice substitutionally, by replacing a solvent particle in the lattice, or interstitially, by fitting into the space between solvent particles. Both of these types of solid solution affect the properties of the material by distorting the crystal lattice and disrupting the physical and electrical homogeneity of the solvent material. Image File history File links Solid_solution. ... Image File history File links Solid_solution. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of one or more substances, known as solutes, dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... A solvent is a fluid phase (liquid, gas, or plasma) that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... In chemistry, a mixture is the product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances like elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Rose des Sables (Sand Rose), formed of gypsum crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In general, substitution is the replacement of one thing with another. ... Interstitial is a generic term for referring to the space between other structures or objects. ...


Some mixtures will readily form solid solutions over a range of concentrations, while other mixtures will not form solid solutions at all. The propensity for any two substances to form a solid solution is a complicated matter involving the chemical, crystallographic, and quantum properties of the substances in question. Solid solutions may form if the solute and solvent have: Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia meaning alchemy, see below for possible origins of this word) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms (such as molecules, crystals, and metals). ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Fig. ...

The phase diagram in Fig. 1 displays an alloy of two metals which forms a solid solution at all relative concentrations of the two species. In this case, the pure phase of each element is of the same crystal structure, and the similar properties of the two elements allow for unbiased substitution through the full range of relative concentrations. The atomic radius is the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outmost stable electron orbital in an atom that is at equilibrium. ... A crystallite is a domain of solid-state matter that has the same structure as a single crystal. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... In chemistry, valency is the power of an atom of an element to combine with other atoms measured by the number of electrons which an atom will give, take, or share to form a chemical compound. ... In physical chemistry and materials science, a phase diagram is a type of graph used to show the equilibrium conditions between the thermodynamically-distinct phases. ... An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ...


Solid solutions have important commercial and industrial applications, as such mixtures often have superior properties to pure materials. Many metal alloys are solid solutions. Even small amounts of solute can affect the electrical and physical properties of the solvent.

Fig. 2 This binary phase diagram shows two solid solutions.
Fig. 2 This binary phase diagram shows two solid solutions.

The binary phase diagram in Fig. 2 at right shows the phases of a mixture of two substances in varying concentrations, alpha and beta. The region labeled "alpha" is a solid solution, with beta acting as the solute in a matrix of alpha. On the other end of the concentration scale, the region labeled "beta" is also a solid solution, with alpha acting as the solute in a matrix of beta. The large solid region in between the alpha and beta solid solutions, labeled "solid alpha and beta", is not a solid solution. Instead, an examination of the microstructure of a mixture in this range would reveal two phases — solid solution alpha-in-beta and solid solution beta-in-alpha would form separate phases, perhaps lamella or grains. Image File history File links Binary phase diagram of eutectic alloy This image created by me, Bryan Antman, on November 19, 2004. ... Image File history File links Binary phase diagram of eutectic alloy This image created by me, Bryan Antman, on November 19, 2004. ... In physical chemistry and materials science, a phase diagram is a type of graph used to show the equilibrium conditions between the thermodynamically-distinct phases. ... Al-Si microstructure at 40x magnification Microstructure refers of the microscopic description of the individual constituents of a material. ... Lamellar armour is a kind of personal armour consisting of small rectangular plates (lames) which are laced together in parallel rows. ... A crystallite is a domain of solid-state matter that has the same structure as a single crystal. ...

Contents

Exsolution

When a solid solution becomes unstable due to a lower temperature for example, exsolution occurs and the two phases separate into distinct microscopic to megascopic lamella. An example of this is the alkali feldspar mineral variety perthite in which thin white albite layers alternate between typically pink microcline. Feldspar is the name of an important group of rock-forming minerals which make up perhaps as much as 60% of the Earths crust. ... A perthite is a structural (perthitic structure) variety of the potassium feldspars microcline and orthoclase (KAlSi3O8). ... Albite is an alkali feldspar mineral. ... Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock forming tectosilicate mineral. ...


Examples

  • Chen, J., Xu Z-Q., Chen Z-Z., Li T-F. & Chen, F-Y., 2005. Pargasite and ilmenite exsolution texture in clinopyroxene from the Hujialing Garnet-Pyroxenite, Su-lu U.H.P. Terrane, chentral China: A geodynamic Implication.
  • Petersen, U. Introduction to Ore Microscopy II; Mineral Paragenesis.

See also

In physical chemistry and materials science, a phase diagram is a type of graph used to show the equilibrium conditions between the thermodynamically-distinct phases. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more phases at a composition that has the lowest melting point, and where the phases simultaneously crystallise from molten solution at this temperature. ...

References

  • Callister, William D. Jr. (2006). Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7th edition, New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-73696-1.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Solution - LoveToKnow 1911 (12042 words)
When a solid such as salt or sugar dissolves in contact with water to form a uniform substance from which the components may be regained by evaporation the substance is called a solution.
Solutions were not distinguished from definite chemical compounds till John Dalton discovered the laws of definite and multiple proportions, but many earlier observations on the solubility of solids in water and the density of the resulting solutions had been made.
The solution then freezes, until the heat liberated is enough to raise the tern perature to the point of equilibrium given by the tendency of the solution taken in contact with ice to approach the true freezing point on one side and the temperature of the enclosure on the other.
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