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Encyclopedia > Solid South

The phrase "Solid South" describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. Except for 1928, when candidate Al Smith ran on the Democratic ticket, Democrats won heavily in the South in every presidential election from 1876 until 1948 (and even in 1928, the divided South provided most of Smith's electoral votes). Today, however, the South is the stronghold for the Republican Party in Presidential elections, and the term, while seldom used, refers to a solidly Republican-voting South. Southern United States The states shown in dark red are usually included in the South, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Southern United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... // Reconstruction was the period in United States history, 1865–1998 that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Republican Party (often referred to as the GOP, for Grand Old Party) is one of the two major political parties in the United States two-party system, along with the Democratic Party. ...


The Democratic dominance originated in many Southerners' animosity towards the Republican Party's pro-union political stance in the Civil War and, even more so, Reconstruction. It was maintained by the Democratic Party's willingness to fight for Jim Crow laws and racial segregation. Conversely, black voters, today 90-percent Democratic, usually preferred the Republicans into the 1950s. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 93,000 Total dead: 258... // Reconstruction was the period in United States history, 1865–1998 that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed. ... Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and in force between 1876 and 1964 that required racial segregation, especially of African-Americans, in all public facilities. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. ...

Contents


Democratic factionalization over the Civil Rights Movement

The "Solid South" began to erode when Democratic President Harry S. Truman took steps toward supporting the civil rights movement. His policies, combined with the adoption of a civil rights plank in the 1948 Democratic platform, prompted many Southerners to walk out of the Democratic National Convention and form the Dixiecrat Party. This splinter party was significant only in the 1948 election; the Dixiecrat candidate, Strom Thurmond, carried Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. In the elections of 1952 and 1956, the popular Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower carried several border southern states, with especially strong showings in the new suburbs. The Deep South was still the bastion for his Democratic opponent, Adlai Stevenson. Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice-President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... The 1948 Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia from July 12 to July 14, and resulted in the nomination of President Harry Truman for President and of Alben Barkley for Vice President. ... The term Dixiecrat is a portmanteau of Dixie, referring to the Southern United States, and Democrat, referring to the United States Democratic Party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,423 sq mi (135,775 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33... Official language(s) English Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Area  Ranked 32nd  - Total 48,434 sq mi (125,443 km²)  - Width 170 miles (275 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 3  - Latitude 30°13N to 35°N  - Longitude 88°7W to 91°41W Population  Ranked 31st... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician and statesman, noted for his skill in debate and oratory. ...


In the 1960 election, the Democratic nominee, John F. Kennedy, continued his party's tradition of selecting a Southerner as the Vice Presidential candidate (in this case, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas). Kennedy, however, supported civil rights. In October 1960, when civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested at a peaceful sit-in in Atlanta, Georgia, Kennedy placed a sympathetic phone call to King's wife, Coretta Scott King, and Robert Kennedy telephoned the judge and helped secure King's release. King expressed his appreciation for these calls. Although King himself made no endorsement, his father, who had previously endorsed Republican Richard Nixon, switched his support to Kennedy. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for protest, often political, social, or economic change. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Hotlanta, The Big Peach, The ATL Location Location in Fulton and DeKalb counties in the state of Georgia Coordinates: , Government Country State Counties United States Georgia Fulton County, Georgia DeKalb County, Georgia Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 132. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


The Democrats, however, lost ground with whites. The 1960 election was the first one in which a Republican presidential candidate received electoral votes in the South while losing nationally. Nixon carried Virginia, Tennessee and Florida. In addition, there were unpledged electors in Mississippi and Alabama. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ...


The parties' roles on the civil rights issue continued their evolution in the 1964 election. The Democratic candidate, Johnson, having become president after Kennedy's assassination, fought strenuously to pass a strong Civil Rights Act of 1964. His Republican opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater, voted against it, although large majorities of Republicans in both houses of Congress supported the bill. Johnson won a landslide victory and the Republicans also suffered significant losses of Congressional seats. Goldwater carried his home state of Arizona, but the rest of his electoral votes all came from the deep South, which had suddenly switched parties for the first time. In just eight years, from 1956 to 1964, the region that had seen almost the only victories by a Democratic challenger against a popular Republican incumbent had switched to providing almost the only victories for a Republican challenger against a popular Democratic incumbent. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Bartholomew Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician credited as the leader who sparked the resurgence of the American conservative movement with his 1964 campaign for President. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


The "Southern strategy" and the end of the Solid South

Main article: Southern strategy

In the 1968 election, the Republican candidate, Nixon, saw and capitalized on this trend with his "Southern strategy"—an appeal to white Southerners who were more conservative and more segregationist than the national Democratic Party. As a result, the Democratic candidate, Hubert H. Humphrey, was almost shut out in the South, carrying only Texas. The rest of the region was divided between Nixon and the American Independent Party candidate, former Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama, who had gained fame for opposing integration. Nationwide, Nixon won a decisive Electoral College victory although he received only a plurality of the popular vote. In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states through its racial appeals to white southerners. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states through its racial appeals to white southerners. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... American Independent Party is a United States political party. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ...


After Nixon's landslide re-election win in 1972, the Democrats made a comeback in the South in 1976, when their candidate, southerner Jimmy Carter of Georgia, won. The success was short-lived, however. In Carter's unsuccessful re-election bid in 1980, he lost the South except for his native Georgia. The year 1980 was the last time the Democratic nominee did better in the South than in the nation as a whole. The Republicans took all the region's electoral votes in 1984 and 1988. In 1992 and 1996, when the Democratic ticket consisted of two Southerners (Bill Clinton and Al Gore), they could still only split the region. In 2000, Gore, as the Presidential candidate, received no electoral votes from the South, even from his home state of Tennessee, though the popular vote in Florida was extraordinarily close and the awarding of the state's electoral votes to Bush disputed. This pattern continued in the 2004 election; the Democratic ticket of John Kerry and John Edwards received no electoral votes from the South, although Edwards was from North Carolina. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... |- ! Born | March 31, 1948 Washington, D.C. |} Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Holding Any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician, not the alleged psychic. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 560 miles (901 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 9. ...


On the night he signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Johnson said to his aide, Bill Moyers, "I think we just delivered the South to the Republican Party for a long time to come." [1] Bill Moyers William Daniel Moyers (born June 5, 1934) is an American journalist and public commentator. ...


The "Solid South" today

Today, the South has a mix of Republican and Democratic officeholders (Senators, Representatives and state governors). In Presidential elections, however, the region is a Republican stronghold. The term "Solid South" has thus acquired a meaning opposite to its historical one. Florida, home to many retirees from elsewhere in the country, is considered to be "in play" between the major parties. Arkansas and Louisiana as well tend to be a little kinder to the Democrats although it has become rare for a presidential Democratic candidate to win. Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...


--68.216.85.128 07:26, 12 September 2006 (UTC)--68.216.85.128 07:26, 12 September 2006 (UTC)--68.216.85.128 07:26, 12 September 2006 (UTC)==Democrats Today== Today, the Democratic Party's stronghold has shifted to the Northeastern United States, which, well into the 1900's, had been the bastion of the Republican Party, and to the states of the far west, namely California, Oregon, and Washington. In 2000, the Democrats easily carried every state in the Northeast except New Hampshire. In 2004, all eleven Northeastern states, "From Maryland to Maine" and including the District of Columbia, voted en masse for John Kerry. Kerry won handily in California, Oregon, and Washington as well. Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ...


References

  • Kari Frederickson, The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932-1968 (2001)
  • Dewey W, Grantham, The Life and Death of the Solid South (1992)

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Solid South - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1109 words)
The phrase "Solid South" describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964.
Today, however, the South is the stronghold for the Republican Party in Presidential elections, and the term, while seldom used, refers to a solidly Republican-voting South.
In 2000, Gore, as the Presidential candidate, received no electoral votes from the South, even from his home state of Tennessee, though the popular vote in Florida was extraordinarily close and the awarding of the state's electoral votes to Bush disputed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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