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Encyclopedia > Solder

A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. A fusible alloy, usually eutectic alloy is capable of being fused, as well as being liquefied by heat. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ...


The word solder comes from the Middle English word soudur, via Old French solduree and soulder, from the Latin solidare, meaning '‘to make solid’'. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Desoldering a contact and a wire attached with solder.
Desoldering a contact and a wire attached with solder.

Contents

Caption: ROYAL AIR FORCE LAKENHEATH, England -- Airman 1st Class Jeremy Clapper desolders the firing contact on a LAU-106 missile launcher here April 7. ... Caption: ROYAL AIR FORCE LAKENHEATH, England -- Airman 1st Class Jeremy Clapper desolders the firing contact on a LAU-106 missile launcher here April 7. ...

Lead solder

Tin/lead solders are commercially available with tin concentrations between 5% and 70% by weight. The greater the tin concentration, the greater the solder’s tensile and shear strengths. At the retail level, the two most common alloys are 60/40 Sn/Pb and 63/37 Sn/Pb. The 63/37 ratio is notable in that it is a eutectic mixture, which means: General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Shear strength in engineering is a term used to describe the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more phases at a composition that has the lowest melting point, and where the phases simultaneously crystallise from molten solution at this temperature. ...

  1. It has the lowest melting point (183 °C or 361.4 °F) of all the tin/lead alloys; and
  2. The melting point is truly a point — not a range.

At an eutectic composition, the liquid solder solidifies as an eutectic, which consists of fine grains of nearly pure lead and nearly pure tin phases, but in no way is it an intermetallic, since there are no tin/lead intermetallics, as can be seen from a tin/lead equilibrium diagram. [1]


In plumbing, a higher proportion of lead was used. This had the advantage of making the alloy solidify more slowly, so that it could be wiped over the joint to ensure watertightness. Although lead water pipes were displaced by copper when the significance of lead poisoning began to be fully appreciated, lead solder was still used until the 1980s because it was thought that the amount of lead that could leach into water from the solder was negligible. Since even small amounts of lead have been found detrimental to health, lead in plumbing solder was replaced by copper or antimony, with silver often added, and the proportion of tin was increased (see Lead-free solder below). Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Hard solder

As used for brazing, is generally a copper/zinc or copper/silver alloy, and melts at higher temperatures. This article is about the metal joining process. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


In silversmithing or jewelry making, special hard solders are used that will pass assay. They contain a high proportion of the metal being soldered and lead is not used in these alloys. These solders also come in a variety of hardnesses, known as 'enamelling', 'hard', 'medium' and 'easy'. Enamelling solder has a high melting point, close to that of the material itself, to prevent the joint desoldering during firing in the enamelling process. The remaining solder types are used in decreasing order of hardness during the process of making an item, to prevent a previously soldered seam or joint desoldering while soldering a new joint. Easy solder is also often used for repair work for the same reason. Flux or rouge is also used to prevent joints desoldering. An assay is a procedure where the concentration of a component part of a mixture is determined. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... Solders can be removed using a vacuum plunger (on the right) and a soldering iron. ...


Flux core solder

A tube of multicore electronics solder used for manual soldering - the flux is contained in five cores within the solder itself

Solder often comes pre-mixed with, or is used with, flux, a reducing agent designed to help remove impurities (specifically oxidised metals) from the points of contact to improve the electrical connection. For convenience, solder is often manufactured as a hollow tube and filled with flux. Most cold solder is soft enough to be rolled and packaged as a coil making for a convenient and compact solder/flux package. The two principal types of flux are acid flux, used for metal mending, and rosin flux, used in electronics, where the corrosiveness of the vapours that arise when acid flux is heated could damage components. Due to concerns over atmospheric pollution and hazardous waste disposal, the electronics industry has been gradually shifting from rosin flux to water-soluble flux, which can be removed with deionised water and detergent, instead of hydrocarbon solvents. Image File history File linksMetadata Ersin_Multicore_Solder_Tube. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ersin_Multicore_Solder_Tube. ... In metallurgy, flux is a substance which removes passivating oxides from the surface of a metal or alloy. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Deionized water (DI water or de-ionized water; Commonwealth English deionised water) is water that lacks ions, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. ...


Since solder can occasionally splash (due to the superheated flux inside or from contact with water in the cleaning sponge), it is recommended that safety goggles be worn when soldering. Though small solder splashes on skin are painful, they usually do not cause lasting harm. For large scale work additional protective clothing may be needed. For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... Watersport goggles Blowtorching goggles and safety helmet Goggles and safety glasses are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the eye area in order to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes. ...


Lead-free solder

A coil of lead-free solder wire

According to the European Union Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) and Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), lead had to be eliminated from electronic systems by July 1, 2006, leading to much interest in lead-free solders. These contain tin, copper, silver, and sometimes bismuth, indium, zinc, antimony, and other metals in varying amounts. The lead-free replacements for conventional Sn60/Pb40 solder have higher melting points, requiring re-engineering of most components and materials used in electronic assemblies. Lead-free solder joints may produce mechanically weaker joints depending on service and manufacture conditions, which may lead to a decrease in reliability using such solders. "Tin Whiskers" are another problem with many lead-free solders, where slender crystals of tin slowly grow out of the solder joint. These whiskers can bridge a short circuit years after a device's manufacture. Image File history File links ExLeadfreesolder. ... Image File history File links ExLeadfreesolder. ... WEEE Man The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is the European Community directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law in February 2003, setting collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of... The Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS) 2002/95/EC [1] (commonly referred to as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive) was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... Metal whiskers are a crystalline metallurgical phenomenon whereby metal grows tiny, filiform hairs. ...

  • SnAgCu solders are used by two thirds of Japanese manufacturers for reflow and wave soldering, and by about ¾ companies for hand soldering.
    • SnAg3.0Cu0.5, tin with 3% silver and 0.5% copper, has a melting point of 217-220 °C and is predominantly used in Japan. It is the JEITA recommended alloy for wave and reflow soldering, with alternatives SnCu for wave and SnAg and SnZnBi for reflow soldering.
    • SnAg3.5Cu0.7 is another commonly used alloy, with melting point of 217-218 °C.
    • SnAg3.5Cu0.9, with melting point of 217 °C, is determined by NIST to be truly eutectic.
    • SnAg3.8Cu0.7, with melting point 217-218 °C, is preferred by the European IDEALS consortium for reflow soldering.
    • SnAg3.8Cu0.7Sb0.25 is preferred by the European IDEALS consortium for wave soldering.
    • SnAg3.9Cu0.6, with melting point 217-223 °C, is recommended by the US NEMI consortium for reflow soldering.
  • SnCu0.7, with melting point of 227 °C, is a cheap alternative for wave soldering, recommended by the US NEMI consortium.
  • SnZn9, with melting point of 199 °C, is a cheaper alloy but is prone to corrosion and oxidation.
  • SnZn8Bi3, with melting point of 191-198 °C, is also prone to corrosion and oxidation due to its zinc content.
  • SnSb5, tin with 5% of antimony, is the US plumbing industry standard. Its melting point is 232-240 °C. It displays good resistance to thermal fatigue and good shear strength.
  • SnAg2.5Cu0.8Sb0.5 melts at 217-225 °C and is patented by AIM alliance.
  • SnIn8.0Ag3.5Bi0.5 melts at 197-208 °C and is patented by Matsushita/Panasonic.
  • SnBi57Ag1 melts at 137-139 °C and is patented by Motorola.
  • SnBi58 melts at 138 °C.
  • SnIn52 melts at 118 °C and is suitable for the cases where low-temperature soldering is needed.

Different elements serve different roles in the solder alloy: Wave Soldering is a large-scale soldering process by which electronic components are soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an electronic assembly. ... Reflow soldering is the most common means to attach a surface mounted component to a circuit board, and typically consists of applying solder paste, positioning the devices, and reflowing the solder in a conveyorized oven. ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localized, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ... Shear strength in engineering is a term used to describe the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear. ... AIM was an alliance formed in 1991 between Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola to create a new computing standard based on the PowerPC architecture. ... Logo for the Panasonic brand Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Motorola Inc. ...

  • Silver provides mechanical strength, but has worse ductility than lead. In absence of lead, it improves resistance to fatigue from thermal cycles.
  • Copper lowers the melting point, improves resistance to thermal cycle fatigue, and improves wetting properties of the molten solder. It also slows down the rate of dissolution of copper from the board and part leads in the liquid solder.
  • Bismuth significantly lowers the melting point and improves wettability. In presence of lead and tin, bismuth forms crystals of Sn16Pb32Bi52 with melting point of only 95 °C, which diffuses along the grain boundaries and may cause a joint failure at relatively low temperatures. A lead-contaminated high-power part can therefore desolder under load when soldered with a bismuth-containing solder.
  • Indium lowers the melting point and improves ductility. In presence of lead it forms a ternary compound that undergoes phase change at 114 °C.
  • Zinc lowers the melting point and is low-cost. However it is highly susceptible to corrosion and oxidation in air, therefore zinc-containing alloys are unsuitable for some purposes, e.g. wave soldering, and zinc-containing solder pastes have shorter shelf life than zinc-free ones.
  • Antimony is added to increase strength without affecting wettability.

This article is about the chemical element. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Wetting of different fluids. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ...

See also

A soldering gun is in affect a transformer. ... Using a soldering iron. ... Solderability defines whether a solder can perform as intended in-service under normal fabrication methods or processes. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
How To Solder (999 words)
Soldering is defined as "the joining of metals by a fusion of alloys which have relatively low melting points".
Soldering is also a must have skill for all sorts of electrical and electronics work.
Soldering irons are the heat source used to melt solder.
Solder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1233 words)
A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range below 450 °C (840 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering.
Solder often comes pre-mixed with, or is used with, flux, a reducing agent designed to help remove impurities (specifically oxidised metals) from the points of contact to improve the electrical connection.
Since solder can occasionally splash (due to the superheated flux inside or from contact with water in the cleaning sponge), it is recommended that one always wear safety goggles when soldering.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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